quant-ph updates on arXiv.org

Quantum Physics (quant-ph) updates on the arXiv.org e-print archive



back
<p>The diverse range of resources which underlie the utility of quantum states in practical tasks motivates the development of universally applicable methods to measure and compare resources of different types. However, many of such approaches were hitherto limited to the finite-dimensional setting or were not connected with operational tasks. We overcome this by introducing a general method of quantifying resources for continuous-variable quantum systems based on the robustness measure, applicable to a plethora of physically relevant resources such as nonclassicality, entanglement, genuine non-Gaussianity, and coherence. We demonstrate in particular that the measure has a direct operational interpretation as the advantage enabled by a given state in a class of channel discrimination tasks. We show that the robustness constitutes a well-behaved, bona fide resource quantifier in any convex resource theory, contrary to a related negativity-based measure known as the standard robustness. Furthermore, we show the robustness to be directly observable -- it can be computed as the expectation value of a single witness operator -- and establish general methods for evaluating the measure. Explicitly applying our results to the relevant resources, we demonstrate the exact computability of the robustness for several classes of states. </p>
back
<p>Fluctuations strongly affect the dynamics and functionality of nanoscale thermal machines. Recent developments in stochastic thermodynamics have shown that fluctuations in many far-from-equilibrium systems are constrained by the rate of entropy production via so-called thermodynamic uncertainty relations. These relations imply that increasing the reliability or precision of an engine's power output comes at a greater thermodynamic cost. Here we study the thermodynamics of precision for small thermal machines in the quantum regime. In particular, we derive exact relations between the power, power fluctuations, and entropy production rate for several models of few-qubit engines (both autonomous and cyclic) that perform work on a quantised load. Depending on the context, we find that quantum coherence can either help or hinder where power fluctuations are concerned. We discuss design principles for reducing such fluctuations in quantum nano-machines, and propose an autonomous three-qubit engine whose power output for a given entropy production is more reliable than would be allowed by any classical Markovian model. </p>
back
<p>Quantum many-body systems subjected to local measurements at a nonzero rate can be in distinct dynamical phases, with differing entanglement properties. We introduce theoretical approaches to measurement-induced phase transitions (MPT) and also to entanglement transitions in random tensor networks. Many of our results are for "all-to-all" quantum circuits with unitaries and measurements, in which any qubit can couple to any other, and related settings where some of the complications of low-dimensional models are reduced. We also propose field theory descriptions for spatially local systems of finite dimensionality. To build intuition, we first solve the simplest "minimal cut" toy model for entanglement dynamics in all-to-all circuits, finding scaling forms and exponents within this approximation. We then show that certain all-to-all measurement circuits allow exact results by exploiting the circuit's local tree-like structure. For this reason, we make a detour to give universal results for entanglement phase transitions in a class of random tree tensor networks, making a connection with the classical theory of directed polymers on a tree. We then compare these results with numerics in all-to-all circuits, both for the MPT and for the simpler "Forced Measurement Phase Transition" (FMPT). We characterize the two different phases in all-to-all circuits using observables that are sensitive to the amount of information propagated between the initial and final time. We demonstrate signatures of the two phases that can be understood from simple models. Finally we propose Landau-Ginsburg-Wilson-like field theories for the MPT, the FMPT, and for entanglement transitions in tensor networks. This analysis shows a surprising difference between the MPT and the other cases. We discuss variants of the measurement problem with additional structure, and questions for the future. </p>
back
