quant-ph updates on arXiv.org

Quantum Physics (quant-ph) updates on the arXiv.org e-print archive



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<p>We study the coherent dynamics of a qubit excited by an amplitude-modulated electromagnetic field under the Rabi resonance when the frequency of the low-frequency modulation field matches the Rabi frequency in the high-frequency field. Due to destructive interference of multiple photon processes at the ultrastrong coupling between the qubit and the low-frequency driving field, Rabi oscillations result exclusively from the Bloch-Siegert effect. It is directly observed in the time-resolved coherent dynamics as the Bloch-Siegert oscillation. In this case, triplets in Fourier spectra of the coherent response are transformed into doublets with the splitting between the lines equal to twice the Bloch-Siegert shift. These unusual properties are demonstrated in conditions of experiments with a nitrogen vacancy center in diamond. </p>
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<p>Recent progress in nonlinear optical materials and microresonators has brought quantum computing with bulk optical nonlinearities into the realm of possibility. This platform is of great interest, not only because photonics is an obvious choice for quantum networks, but also because it may be the only feasible route to quantum information processing at room temperature. We introduce a paradigm for room-temperature photonic quantum logic that significantly simplifies the realization of various quantum circuits, and in particular, of error correction. It uses only the strongest available bulk nonlinearity, namely the $\chi^{(2)}$ nonlinear susceptibility. The key element is a three-mode resonator that implements programmable bosonic quantum logic gates. We show that just two of these elements suffice for a complete, compact error-correction circuit on a bosonic code, without the need for measurement or feed-forward control. An extrapolation of current progress in nonlinear optical materials and photonic circuits indicates that such circuitry should be achievable within the next decade. </p>
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<p>The answer to the question in the title is clearly ``No'', but we report on something very similar to that, namely a ``Boundary-less Wetting Transitions'' (BWT). We consider the effect of frustrated boundary condition (FBC) on generic local spin-$1/2$ chains in zero field, specifically, we apply periodic boundary conditions on chains with an odd number of sites. In a previous work, we already proved that when only one antiferromagnetic interaction dominates over ferromagnetic ones, in the thermodynamic limit local order (expressed by the spontaneous magnetization) is destroyed. Here, we show that with two competing AFM interactions a new type of order can emerge, with a magnetization profile that varies in space with an incommensurate pattern. This modulation is the result of a ground state degeneracy which leads to a breaking of translational invariance. The transition between the two cases is signaled by an intensive discontinuity in the first derivative of the ground state energy: this is thus not a standard first-order QPT, but rather looks like a boundary QPT, in a system without boundaries, but with FBC. </p>
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<p>Two widely used but distinct approaches to the dynamics of open quantum systems are the Nakajima-Zwanzig and time-convolutionless quantum master equation, respectively. Although both describe identical quantum evolutions with strong memory effects, the first uses a time-nonlocal memory kernel $\mathcal{K}$, whereas the second achieves the same using a time-local generator $\mathcal{G}$. Here we show that the two are connected by a simple yet general fixed-point relation: $\mathcal{G} = \hat{\mathcal{K}}[\mathcal{G}]$. This allows one to extract nontrivial relations between the two completely different ways of computing the time-evolution and combine their strengths. We first discuss the stationary generator, which enables a Markov approximation that is both nonperturbative and completely positive for a large class of evolutions. We show that this generator is not equal to the low-frequency limit of the memory kernel, but additionally "samples" it at nonzero characteristic frequencies. This clarifies the subtle roles of frequency dependence and semigroup factorization in existing Markov approximation strategies. Second, we prove that the fixed-point equation sums up the time-domain gradient / Moyal expansion for the time-nonlocal quantum master equation, providing nonperturbative insight into the generation of memory effects. Finally, we show that the fixed-point relation enables a direct iterative numerical computation of both the stationary and the transient generator from a given memory kernel. For the transient generator this produces non-semigroup approximations which are constrained to be both initially and asymptotically accurate at each iteration step. </p>
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<p>We consider the asymptotic key rates achieved in the simplest quantum key distribution protocols, namely the BB84 and the six-state protocols, when non-uniform noise is present in the system. We first observe that higher qubit error rates do not necessarily imply lower key rates. Secondly, we consider protocols with advantage distillation and show that it can be advantageous to use the basis with higher quantum bit error rate for the key generation. We then discuss the relation between advantage distillation and entanglement distillation protocols. We show that applying advantage distillation to a string of bits formed by the outcomes of measurements in the basis with higher quantum bit error rate is closely connected to the two-to-one entanglement distillation protocol DEJMPS. Finally, we discuss the implications of these results for implementations of quantum key distribution. </p>
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<p>The Minkowski vacuum $|0\rangle_M$, which for an inertial observer is devoid of particles, is treated as a thermal bath by Rindler observers living in a single Rindler wedge, as a result of the discrepancy in the definition of positive frequency between the two classes of observers and a strong entanglement between degrees of freedom in the left and right Rindler wedges. We revisit, in the context of a free scalar Klein-Gordon field, the problem of quantification of the correlations between an inertial observer Alice and left/right Rindler observes Rob/AntiRob. We emphasize the analysis of informational quantities, like the locally accessible and locally inaccessible information, and a closely associated entanglement measure, the entanglement of formation. We conclude that, with respect to the correlation structure probed by inertial observers alone, the introduction of a Rindler observer gives rise to a correlation redistribution which can be quantified by the entanglement of formation. </p>
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<p>We revisit the Born-Markov approximation for an open quantum system by considering a microscopic model of the bath, namely, the Bose-Hubbard chain in the parameter region where it is chaotic in the sense of Quantum Chaos. It is shown that strong ergodic properties of the bath justify all approximations required for deriving the Markovian master equation from the first principles. </p>
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<p>Von Neumann measurement framework describes a dynamic interaction between a target system and a probe. In contrast, a quantum controlled measurement framework uses a qubit probe to control the actions of different operators on the target system, and convenient for establishing universal quantum computation. In this work, we use a quantum controlled measurement framework for measuring quantum states directly. We introduce two types of the quantum controlled measurement framework and investigate the systematic error (the bias between the true value and the estimated values) that caused by these types. We numerically investigate the systematic errors, evaluate the confidence region, and investigate the effect of experimental noise that arises from the imperfect detection. Our analysis has important applications in direct quantum state tomography. </p>
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<p>Antiparallel spins are superior in orienteering to parallel spins. This intriguing phenomenon is tied to entanglement associated with quantum measurements rather than quantum states. Using photonic systems, we experimentally realize the optimal orienteering protocols based on parallel spins and antiparallel spins, respectively. The optimal entangling measurements for decoding the direction information from parallel spins and antiparallel spins are realized using photonic quantum walks, which is a useful idea that is of wide interest in quantum information processing and foundational studies. Our experiments clearly demonstrate the advantage of antiparallel spins over parallel spins in orienteering. In addition, entangling measurements can extract more information than local measurements even if no entanglement is present in the quantum states. </p>
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<p>Modern quantitative risk management relies on an adequate modeling of the tail dependence and a possibly accurate quantification of risk measures, like Value at Risk (VaR), at high confidence levels like 1 in 100 or even 1 in 2000. Quantum computing makes such a quantification quadratically more efficient than the Monte Carlo method; see (Woerner and Egger, 2018) and, for a broader perspective, (Or\'us et al., 2018). An important element of the risk analysis toolbox is copula, see (Jouanin et al., 2004) regarding financial applications. However, to the best knowledge of the author, no quantum computing implementation for sampling from a risk modeling-relevant copula in explicit form has been published so far. Our focus here is implementation of simple yet powerful copula models, capable of a satisfactory capturing the joint tail behaviour of the modelled risk factors. This paper deals with a few simple copula families, including Multivariate B11 (MB11) copula family, presented in (Milek, 2014). We will show that this copula family is suitable for the risk aggregation as it is exceptionally able to reproduce tail dependence structures; see (Embrechts et al., 2016) for a relevant benchmark as well as necessary and sufficient conditions regarding the ultimate feasible bivariate tail dependence structures. It turns out that such a discretized copula can be expressed using simple constructs present in the quantum computing: binary fraction expansion format, comonotone/independent random variables, controlled gates, and convex combinations, and is therefore suitable for a quantum computer implementation. This paper presents design behind the quantum implementation circuits, numerical and symbolic simulation results, and experimental validation on IBM quantum computer. The paper proposes also a generic method for quantum implementation of any discretized copula. </p>
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<p>It has been proven in the literature that the main technological factors limiting the communication rates of quantum cryptography systems by single photon are mainly related to the choice of the encoding method. In fact, the efficiency of the used sources is very limited, at best of the order of a few percent for the single photon sources and the photon counters can not be operated beyond a certain speed and with a low order of detection efficiency. In order to overcome partially these drawbacks, it is advantageous to use continuous quantum states as an alternative to standard encodings based on quantum qubits. In this context, we propose a new reconciliation method based on Turbo codes. Our theoretical model assumptions are supported by experimental results. Indeed, our method leads to a significant improvement of the protocol security and a large decrease of the QBER. The gain is obtained with a reasonable complexity increase. Also, the novelty of our work is that it tested the reconciliation method on a real photonic system under VPItransmissionMaker. </p>
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<p>This paper investigates a reconciliation method in order to establish an errorless secret key in a QKD protocol. Classical key distribution protocols are no longer unconditionally secure because computational complexity of mathematical problems forced hardships. In this context, QKD protocols offer a highest level of security because they are based on the quantum laws of physics. But, the protocol performances can be lowered by multiples errors. It appears clearly that reconciliation should be performed in such a situation in order to remove the errors as for the legitimate partners. The proposed method accomplishes reconciliation by using QTC in the special problem of sideinformation source coding (Slepian-Wolf coding model). Our theoretical hypothesis are sustained by experimental results that confirm the advantage of our method in resolving reconciliation problem compared to a recent related work. Indeed, the integration of our method generates an important progess in security and a large decrease of the QBER. The gain is obtained with a reasonable complexity increase. Also, the novelty of our work is that it tested the reconciliation method on a real photonic system under VPItransmissionMaker. </p>
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<p>Under the assumption that every material object can ultimately be described by quantum theory, we ask how a probe system evolves in a device prepared and kept in a superposition state of values of its classical parameter. We find that, under ideal conditions, the evolution of the system would be unitary, generated by an effective Hamiltonian. We describe also an incoherent use of the device that achieves the same effective evolution on an ensemble. The effective Hamiltonian thus generated may have qualitatively different features from that associated to a classical value of the parameter. </p>
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<p>Magnetically induced optical transparency (MIOT) is a technique to realize the narrow transmission spectrum in a cavity quantum electric dynamics (cavity QED) system, which is demonstrated in the recent experiment of cold 88Sr atoms in an optical cavity [Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 263601 (2017)]. In this experiment, MIOT induces a new narrow transmission window for the probe beam, which is highly immune to the fluctuation of the cavity mode frequency. The linewidth of this transmission window approaches the decay rate of the electronic 3P1 state (about 2pi*7.5kHz) and is much less than the uncertainty of the cavity mode frequency (about 2pi*150kHz). In this work, we propose an approach to further reduce the linewidth of this MIOT-induced transmission window, with the help of two Raman beams which couples the electronic 3P1 state to the3S1state, and the3S1state to the 3P0 state, respectively. With this approach, one can reduce the transmission linewidth by orders of magnitude. Moreover, the peak value of the relative transmission power or the transmission rate of the probe beam is almost unchanged by the Raman beams. Our results are helpful for the study of precision measurement and other quantum optical processes based on cavity quantum electronic dynamics (cavity-QED). </p>
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<p>Over the last decade, systems of individually-controlled neutral atoms, interacting with each other when excited to Rydberg states, have emerged as a promising platform for quantum simulation of many-body problems, in particular spin systems. Here, we review the techniques underlying quantum gas microscopes and arrays of optical tweezers used in these experiments, explain how the different types of interactions between Rydberg atoms allow a natural mapping onto various quantum spin models, and describe recent results that were obtained with this platform to study quantum many-body physics. </p>