<p>Several key properties of quantum evolutions are characterized by divisibility of the corresponding dynamical maps. In particular, a Markovian evolution respects CP-divisibility, whereas breaking of P-divisibility provides a clear sign of non-Markovian effects. We analyze a class of evolutions which interpolates between CP- and P-divisible classes and is characterized by dissipativity -- a long known but so far not widely used formal concept to classify open system dynamics. By making a connection to stochastic jump unravellings of master equations, we demonstrate that there exists inherent freedom in how to divide the terms of the underlying master equation into the deterministic and jump parts for the stochastic description. This leads to a number of different unravelings, each one with a measurement scheme interpretation and highlighting different properties of the considered open system dynamics. Starting from formal mathematical concepts, our results allow us to get fundamental insights in open system dynamics and to ease their numerical simulations. </p>
back
<p>Resource theories provide a general framework for the characterization of properties of physical systems in quantum mechanics and beyond. Here, we introduce methods for the quantification of resources in general probabilistic theories (GPTs), focusing in particular on the technical issues associated with infinite-dimensional state spaces. We define a universal resource quantifier based on the robustness measure, and show it to admit a direct operational meaning: in any GPT, it quantifies the advantage that a given resource state enables in channel discrimination tasks over all resourceless states. We show that the robustness acts as a faithful and strongly monotonic measure in any resource theory described by a convex and closed set of free states, and can be computed through a convex conic optimization problem. </p> <p>Specializing to continuous-variable quantum mechanics, we obtain additional bounds and relations, allowing an efficient computation of the measure and comparison with other monotones. We demonstrate applications of the robustness to several resources of physical relevance: optical nonclassicality, entanglement, genuine non-Gaussianity, and coherence. In particular, we establish exact expressions for various classes of states, including Fock states and squeezed states in the resource theory of nonclassicality and general pure states in the resource theory of entanglement, as well as tight bounds applicable in general cases. </p>
back
<p>This thesis deals with the systematic treatment of quantum-mechanical systems in post-Newtonian gravitational fields. Starting from clearly spelled-out assumptions, employing a framework of geometric background structures defining the notion of a post-Newtonian expansion, our systematic approach allows to properly derive the post-Newtonian coupling of quantum-mechanical systems to gravity based on first principles. This sets it apart from more heuristic approaches that are commonly employed, for example, in the description of quantum-optical experiments under gravity. </p> <p>Regarding single particles, we compare simple canonical quantisation of a free particle in curved spacetime to formal expansions of the minimally coupled Klein-Gordon equation, which may be motivated from QFT in curved spacetimes. Specifically, we develop a general WKB-like post-Newtonian expansion of the KG equation to arbitrary order in $c^{-1}$. Furthermore, for stationary spacetimes, we show that the Hamiltonians arising from expansions of the KG equation and from canonical quantisation agree up to linear order in particle momentum, independent of any expansion in $c^{-1}$. </p> <p>Concerning composite systems, we perform a fully detailed systematic derivation of the first order post-Newtonian quantum Hamiltonian describing the dynamics of an electromagnetically bound two-particle system situated in external electromagnetic and gravitational fields, the latter being described by the Eddington-Robertson PPN metric. </p> <p>In the last, independent part of the thesis, we prove two uniqueness results characterising the Newton--Wigner position observable for Poincar\'e-invariant classical Hamiltonian systems: one is a direct classical analogue of the quantum Newton--Wigner theorem, and the other clarifies the geometric interpretation of the Newton--Wigner position as `centre of spin', as proposed by Fleming in 1965. </p>
back
<p>Master equations are a vital tool to model heat flow through nanoscale thermodynamic systems. Most practical devices are made up of interacting sub-system, and are often modelled using either local master equations (LMEs) or global master equations (GMEs). While the limiting cases in which either the LME or the GME breaks down are well understood, there exists a 'grey area' in which both equations capture steady-state heat currents reliably, but predict very different transient heat flows. In such cases, which one should we trust? Here, we show that, when it comes to dynamics, the local approach can be more reliable than the global one for weakly interacting open quantum systems. This is due to the fact that the secular approximation, which underpins the GME, can destroy key dynamical features. To illustrate this, we consider a minimal transport setup and show that its LME displays exceptional points (EPs). These singularities have been observed in a superconducting-circuit realisation of the model [1]. However, in stark contrast to experimental evidence, no EPs appear within the global approach. We then show that the EPs are a feature built into the Redfield equation, which is more accurate than the LME and the GME. Finally, we show that the local approach emerges as the weak-interaction limit of the Redfield equation, and that it entirely avoids the secular approximation. </p>