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<p>Quantum state tomography has been the traditional method for characterization of an unknown state. Recently, many direct measurement methods have been implemented to reconstruct the state in a resource efficient way. In this letter, we present an interferometric method, in which, any qubit state, whether mixed or pure, can be inferred from the visibility, the phase shift and the average intensity of an interference pattern using a single shot measurement -- hence, we name it as Quantum State Interferography. This method is experimentally implemented with high fidelity using the polarization degree of freedom of light . An extension of the scheme to pure states involving $d-1$ measurements for $d$-dimensional systems is also presented. </p>
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<p>This article is a pedagogical introduction to relativistic quantum mechanics of the free Majorana particle. This relatively simple theory differs from the well-known quantum mechanics of the Dirac particle in several important aspects. We present its three equivalent formulations. Next, so called axial momentum observable is introduced, and general solution of the Dirac equation is discussed in terms of eigenfunctions of that operator. Pertinent irreducible representations of the Poincar\'e group are discussed. Finally, we show that in the case of massless Majorana particle the quantum mechanics can be reformulated as a spinorial gauge theory. </p>
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<p>Synchronization occurs ubiquitously in nature. The van der Pol oscillator has been a favorite model to investigate synchronization. Here we study the oscillator in the deep quantum regime, where nonclassical effects dominate the dynamics. Our results show: (i) squeezed driving loses its effect, (ii) noise boosts synchronization, (iii) synchronization is bounded, and (iv) the limit-cycle is insensitive to strong driving. We propose a synchronization measure and analytically calculate it. These results reflect intrinsic differences between synchronization in the quantum and deep quantum regimes. </p>
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<p>For topological characterization of non-Hermitian multiband systems, Majorana's stellar representation (MSR) is applied to 1D multiband models consisting of asymmetric nearest-neighbor hopping and imaginary on-site potentials. The number of edge states isolated from the continuous bulk bands in the complex energy plane is successfully linked with a topological invariant constructed from MSR. Specifically, the number of isolated edge states can be obtained from a winding number defined for the Majorana stars, which also allows for a geometric visualization of the topology related to the isolated edge modes. A remarkable success of our approach is that our winding number characterization remains valid even in the presence of exceptional points of the continuous bulk bands, where the Hamiltonian becomes non-diagonalizable and hence conventional topological invariants such as the Zak phase and the Chern number cannot be properly defined. Furthermore, cases with the so-called non-Hermitian skin effect are also studied, showing that the bulk-boundary correspondence between our defined winding numbers and isolated edge states can be restored. Of particular interest is a four-band example with an odd number of isolated edge states, where the Zak phase approach necessarily fails upon removing the skin effect, but our MSR-based characterization works equally well. For these reasons, our study is expected to be widely useful in topological studies of non-Hermitian multiband systems, regardless of the skin effect or the presence of the exceptional points in non-Hermitian systems. </p>
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<p>In a recent work, Turok, Boyle and Finn hypothesized a model of universe that does not violate the CPT-symmetry as alternative for inflation. With this approach they described the birth of the Universe from a pair of universes, one the CPT image of the other, living in pre- and post-big bang epochs. The CPT-invariance strictly constrains the vacuum states of the quantized fields, with notable consequences on the cosmological scenarios. Here we examine the validity of this proposal by adopting the point of view of archaic cosmology, based on de Sitter projective relativity, with an event-based reading of quantum mechanics, which is a consequence of the relationship between the universal information reservoir of the archaic universe and its out-of-equilibrium state through quantum jumps. In this scenario, the big bang is caused by the instability of the original (pre)vacuum with respect to the nucleation of micro-events that represent the actual creation of particles. Finally, we compare our results with those by Turok et al., including the analytic continuation across the big bang investigated by Volovik and show that many aspects of these cosmological scenarios find a clear physical interpretation by using our approach. Moreover, in the archaic universe framework we do not have to assume a priori the CPT-invariance like in the other models of universe, it is instead a necessary consequence of the archaic vacuum structure and the nucleation process, divided into two specular universes. </p>
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<p>For building a scalable quantum processor with superconducting qubits, the ZZ interaction is of great concert because of relevant for implementing two-qubit gates, and the close contact between gate infidelity and its residual. Two-qubit gates with fidelity beyond fault-tolerant thresholds have been demonstrated using the ZZ interaction. However, as the performance of quantum processor improves, the residual static-ZZ can also become a performance-limiting factor for quantum gate operations and quantum error correction. Here, we introduce a scalable superconducting architecture for addressing this challenge. We demonstrate that by coupling two superconducting qubits with opposite-sign anharmonicities together, high-contrast ZZ interaction can be realized in this architecture. Thus, we can control ZZ interaction with high on/off ratio for implementing two-qubit CZ gate, or suppress it during the two-qubit gate operations using XY interaction (e.g. iSWAP). Meanwhile, the ZZ crosstalk related to neighboring spectator qubits can also be heavily suppressed in fixed coupled multi-qubit systems. This architecture could provide a promising way towards scalable superconducting quantum processor with high gate fidelity and low qubit crosstalk. </p>
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<p>Hall tube with a tunable flux is an important geometry for studying quantum Hall physics, but its experimental realization in real space is still challenging. Here, we propose to realize a synthetic Hall tube with tunable flux in a one-dimensional optical lattice with the synthetic ring dimension defined by atomic hyperfine states. We investigate the effects of the flux on the system topology and study its quench dynamics. Utilizing the tunable flux, we show how to realize topological charge pumping. Finally, we show that the recently observed quench dynamics in a synthetic Hall tube can be explained by the random flux existing in the experiment. </p>
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<p>Motion groups of links in the three sphere $\mathbb{S}^3$ are generalizations of the braid groups, which are motion groups of points in the disk $\mathbb{D}^2$. Representations of motion groups can be used to model statistics of extended objects such as closed strings in physics. Each $1$-extended $(3+1)$-topological quantum field theory (TQFT) will provide representations of motion groups, but it is difficult to compute such representations explicitly in general. In this paper, we compute representations of the motion groups of links in $\mathbb{S}^3$ with generalized axes from Dijkgraaf-Witten (DW) TQFTs using dimension reduction. A succinct way to state our result is as a step toward the following conjecture for DW theories of dimension reduction from $(3+1)$ to $(2+1)$: $\textrm{DW}^{3+1}_G \cong \oplus_{[g]\in [G]} \textrm{DW}^{2+1}_{C(g)}$, where the sum runs over all conjugacy classes $[g]\in [G]$ of $G$ and $C(g)$ the centralizer of any element $g\in [g]$. We prove a version of the conjecture for the case of closed manifolds and the case of torus links labeled by pure fluxes. </p>
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<p>We develop a systematic approach to the realisation of active quantum filters directly from their frequency-domain transfer functions, utilising a set of techniques developed by the quantum control community. This opens the path to the development of new types of active quantum filters for high-precision measurements. As an illustration, the approach is applied to realise an all-optical unstable filter with broadband anomalous dispersion, proposed for enhancing the quantum-limited sensitivity of laser interferometric gravitational-wave detectors. </p>
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<p>A formalism based on Pontryagin's maximum principle is applied to determine the time-optimal protocol that drives a general initial state to a target state by a Hamiltonian with limited control, i.e., there is a single control field with bounded amplitude. The coupling between the bath and the qubit is modeled by a Lindblad master equation. Dissipation typically drives the system to the maximally mixed state; consequently, there generally exists an optimal evolution time beyond which the decoherence prevents the system from getting closer to the target state. For some specific dissipation channel, however, the optimal control can keep the system from the maximum entropy state for infinitely long. The conditions under which this specific situation arises are discussed in detail. The numerical procedure to construct the time-optimal protocol is described. In particular, the formalism adopted here can efficiently evaluate the time-dependent singular control which turns out to be crucial in controlling either an isolated or a dissipative qubit. </p>
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<p>We demonstrate how the key notions of Tononi et al.'s Integrated Information Theory (IIT) can be studied within the simple graphical language of process theories, i.e. symmetric monoidal categories. This allows IIT to be generalised to a broad range of physical theories, including as a special case the Quantum IIT of Zanardi, Tomka and Venuti. </p>
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<p>Integrated Information Theory is one of the leading models of consciousness. It aims to describe both the quality and quantity of the conscious experience of a physical system, such as the brain, in a particular state. In this contribution, we propound the mathematical structure of the theory, separating the essentials from auxiliary formal tools. We provide a definition of a generalized IIT which has IIT 3.0 of Tononi et. al., as well as the Quantum IIT introduced by Zanardi et. al. as special cases. This provides an axiomatic definition of the theory which may serve as the starting point for future formal investigations and as an introduction suitable for researchers with a formal background. </p>
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<p>Large-scale optical quantum technologies require on-chip integration of single-photon emitters with photonic integrated circuits. A promising solid-state platform to address this challenge is based on two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors, in particular tungsten diselenide (WSe2), which host single-photon emitters that can be strain-localized by transferring onto a structured substrate. However, waveguide-coupled single-photon emission from strain-induced quantum emitters in WSe2 remains elusive. Here, we use a silicon nitride waveguide to simultaneously strain-localize single-photon emitters from a WSe2 monolayer and to couple and transmit the emitted single photons. We demonstrate single-photon emission and waveguide coupling by measuring second-order autocorrelation of $g2(0)=0.150\pm0.093$ through the on-chip waveguide. Our results illustrate the potential of coupling emitters hosted by 2D semiconductors with photonic integrated circuits, paving the way towards large-scale optical quantum technologies. </p>
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<p>We consider the use of a single qutrit for random generation. This is possible because single qutrits exhibit contextuality features. We aim to optimize the entropy of the generated sequence. To do this, we do not rely on the KCBS inequality but instead on the use of a specific state and a check for fidelity. By the way, we show that this check can be considered as a variant of the CHSH inequality applied to pairs of photons or spin-1/2 particles (qutrits are often realized as a pair of indistinguishable qubits). The physical realisation of this random generator should be eased by the fact it needs only to implement spin operations and measurement, not general $\SU(3)$ qutrit manipulations. </p>
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<p>Entanglement is a crucial resource for quantum information processing. Protocols to generate high fidelity entangled states on various hardware platforms are in demand. While spin chains have been extensively studied to generate entanglement, graph structures also have such potential. However, only a few classes of graphs have been explored for this specific task. In this paper, we apply a particular coupling scheme involving two different coupling strengths to a graph of two interconnected 2-dimensional hypercubes of $P_3$ such that it effectively contains three defects. We show how this structure allows generation of a Bell state whose fidelity depends on the chosen coupling ratio. We apply partitioned graph theory in order to reduce the dimension of the graph and show that, using a reduced graph or a reduced chain, we can still simulate the same protocol with identical dynamics. We investigate how fabrication errors affect the entanglement generation protocol and how the different equivalent structures are affected, finding that for some specific coupling ratios these are extremely robust. </p>
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<p>We study how efficiently a $k$-element set $S\subseteq[n]$ can be learned from a uniform superposition $|S\rangle$ of its elements. One can think of $|S\rangle=\sum_{i\in S}|i\rangle/\sqrt{|S|}$ as the quantum version of a uniformly random sample over $S$, as in the classical analysis of the ``coupon collector problem.'' We show that if $k$ is close to $n$, then we can learn $S$ using asymptotically fewer quantum samples than random samples. In particular, if there are $n-k=O(1)$ missing elements then $O(k)$ copies of $|S\rangle$ suffice, in contrast to the $\Theta(k\log k)$ random samples needed by a classical coupon collector. On the other hand, if $n-k=\Omega(k)$, then $\Omega(k\log k)$ quantum samples are~necessary. </p> <p>More generally, we give tight bounds on the number of quantum samples needed for every $k$ and $n$, and we give efficient quantum learning algorithms. We also give tight bounds in the model where we can additionally reflect through $|S\rangle$. Finally, we relate coupon collection to a known example separating proper and improper PAC learning that turns out to show no separation in the quantum case. </p>
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<p>Continuing our inquiry into the conditions when fluctuation-dissipation relations (FDR) may appear in the context of nonequilibrium dynamics of open quantum systems (over and beyond the conventional FDR from linear response theory) we turn to nonGaussian systems and consider this issue for an anharmonic oscillator interacting with a scalar quantum field bath. We present the general {nonperturbative} expressions for the rate of energy (power) exchange between the anharmonic oscillator and the thermal bath. For the cases that a stable final equilibrium state exists, and the nonstationary components of the two-point functions of the anharmonic oscillator have negligible contributions to the evaluation of the power balance, we can show nonperturbatively that equilibration implies an FDR for the anharmonic oscillator. We then use a weakly anharmonic oscillator as an example to illustrate that those two assumptions indeed are satisfied according to our first-order perturbative results: that the net energy exchange vanishes after relaxation in the open system dynamics and an equilibrium state exists at late times. </p>