back
<p>We study the entanglement dynamics of two atoms coupled to their own Jaynes-Cummings cavities in single-excitation space. Here we use the concurrence to measure the atomic entanglement. And the partial Bell states as initial states are considered. Our analysis suggests that there exist collapses and recovers in the entanglement dynamics. The physical mechanism behind the entanglement dynamics is the periodical information and energy exchange between atoms and light fields. For the initial Partial Bell states, only if the ratio of two atom-cavity coupling strengths is a rational number, the evolutionary periodicity of the atomic entanglement can be found. And whether there is time translation between two kinds of initial partial Bell state cases depends on the odd-even number of the coupling strength ratio. </p>
back
<p>One of the fundamental questions in the emerging field of quantum thermodynamics is the role played by coherence in energetic processes that occur at the quantum level. Here, we address this issue by investigating two different quantum versions of the first law of thermodynamics, derived from the classical definitions of work and heat. By doing so, we find out that there exists a mathematical inconsistency between both scenarios. We further show that the energetic contribution of the dynamics of coherence is the key ingredient to establish the consistency. Some examples involving two-level atomic systems are discussed in order to illustrate our findings. </p>
back
<p>Non Commutative Geometry (NCG) is considered in the context of a charged particle moving in a uniform magnetic field. The classical and quantum mechanical treatments are revisited and a new marker of NCG is introduced. This marker is then used to investigate NCG in magnetic Quantum Walks. It is proven that these walks exhibit NCG at and near the continuum limit. For the purely discrete regime, two illustrative walks of different complexities are studied in full detail. The most complex walk does exhibit NCG but the simplest, most degenerate one does not. Thus, NCG can be simulated by QWs, not only in the continuum limit, but also in the purely discrete regime. </p>
back
<p>Entanglement entropy and entanglement spectrum have been widely used to characterize quantum entanglement in extended many-body systems. Given a pure state of the system and a division into regions $A$ and $B$, they can be obtained in terms of the $Schmidt~ values$, or eigenvalues $\lambda_{\alpha}$ of the reduced density matrix $\rho_A$ for region $A$. In this paper we draw attention instead to the $Schmidt~ vectors$, or eigenvectors $|v_{\alpha}\rangle$ of $\rho_A$. We consider the ground state of critical quantum spin chains whose low energy/long distance physics is described by an emergent conformal field theory (CFT). We show that the Schmidt vectors $|v_{\alpha}\rangle$ display an emergent universal structure, corresponding to a realization of the Virasoro algebra of a boundary CFT (a chiral version of the original CFT). Indeed, we build weighted sums $H_n$ of the lattice Hamiltonian density $h_{j,j+1}$ over region $A$ and show that the matrix elements $\langle v_{\alpha}H_n |v_{\alpha'}\rangle$ are universal, up to finite-size corrections. More concretely, these matrix elements are given by an analogous expression for $H_n^{\tiny \text{CFT}} = \frac 1 2 (L_n + L_{-n})$ in the boundary CFT, where $L_n$'s are (one copy of) the Virasoro generators. We numerically confirm our results using the critical Ising quantum spin chain and other (free-fermion equivalent) models. </p>
back
<p>Quantum-optical technologies based on the effect of parametric light down-conversion are not yet applied in the terahertz frequency range. This is owing to the absence of terahertz single-photon detectors and the strong entanglement of modes of optical-terahertz biphotons. This study investigates the angular structure of scattered radiation generated by strongly non-degenerate parametric down-conversion. It demonstrates that under certain approximations, it is possible to obtain azimuthal eigenmodes for the nonlinear-interaction operator. The solution of the evolution equations for the field operators in these eigenmodes has the form of the Bogolyubov transformation, which allows a scattering matrix to be obtained for arbitrary values of the parametric gain. This scattering matrix can describe both the production of biphoton pairs and the generation of intense fluxes of correlated optical-terahertz fields that form a macroscopic quantum state of radiation in two spectral ranges. </p>
back