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<p>We present an application of the Extended Stochastic Liouville-von Neumann equations (ESLN) method introduced earlier [PRB 95, 125124 (2017); PRB 97, 224310 (2018)] which describes the dynamics of an exactly thermalised open quantum system reduced density matrix coupled to a non-Markovian harmonic environment. Critically, the combined system of the open system fully coupled to its environment is thermalised at finite temperature using an imaginary time evolution procedure before the application of real time evolution. This initialises the combined system in the correct canonical equilibrium state rather than being initially decoupled. We apply our theory to the spin-boson Hamiltonian and develop a number of competing ESLN variants designed to reduce the numerical divergence of the trace of the open system density matrix. We find that a careful choice of the driving noises is essential for improving numerical stability. We also investigate the effect of applying higher order numerical schemes for solving stochastic differential equations, such as the Stratonovich-Heun scheme, and conclude that stochastic sampling dominates convergence with the improvement associated with the numerical scheme being less important for short times but required for late times. To verify the method and its numerical implementation, we consider evolution under a fixed Hamiltonian and show that the system either remains in, or approaches, the correct canonical equilibrium state at long times. Additionally, evolution of the open system under non-equilibrium Landau-Zener (LZ) driving is considered and the asymptotic convergence to the LZ limit was observed for vanishing system-environment coupling and temperature. When coupling and temperature are non-zero, initially thermalising the combined system at a finite time in the past was found to be a better approximation of the true LZ initial state than a pure state. </p>
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<p>The stationary eigenstates and eigenvalues for the ponderomotive potential of an optical crystal confined in a one-dimensional infinite square well are numerically obtained. The initial states of the incoming particles taken as Gaussian, are expanded in the basis of the stationary eigenstates of the ponderomotive potential, to obtain the subsequent time evolution of the wave function of the particle during the interaction with the optical crystal. From the results of the time evolution of the probability density, it is observed that the particles get localized at equidistant positions in the transverse direction, which results in the diffraction pattern. The temporal evolution of the diffraction pattern is analyzed. As an application, the diffraction of proton beams is studied, where the experimental parameters are optimized to observe the diffraction pattern for a microwave plasma-based proton beam system. The observations are important for design of proton based matter-wave interferometers. </p>
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<p>We present a circuit design composed of a non-reciprocal device and Josephson junctions whose ground space is doubly degenerate and the ground states are approximate codewords of the Gottesman-Kitaev-Preskill (GKP) code. We determine the low-energy dynamics of the circuit by working out the equivalence of this system to the problem of a single electron confined in a two-dimensional plane and under the effect of strong magnetic field and of a periodic potential. We find that the circuit is naturally protected against the common noise channels in superconducting circuits, such as charge and flux noise, implying that it can be used for passive quantum error correction. We also propose realistic design parameters for an experimental realization and we describe possible protocols to perform logical one- and two-qubit gates, state preparation and readout. </p>
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<p>It is well established that simulating a perfect quantum computer with a classical computer requires computing resources that scale exponentially with the number of qubits $N$ or the depth $D$ of the circuit. Conversely, a perfect quantum computer could potentially provide an exponential speed up with respect to classical hardware. Real quantum computers however are not perfect: they are characterized by a small error rate $\epsilon$ per operation, so that the fidelity of the many-qubit quantum state decays exponentially as $ {\cal{F}} \sim (1-\epsilon)^{ND}$. Here, we discuss a set of classical algorithms based on matrix product states (MPS) which closely mimic the behavior of actual quantum computers. These algorithms require resources that scale linearly in $N$ and $D$ at the cost of making a small error $\epsilon$ per two-qubit gate. We illustrate our algorithms with simulations of random circuits for qubits connected in both one and two dimensional lattices. We find that $\epsilon$ can be decreased at a polynomial cost in computing power down to a minimum error $\epsilon_\infty$. Getting below $\epsilon_\infty$ requires computing resources that increase exponentially with $\epsilon_\infty/\epsilon$. For a two dimensional array of $N=54$ qubits and a circuit with Control-Z gates of depth $D=20$, a fidelity ${\cal F}\ge 0.002$ can be reached on a single core computer in a few hours. It is remarkable that such a high fidelity can be obtained using a variational ansatz that only spans a tiny fraction $(\sim 10^{-8})$ of the full Hilbert space. Our results show how the actual computing power harvested by noisy quantum computers is controlled by the error rate $\epsilon$. </p>
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<p>The form of the eigenstates of an atom coupled to a cavity mode displaying a three dimensional periodic profile are obtained. It is shown that the quantized motion leads to degenerate states where the atomic degrees of freedom are masked, that is, upon detection of one component of this composite system the others remain in an entangled state. When the system is extended to include drive and dissipation it is found to undergo a dissipative quantum phase transition at a critical drive amplitude. Unlike other phase transitions reported in the literature, the degeneracy prepares the system in a superposition of incompatible states upon detection of the electromagnetic field. Probing the field hints at an order above the transition point that, due to state masking, allows for atomic coherence to survive at long times. </p>
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<p>Beginning with the Bell theorem, cyclic systems of dichotomous random variables have been the object of many foundational findings in quantum mechanics. Here, we ask the question: if one chooses a cyclic system "at random" in a well-defined sense, what are the odds that it will be contextual? We provide a simple demonstration that the odds of contextuality rapidly tend to zero as the size of the system increases. The result is based on the Contextuality-by-Default theory, in which we do not have to assume that the systems are subject to the no-disturbance (no-signaling) constraints. </p>
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<p>This paper investigates a new information reconciliation method for quantum key distribution in the case where two parties exchange key in the presence of a malevolent eavesdropper. We have observed that reconciliation is a special case of channel coding and for that existing techniques can be adapted for reconciliation. We describe an explicit reconciliation method based on Turbo codes. We believe that the proposed method can improve the efficiency of quantum key distribution protocols based on discrete quantum states. </p>