<p>In the Noisy Intermediate-Scale Quantum (NISQ) era, solving the electronic structure problem from chemistry is considered as the "killer application" for near-term quantum devices. In spite of the success of variational hybrid quantum/classical algorithms in providing accurate energy profiles for small molecules, careful considerations are still required for the description of complicated features of potential energy surfaces. Because the current quantum resources are very limited, it is common to focus on a restricted part of the Hilbert space (determined by the set of active orbitals). While physically motivated, this approximation can severely impact the description of these complicated features. A perfect example is that of conical intersections (i.e. a singular point of degeneracy between electronic states), which are of primary importance to understand many prominent reactions. Designing active spaces so that the improved accuracy from a quantum computer is not rendered useless is key to finding useful applications of these promising devices within the field of chemistry. To answer this issue, we introduce a NISQ-friendly method called "State-Averaged Orbital-Optimized Variational Quantum Eigensolver" (SA-OO-VQE) which combines two algorithms: (1) a state-averaged orbital-optimizer, and (2) a state-averaged VQE. To demonstrate the success of the method, we classically simulate it on a minimal Schiff base model (namely the formaldimine molecule CH2NH) relevant also for the photoisomerization in rhodopsin -- a crucial step in the process of vision mediated by the presence of a conical intersection. We show that merging both algorithms fulfil the necessary condition to describe the molecule's conical intersection, i.e. the ability to treat degenerate (or quasi-degenerate) states on the same footing. </p>
back
<p>Time evolution of spin-orbit-coupled cold atoms in an optical lattice is studied, with a two-band energy spectrum having two avoided crossings. A force is applied such that the atoms experience two consecutive Landau-Zener tunnelings while transversing the avoided crossings. St\"uckelberg interference arises from the phase accumulated during the adiabatic evolution between the two tunnelings. This phase is gauge field-dependent and thus provides new opportunities to measure the synthetic gauge field, which is verified via calculation of spin transition probabilities after a double passage process. Time-dependent and time-averaged spin probabilities are derived, in which resonances are found. We also demonstrate chiral Bloch oscillation and rich spin-momentum locking behavior in this system. </p>
back
<p>We consider quantum phase transitions with global symmetry breakings that result in the formation of topological defects. We evaluate the number densities of kinks, vortices, and monopoles that are produced in $d=1,2,3$ spatial dimensions respectively and find that they scale as $t^{-d/2}$ and evolve towards attractor solutions that are independent of the quench timescale. For $d=1$ our results apply in the region of parameters $\lambda \tau/m \ll 1$ where $\lambda$ is the quartic self-interaction of the order parameter, $\tau$ is the quench timescale, and $m$ the mass parameter. </p>
back
<p>Quantum error correction protects fragile quantum information by encoding it in a larger quantum system whose extra degrees of freedom enable the detection and correction of errors. An encoded logical qubit thus carries increased complexity compared to a bare physical qubit. Fault-tolerant protocols contain the spread of errors and are essential for realizing error suppression with an error-corrected logical qubit. Here we experimentally demonstrate fault-tolerant preparation, rotation, error syndrome extraction, and measurement on a logical qubit encoded in the 9-qubit Bacon-Shor code. For the logical qubit, we measure an average fault-tolerant preparation and measurement error of 0.6% and a transversal Clifford gate with an error of 0.3% after error correction. The result is an encoded logical qubit whose logical fidelity exceeds the fidelity of the entangling operations used to create it. We compare these operations with non-fault-tolerant protocols capable of generating arbitrary logical states, and observe the expected increase in error. We directly measure the four Bacon-Shor stabilizer generators and are able to detect single qubit Pauli errors. These results show that fault-tolerant quantum systems are currently capable of logical primitives with error rates lower than their constituent parts. With the future addition of intermediate measurements, the full power of scalable quantum error-correction can be achieved. </p>
back