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<p>In 2007, and in a series of later papers, Joy Christian claimed to refute Bell's theorem, presenting an alleged local realistic model of the singlet correlations using techniques from Geometric Algebra (GA). Several authors published papers refuting his claims, and Christian's ideas did not gain acceptance. However, he recently succeeded in publishing yet more ambitious and complex versions of his theory in fairly mainstream journals. How could this be? The mathematics and logic of Bell's theorem is simple and transparent and has been intensely studied and debated for over 50 years. Christian claims to have a mathematical counterexample to a purely mathematical theorem. Each new version of Christian's model used new devices to circumvent Bell's theorem or depended on a new way to misunderstand Bell's work. These devices and misinterpretations are in common use by other Bell critics, so it useful to identify and name them. I hope that this paper can serve as a useful resource to those who need to evaluate new "disproofs of Bell's theorem". Christian's fundamental idea is simple and quite original: he gives a probabilistic interpretation of the fundamental GA equation a.b = (ab + ba)/2. After that, ambiguous notation and technical complexity allow sign errors to be hidden from sight, and new mathematical errors can be introduced. This version: as published, but with correction note added. </p>
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<p>I identify a number of errors in Richard Gill's purported refutation (<a href="/abs/1203.1504">arXiv:1203.1504</a>) of my disproof of Bell's theorem. In particular, I point out that his central argument is based, not only on a rather trivial misreading of my counterexample to Bell's theorem, but also on a simple oversight of a freedom of choice in the orientation of a Clifford algebra. What is innovative and original in my counterexample is thus mistaken for an error, at the expense of the professed universality and generality of Bell's theorem. </p>
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<p>The famous singlet correlations of a composite quantum system consisting of two spatially separated components exhibit notable features of two kinds. The first kind consists of striking certainty relations: perfect correlation and perfect anti-correlation in certain settings. The second kind consists of a number of symmetries, in particular, invariance under rotation, as well as invariance under exchange of components, parity, or chirality. In this note, I investigate the class of correlation functions that can be generated by classical composite physical systems when we restrict attention to systems which reproduce the certainty relations exactly, and for which the rotational invariance of the correlation function is the manifestation of rotational invariance of the underlying classical physics. I call such correlation functions classical EPR-B correlations. It turns out that the other three (binary) symmetries can then be obtained "for free": they are exhibited by the correlation function, and can be imposed on the underlying physics by adding an underlying randomisation level. We end up with a simple probabilistic description of all possible classical EPR-B correlations in terms of a "spinning coloured disk" model, and a research programme: describe these functions in a concise analytic way. We survey open problems, and we show that the widespread idea that "quantum correlations are more extreme than classical physics allows" is at best highly inaccurate, through giving a concrete example of a classical correlation which satisfies all the symmetries and all the certainty relations and which exceeds the quantum correlations over a whole range of settings </p>
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<p>A true quantum reason for why people fib on April first. </p>
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<p>The spin-statistics connection has been proved for nonrelativistic quantum mechanics (Jabs, A., 2010: Found. Phys., {\bf 40}, 776-792). The proof is extended here to the relativistic regime using the parametrized Dirac equation. A causality condition is not required. </p>
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<p>The thermodynamical entropy of a system which consists of different kinds of ideal gases is known to be defined successfully in the case when the differences are described by classical or quantum theory. Since these theories are special examples in the framework of generalized probabilistic theories (GPTs), it is natural to generalize the notion of thermodynamical entropy to systems where the internal degrees of particles are described by other possible theories. In this paper, we consider thermodynamical entropy of mixing in a specific series of theories of GPTs called the regular polygon theories, which can be regarded from a geometrical perspective as intermediate theories between a classical trit and a quantum bit with real coefficients. We prove that the operationally natural thermodynamical entropy of mixing does not exist in those inbetween theories, that is, the existence of the natural entropy results in classical and quantum-like theories among the regular polygon theories. </p>
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<p>Simulating the time-evolution of quantum mechanical systems is BQP-hard and expected to be one of the foremost applications of quantum computers. We consider classical algorithms for the approximation of Hamiltonian dynamics using subsampling methods from randomized numerical linear algebra. We derive a simulation technique whose runtime scales polynomially in the number of qubits and the Frobenius norm of the Hamiltonian. As an immediate application, we show that sample based quantum simulation, a type of evolution where the Hamiltonian is a density matrix, can be efficiently classically simulated under specific structural conditions. Our main technical contribution is a randomized algorithm for approximating Hermitian matrix exponentials. The proof leverages a low-rank, symmetric approximation via the Nystr\"om method. Our results suggest that under strong sampling assumptions there exist classical poly-logarithmic time simulations of quantum computations. </p>
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<p>We consider a family of norms (called operator E-norms) on the algebra $B(H)$ of all bounded operators on a separable Hilbert space $H$ induced by a positive densely defined operator $G$ on $H$. Each norm of this family produces the same topology on $B(H)$ depending on $G$. By choosing different generating operator $G$ one can obtain operator E-norms producing different topologies, in particular, the strong operator topology on bounded subsets of $B(H)$. We obtain a generalised version of the Kretschmann-Schlingemann-Werner theorem, which shows continuity of the Stinespring representation of CP linear maps w.r.t. the energy-constrained $cb$-norm (diamond norm) on the set of CP linear maps and the operator E-norm on the set of Stinespring operators. </p> <p>The operator E-norms induced by a positive operator $G$ are well defined for linear operators relatively bounded w.r.t. the operator $\sqrt{G}$ and the linear space of such operators equipped with any of these norms is a Banach space. We obtain explicit relations between the operator E-norms and the standard characteristics of $\sqrt{G}$-bounded operators. The operator E-norms allow to obtain simple upper estimates and continuity bounds for some functions depending on $\sqrt{G}$-bounded operators used in applications. </p>
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<p>As the building block in symmetric cryptography, designing Boolean functions satisfying multiple properties is an important problem in sequence ciphers, block ciphers, and hash functions. However, the search of $n$-variable Boolean functions fulfilling global cryptographic constraints is computationally hard due to the super-exponential size $\mathcal{O}(2^{2^n})$ of the space. Here, we introduce a codification of the cryptographically relevant constraints in the ground state of an Ising Hamiltonian, allowing us to naturally encode it in a quantum annealer, which seems to provide a quantum speedup. Additionally, we benchmark small $n$ cases in a D-Wave machine, showing its capacity of devising bent functions, the most relevant set of cryptographic Boolean functions. We have complemented it with local search and chain repair to improve the D-Wave quantum annealer performance related to the low connectivity. This work shows how to codify super-exponential cryptographic problems into quantum annealers and paves the way for reaching quantum supremacy with an adequately designed chip. </p>