<p>We report the first direct observation of the decay of the excited-state population in electrons trapped on the surface of liquid helium. The relaxation dynamics, which are governed by inelastic scattering processes in the system, are probed by the real-time response of the electrons to a pulsed microwave excitation. Comparison with theoretical calculations allows us to establish the dominant mechanisms of inelastic scattering for different temperatures. The longest measured relaxation time is around 1 us at the lowest temperature of 135 mK, which is determined by the inelastic scattering due to the spontaneous two-ripplon emission process. Furthermore, the image-charge response shortly after applying microwave radiation reveals interesting population dynamics due to the multisubband structure of the system. </p>
back
<p>In this paper, we show that $\Theta(\mathrm{poly}(n)\cdot\frac{4^n}{\epsilon^2})$ is the sample complexity of testing whether two $n$-qubit quantum states $\rho$ and $\sigma$ are identical or $\epsilon$-far in trace distance using two-outcome Pauli measurements. </p>
back
<p>We study the response of a thermal state of an Ising chain to a nonlocal non-Hermitian perturbation, which coalesces the topological Kramer-like degeneracy in the ferromagnetic phase. The dynamic responses for initial thermal states in different quantum phases are distinct. The final state always approaches its half component with a fixed parity in the ferromagnetic phase but remains almost unchanged in the paramagnetic phase. This indicates that the phase diagram at zero temperature is completely preserved at finite temperatures. Numerical simulations for Loschmidt echoes demonstrate such dynamical behaviors in finite-size systems. In addition, it provides a clear manifestation of the bulk-boundary correspondence at nonzero temperatures. This work presents an alternative approach to understanding the quantum phase transitions of quantum spin systems at nonzero temperatures. </p>
back
<p>Quantum state exchange is a quantum communication task for two users in which the users exchange their respective quantum information in the asymptotic scenario. In this work, we generalize the quantum state exchange task to a quantum communication task for $M$ users in which the users rotate their respective quantum information. We assume that every two users may share entanglement resources, and they use local operations and classical communication in order to perform the task. We call this generalized task the quantum state rotation. First of all, we formally define the quantum state rotation task and its optimal entanglement cost, which means the least amount of total entanglement resources required to carry out the task. We then present lower and upper bounds on the optimal entanglement cost, and provide conditions for zero optimal entanglement costs. Based on these results, we find out a difference between the quantum state rotation task and the quantum state exchange task. </p>
back
<p>We have devised an experimentally realizable model generating twin beam states whose individual beam photon statistics are varied from thermal to Poissonian keeping the non-classical mode correlation intact. We have studied the usefulness of these states for loss measurement by considering three different estimators, comparing with the correlated thermal twin beam states generated from spontaneous parametric down conversion or four-wave mixing. We then incorporated the photon subtraction operation into the model and demonstrate their advantage in loss estimations with respect to un-subtracted states at both fixed squeezing and per photon exposure of the absorbing sample. For instance, at fixed squeezing, for two photon subtraction, up to three times advantage is found. In the latter case, albeit the advantage due to photon subtraction mostly subsides in standard regime, an unexpected result is that in some operating regimes the photon subtraction scheme can also give up to 20% advantage over the correlated Poisson beam result. We have also made a comparative study of these estimators for finding the best measurement for loss estimations. We present results for all the values of the model parameters changing the statistics of twin beam states from thermal to Poissonian. </p>
back
<p>The quantum system under periodical modulation is the simplest path to understand the quantum non-equilibrium system, because it can be well described by the effective static Floquet Hamiltonian. Under the stroboscopic measurement, the initial phase is usually irrelevant. However, if two uncorrelated parameters are modulated, their relative phase can not be gauged out, so that it can dramatically change physics. Here, we simultaneously modulate the frequency of lattice laser and Rabi frequency in the optical lattice clock (OLC) system. Thanks to ultra-high precision and ultra-stability of OLC, the relative phase could be fine-tuned. As a smoking gun, we observed the interference between two Floquet channels. At last, we discuss the relation between effective Floquet Hamiltonian and 1-D topological insulator with high winding numbers. Our experiment not only provides a direction for detecting the phase effect, but also paves a way in simulating quantum topological phase in OLC platform. </p>
back