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<p>Bell's Theorem rules out many potential reformulations of quantum mechanics, but within a generalized framework, it does not exclude all "locally-mediated" models. Such models describe the correlations between entangled particles as mediated by intermediate parameters which track the particle world-lines and respect Lorentz covariance. These locally-mediated models require the relaxation of an arrow-of-time assumption which is typically taken for granted. Specifically, some of the mediating parameters in these models must functionally depend on measurement settings in their future, i.e., on input parameters associated with later times. This option (often called "retrocausal") has been repeatedly pointed out in the literature, but the exploration of explicit locally-mediated toy-models capable of describing specific entanglement phenomena has begun only in the past decade. A brief survey of such models is included here. These models provide a continuous and consistent description of events associated with spacetime locations, with aspects that are solved "all-at-once" rather than unfolding from the past to the future. The tension between quantum mechanics and relativity which is usually associated with Bell's Theorem does not occur here. Unlike conventional quantum models, the number of parameters needed to specify the state of a system does not grow exponentially with the number of entangled particles. The promise of generalizing such models to account for all quantum phenomena is identified as a grand challenge. </p>
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<p>The identification of time-varying \textit{in situ} signals is crucial for characterizing the dynamics of quantum processes occurring in highly isolated environments. Under certain circumstances, they can be identified from time-resolved measurements via Ramsey interferometry experiments, but only with very special probe systems can the signals be explicitly read out, and a theoretical analysis is lacking on whether the measurement data are sufficient for unambiguous identification. In this paper, we formulate this problem as the invertibility of the underlying quantum input-output system, and derive the algebraic identifiability criterion and the algorithm for numerically identifying the signals. The criterion and algorithm can be applied to both closed and open quantum systems, and their effectiveness is demonstrated by numerical examples. </p>
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<p>We introduce a two-dimensional generalisation of the quasiperiodic Aubry-Andr\'e model. Even though this model exhibits the same duality relation as the one-dimensional version, its localisation properties are found to be substantially more complex. In particular, partially extended single-particle states appear for arbitrarily strong quasiperiodic modulation. They are concentrated on a network of low-disorder lattice lines, while the rest of the lattice hosts localised states. This spatial separation protects the localised states from delocalisation, so no mobility edge emerges in the spectrum. Instead, localised and partially extended states are interspersed, giving rise to an unusual type of mixed spectrum and enabling complex dynamics even in the absence of interactions. A striking example is ballistic transport across the low-disorder lines while the rest of the system remains localised. This behaviour is robust against disorder and other weak perturbations. Our model is thus directly amenable to experimental studies and promises fascinating many-body localisation properties. </p>
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<p>We study the time evolution of magnetization and entanglement for initial states with local excitations, created upon the ferromagnetic ground state of the XY chain. For excitations corresponding to a single or two well separated domain walls, the magnetization profile has a simple hydrodynamic limit, which has a standard interpretation in terms of quasiparticles. In contrast, for a spin-flip we obtain an interference term, which has to do with the nonlocality of the excitation in the fermionic basis. Surprisingly, for the single domain wall the hydrodynamic limit of the entropy and magnetization profiles are found to be directly related. Furthermore, the entropy profile is additive for the double domain wall, whereas in case of the spin-flip excitation one has a nontrivial behaviour. </p>
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<p>A new approach of quantum gravity based on the world function (invariant distance) is presented. The approach takes a relational scalar quantity as a basic variable, conveniently incorporates matter, and facilitates the study of quantum causal structure of spacetime. The core of the approach is an application of Parker's observation that under a Feynman sum, a gravitational phase can be traded into the Van Vleck-Morette determinant -- a functional of the world function. A formula for quantum amplitudes of processes on quantum spacetime is obtained. Quantum gravity not only modifies the form of the matter propagators, but also break them into smaller pieces. </p>
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<p>We propose a scheme for sensing of an oscillating field in systems with large inhomogeneous broadening and driving field variation by applying sequences of phased, adiabatic, chirped pulses. The latter act as a double filter for dynamical decoupling, where the adiabatic changes of the mixing angle during the pulses rectify the signal and partially remove frequency noise. The sudden changes between the pulses act as instantaneous $\pi$ pulses in the adiabatic basis for additional noise suppression. We also use the pulses' phases to correct for other errors, e.g., due to non-adiabatic couplings. Our technique improves significantly the coherence time in comparison to standard XY8 dynamical decoupling in realistic simulations in NV centers with large inhomogeneous broadening and is suitable for experimental implementations with substantial driving field inhomogeneity. Beyond the theoretical proposal, we also present proof-of-principle experimental results for quantum sensing of an oscillating field in NV centers in diamond, demonstrating superior performance compared to the standard technique. </p>
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<p>We develop general tools to characterise and efficiently compute relevant observables of multimode $N$-photon states generated in non-linear decays in one-dimensional waveguides. We then consider optical interferometry in a Mach-Zender interferometer where a $d$-mode photonic state enters in each arm of the interferometer. We derive a simple expression for the Quantum Fisher Information in terms of the average photon number in each mode, and show that it can be saturated by number-resolved photon measurements that do not distinguish between the different $d$ modes. </p>
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<p>The Alberti-Ulhmann criterion states that any given qubit dichotomy can be transformed into any other given qubit dichotomy by a quantum channel if and only if the testing region of the former dichotomy includes the testing region of the latter dichotomy. Here, we generalize the Alberti-Ulhmann criterion to the case of arbitrary number of qubit or qutrit states. We also derive an analogous result for the case of qubit or qutrit measurements with arbitrary number of elements. We demonstrate the possibility of applying our criterion in a semi-device independent way. </p>