<p>We calculate the field eigenmodes of the superradiant emission from an ensemble of $N$ two-level atoms. While numerical techniques are effective due to the symmetry of the problem, we develop also an analytical method to approximates the modes in the limit of a large number of emitters. We find that Dicke superradiant emission is restricted to a small number of modes, with a little over 90\% of the photons emitted in a single dominant mode. </p>
back
<p>In this work, we study a recently proposed operational measure of nonlocality which describes the probability of violation of local realism under randomly sampled observables, and the strength of such violation as described by resistance to white noise admixture. While our knowledge concerning these quantities is well established from a theoretical point of view, the experimental counterpart is a considerably harder task and very little has been done in this field. It is caused by the lack of complete knowledge about the local polytope required for the analysis. In this paper, we propose a simple procedure towards experimentally determining both quantities, based on the incomplete set of tight Bell inequalities. We show that the imprecision arising from this approach is of similar magnitude as the potential measurement errors. We also show that even with both a randomly chosen N -qubit pure state and randomly chosen measurement bases, a violation of local realism can be detected experimentally almost 100% of the time. Among other applications, our work provides a feasible alternative for the witnessing of genuine multipartite entanglement without aligned reference frames. </p>
back
<p>The paper "Physics without determinism: Alternative interpretations of classical physics" [Phys. Rev. A, 100:062107, Dec 2019] defines finite information quantities (FIQ). A FIQ expresses the available information about the value of a physical quantity. We show that a change in the measurement unit does not preserve the information carried by a FIQ, and therefore that the definition provided in the paper is not complete. </p>
back
<p>We introduce families of one-dimensional Lindblad equations describing open many-particle quantum systems that are exactly solvable in the following sense: $(i)$ the space of operators splits into exponentially many (in system size) subspaces that are left invariant under the dissipative evolution; $(ii)$ the time evolution of the density matrix on each invariant subspace is described by an integrable Hamiltonian. The prototypical example is the quantum version of the asymmetric simple exclusion process (ASEP) which we analyze in some detail. We show that in each invariant subspace the dynamics is described in terms of an integrable spin-1/2 XXZ Heisenberg chain with either open or twisted boundary conditions. We further demonstrate that Lindbladians featuring integrable operator-space fragmentation can be found in spin chains with arbitrary local physical dimension. </p>
back
<p>We theoretically study an impulsively excited quantum bouncer (QB) - a particle bouncing off a surface in the presence of gravity. A pair of time-delayed pulsed excitations is shown to induce a wave-packet echo effect - a partial rephasing of the QB wave function appearing at twice the delay between pulses. In addition, an appropriately chosen observable [here, the population of the ground gravitational quantum state (GQS)] recorded as a function of the delay is shown to contain the transition frequencies between the GQSs, their populations, and partial phase information about the wave packet quantum amplitudes. The wave-packet echo effect is a promising candidate method for precision studies of GQSs of ultra-cold neutrons, atoms, and anti-atoms confined in closed gravitational traps. </p>
back
<p>We study a quantum interacting spin system subject to an external drive and coupled to a thermal bath of spatially localized vibrational modes, serving as a model of Dynamic Nuclear Polarization. We show that even when the many-body eigenstates of the system are ergodic, a sufficiently strong coupling to the bath may effectively localize the spins due to many-body quantum Zeno effect, as manifested by the hole-burning shape of the electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum. Our results provide an explanation of the breakdown of the thermal mixing regime experimentally observed above 4 - 5 Kelvin. </p>
back
<p>Single-shot error correction corrects data noise using only a single round of noisy measurements on the data qubits, removing the need for intensive measurement repetition. We introduce a general concept of confinement for quantum codes, which roughly stipulates qubit errors cannot grow without triggering more measurement syndromes. We prove confinement is sufficient for single-shot decoding of adversarial errors. Further to this, we prove that all three-dimensional homological product codes exhibit confinement in their $X$-components and are therefore single-shot for adversarial phase-flip noise. For stochastic phase-flip noise, we numerically explore these codes and again find evidence of single-shot protection. Our Monte-Carlo simulations indicate sustainable thresholds of $3.08(4)\%$ and $2.90(2)\%$ for 3D surface and toric codes respectively, the highest observed single-shot thresholds to date. To demonstrate single-shot error correction beyond the class of topological codes, we also run simulations on a randomly constructed 3D homological product code. </p>