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<p>We report on the realization of long-range Ising interactions in a cold gas of cesium atoms by Rydberg dressing. The interactions are enhanced by coupling to Rydberg states in the vicinity of a F\"{o}rster resonance. We characterize the interactions by measuring the mean-field shift of the clock transition via Ramsey spectroscopy, observing one-axis twisting dynamics. We furthermore emulate a transverse-field Ising model by periodic application of a microwave field and detect dynamical signatures of the paramagnetic-ferromagnetic phase transition. Our results highlight the power of optical addressing for achieving local and dynamical control of interactions, enabling prospects ranging from investigating Floquet quantum criticality to producing tunable-range spin squeezing. </p>
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<p>Quantizing the transfer of energy and momentum between interacting particles, we obtain a quantum impulse equation and relations that the corresponding mechanical power, force and torque satisfy. In addition to the energy-frequency and momentum-wavelength relations, we introduce the power-frequency and force-wavelength analogs, respectively. Further, we obtain an operator representation for the mechanical power and impact force in the position space and discuss their correspondence with the relevant momentum operator. The position representation of the torque operator and its relation to the orbital angular momentum operator is also considered. The results are grounded by the presence of a constant that appears as fundamental as the Planck's constant to all obtained relations. </p>
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<p>We show that non-Hermiticity enables topological phases with unidirectional transport in one-dimensional Floquet chains. The topological signatures of these phases are non-contractible loops in the spectrum of the Floquet propagator that are separated by an imaginary gap. Such loops occur exclusively in non-Hermitian Floquet systems. We define the corresponding topological invariant as the winding number of the Floquet propagator relative to the imaginary gap. To relate topology to transport, we first introduce the concept of regularized dynamics of non-Hermitian chains, and then establish that the charge transferred over one period equals the winding number. We illustrate these theoretical findings with a Floquet chain that features a topological phase transition. In the non-trivial phase, this chain acts as a topological charge pump which, in fundamental difference to the situation for static or Hermitian chains, implements quantized unidirectional transport. </p>
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<p>Quantum effects are known to provide an advantage in particle transfer across networks. In order to achieve this advantage, requirements on both a graph type and a quantum system coherence must be found. Here we show that the process of finding these requirements can be automated by learning from simulated examples. The automation is done by using a convolutional neural network of a particular type that learns to understand with which network and under which coherence requirements quantum advantage is possible. Our machine learning approach is applied to study noisy quantum walks on cycle graphs of different sizes. We found that it is possible to predict the existence of quantum advantage for the entire decoherence parameter range, even for graphs outside of the training set. Our results are of importance for demonstration of advantage in quantum experiments and pave the way towards automating scientific research and discoveries. </p>
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<p>A strongly coupled subsystem of a thermal system will generally be in an athermal state, and in some cases, it will be possible to unitarily extract work from such a state. At the same time, being part of a thermal equilibrium, the subsystem can maintain its state indefinitely and for free. We put these observations to use by devising a battery charging and storing unit, made up of just a thermal bath and put in action by system-bath coupling. The charging cycle, consisting of connecting the system to the bath, letting them thermalize, disconnecting the system, and extracting work from it, requires very little external control and fine-tuning. As a consequence of the second law of thermodynamics, we show that the ratio between the work that can be stored and extracted and the total work spent on connecting and disconnecting the system---the efficiency---is always $\leq 1$, which is a single-bath analogue of the Carnot bound. Moreover, coupling, being a resource for the machine, is also a source of dissipation: the entropy production per charging cycle is always significant, which strongly limits the efficiency in all coupling strength regimes. We show that our results also hold for generic microcanonical baths. Finally, we illustrate our theory on the Caldeira-Leggett model with a harmonic oscillator coupled to a harmonic bath. We derive general asymptotic formulas in both weak and ultrastrong coupling regimes, for arbitrary Ohmic spectral densities. Also, we analyze the model in the high-temperature limit, showing, along the way, that energy equipartition holds both for potential and kinetic energies. Lastly, we show that the efficiency can be increased by connecting several copies of the system to the bath. </p>
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<p>Quantum measurements have been intensively researched over decades due to quantum advantage of Heisenberg limit beating the standard quantum limit toward potential applications of quantum metrology. The kernel of quantum measurements is in the quantum correlation between bipartite photon pairs or squeezed light quenched by one parameter over corresponding noncommuting variable satisfying Heisenberg uncertainty principle. As a result, quantum measurements bring a quantum gain of the square root law in measurement sensitivity. Photonic de Broglie waves (PBW) have been the key feature of such a gain in quantum metrology especially for phase resolution enhancement beyond the classical limit of Rayleigh criterion or simply the diffraction limit. Due to extremely low efficiency of higher-order entangled photon pair generations such as a NOON state, however, the implementation of PBW for quantum metrology has been severely limited. Here, a completely different mechanism of quantum measurements is introduced for a new type of PBW and presented for its potential application of a modified Sagnac interferometer, where the resolution enhancement is several orders of magnitude higher than its classical counterpart. </p>
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<p>We study equilibrium and nonequilibrium properties of the single-impurity Anderson model with a power-law pseudogap in the density of states. In equilibrium, the model is known to display a quantum phase transition from a generalized Kondo to a local moment phase. In the present work, we focus on the extension of these phases beyond equilibrium, i.e. under the influence of a bias voltage. Within the auxiliary master equation approach combined with a scheme based on matrix product states (MPS) we are able to directly address the current-carrying steady state. Starting with the equilibrium situation, we first corroborate our results by comparing with a direct numerical evaluation of ground state spectral properties of the system by MPS. Here, a scheme to locate the phase boundary by extrapolating the power-law exponent of the self energy produces a very good agreement with previous results obtained by the numerical renormalization group. Our nonequilibrium study as a function of the applied bias voltage is then carried out for two points on either side of the phase boundary. In the Kondo regime the resonance in the spectral function is splitted as a function of the increasing bias voltage. The local moment regime, instead, displays a dip in the spectrum near the position of the chemical potentials. Similar features are observed in the corresponding self energies. The Kondo split peaks approximately obey a power-law behavior as a function of frequency, whose exponents depend only slightly on voltage. Finally, the differential conductance in the Kondo regime shows a peculiar maximum at finite voltages, whose height, however, is below the accuracy level. </p>