back
<p>Hamiltonian formulation of lattice gauge theories (LGTs) is the most natural framework for the purpose of quantum simulation, an area of research that is growing with advances in quantum-computing algorithms and hardware. It, therefore, remains an important task to identify the most accurate, while computationally economic, Hamiltonian formulation(s) in such theories, considering the necessary truncation imposed on the Hilbert space of gauge bosons with any finite computing resources. This paper is a first step toward addressing this question in the case of non-Abelian LGTs, which further require the imposition of non-Abelian Gauss's laws on the Hilbert space, introducing additional computational complexity. Focusing on the case of SU(2) LGT in 1+1 D coupled to matter, a number of different formulations of the original Kogut-Susskind framework are analyzed with regard to the dependence of the dimension of the physical Hilbert space on boundary conditions, system's size, and the cutoff on the excitations of gauge bosons. The impact of such dependencies on the accuracy of the spectrum and dynamics is examined, and the (classical) computational-resource requirements given these considerations are studied. Besides the well-known angular-momentum formulation of the theory, the cases of purely fermionic and purely bosonic formulations (with open boundary conditions), and the Loop-String-Hadron formulation are analyzed, along with a brief discussion of a Quantum Link Model of the same theory. Clear advantages are found in working with the Loop-String-Hadron framework which implements non-Abelian Gauss's laws a priori using a complete set of gauge-invariant operators. Although small lattices are studied in the numerical analysis of this work, and only the simplest algorithms are considered, a range of conclusions will be applicable to larger systems and potentially to higher dimensions. </p>
back
<p>Given a uniform, frustration-free family of local Lindbladians defined on a quantum lattice spin system in any spatial dimension, we prove a strong exponential convergence in relative entropy of the system to equilibrium under a condition of spatial mixing of the stationary Gibbs states and the rapid decay of the relative entropy on finite-size blocks. Our result leads to the first examples of the positivity of the modified logarithmic Sobolev inequality for quantum lattice spin systems independently of the system size. Moreover, we show that our notion of spatial mixing is a consequence of the recent quantum generalization of Dobrushin and Shlosman's complete analyticity of the free-energy at equilibrium. The latter typically holds above a critical temperature. </p> <p>Our results have wide applications in quantum information processing. As an illustration, we discuss three of them: first, using techniques of quantum optimal transport, we show that a quantum annealer subject to a finite range classical noise will output an energy close to that of the fixed point after constant annealing time. Second, we prove a finite blocklength refinement of the quantum Stein lemma for the task of asymmetric discrimination of two Gibbs states of commuting Hamiltonians satisfying our conditions. In the same setting, our results imply the existence of a local quantum circuit of logarithmic depth to prepare Gibbs states of a class of commuting Hamiltonians. </p>
back
<p>Global quantum secure communication can be achieved using quantum key distribution (QKD) with orbiting satellites. Established techniques use attenuated lasers as weak coherent pulse (WCP) sources, with so-called decoy-state protocols, to generate the required single-photon-level pulses. While such approaches are elegant, they come at the expense of attainable final key due to inherent multi-photon emission, thereby constraining secure key generation over the high-loss, noisy channels expected for satellite transmissions. In this work we improve on this limitation by using true single-photon pulses generated from a semiconductor quantum dot (QD) embedded in a nanowire, possessing low multi-photon emission ($&lt;10^{-6}$) and an extraction system efficiency of -15 dB (or 3.1%). Despite the limited efficiency, the key generated by the QD source is greater than that generated by a WCP source under identical repetition rate and link conditions representative of a satellite pass. We predict that with realistic improvements of the QD extraction efficiency to -4.0 dB (or 40%), the quantum-dot QKD protocol outperforms WCP-decoy-state QKD by almost an order of magnitude. Consequently, a QD source could allow generation of a secure key in conditions where a WCP source would simply fail, such as in the case of high channel losses. Our demonstration is the first specific use case that shows a clear benefit for QD-based single-photon sources in secure quantum communication, and has the potential to enhance the viability and efficiency of satellite-based QKD networks. </p>
back
<p>We prove that a classical computer can efficiently sample from the photon-number probability distribution of a Gaussian state prepared by using an optical circuit that is shallow and local. Our work generalizes previous known results for qubits to the continuous-variable domain. The key to our proof is the observation that the adjacency matrices characterizing the Gaussian states generated by shallow and local circuits have small bandwidth. To exploit this structure, we devise fast algorithms to calculate loop hafnians of banded matrices. Since sampling from deep optical circuits with exponential-scaling photon loss is classically simulable, our results pose a challenge to the feasibility of demonstrating quantum supremacy on photonic platforms with local interactions. </p>
back
<p>Simulating a fermionic system on a quantum computer requires encoding the anti-commuting fermionic variables into the operators acting on the qubit Hilbert space. The most familiar of which, the Jordan-Wigner transformation, encodes fermionic operators into non-local qubit operators. As non-local operators lead to a slower quantum simulation, recent works have proposed ways of encoding fermionic systems locally. In this work, we show that locality may in fact be too strict of a condition and the size of operators can be reduced by encoding the system quasi-locally. We give examples relevant to lattice models of condensed matter and systems relevant to quantum gravity such as SYK models. Further, we provide a general construction for designing codes to suit the problem and resources at hand and show how one particular class of quasi-local encodings can be thought of as arising from truncating the state preparation circuit of a local encoding. We end with a discussion of designing codes in the presence of device connectivity constraints. </p>
back
<p>We study the spectral statistics of spatially-extended many-body quantum systems with on-site Abelian symmetries or local constraints, focusing primarily on those with conserved dipole and higher moments. In the limit of large local Hilbert space dimension, we find that the spectral form factor $K(t)$ of Floquet random circuits can be mapped exactly to a classical Markov circuit, and, at late times, is related to the partition function of a frustration-free Rokhsar-Kivelson (RK) type Hamiltonian. Through this mapping, we show that the inverse of the spectral gap of the RK-Hamiltonian lower bounds the Thouless time $t_\mathrm{Th}$ of the underlying circuit. For systems with conserved higher moments, we derive a field theory for the corresponding RK-Hamiltonian by proposing a generalized height field representation for the Hilbert space of the effective spin chain. Using the field theory formulation, we obtain the dispersion of the low-lying excitations of the RK-Hamiltonian in the continuum limit, which allows us to extract $t_\mathrm{Th}$. In particular, we analytically argue that in a system of length $L$ that conserves the $m^{th}$ multipole moment, $t_\mathrm{Th}$ scales subdiffusively as $L^{2(m+1)}$. Our work therefore provides a general approach for studying spectral statistics in constrained many-body chaotic systems. </p>
back
<p>We propose to dynamically control the conductivity of a Josephson junction composed of two weakly coupled one dimensional condensates of ultracold atoms. A current is induced by a periodically modulated potential difference between the condensates, giving access to the conductivity of the junction. By using parametric driving of the tunneling energy, we demonstrate that the low-frequency conductivity of the junction can be enhanced or suppressed, depending on the choice of the driving frequency. The experimental realization of this proposal provides a quantum simulation of optically enhanced superconductivity in pump-probe experiments of high temperature superconductors. </p>
back
<p>We ask the question whether entropy accumulates, in the sense that the operationally relevant total uncertainty about an $n$-partite system $A = (A_1, \ldots A_n)$ corresponds to the sum of the entropies of its parts $A_i$. The Asymptotic Equipartition Property implies that this is indeed the case to first order in $n$, under the assumption that the parts $A_i$ are identical and independent of each other. Here we show that entropy accumulation occurs more generally, i.e., without an independence assumption, provided one quantifies the uncertainty about the individual systems $A_i$ by the von Neumann entropy of suitably chosen conditional states. The analysis of a large system can hence be reduced to the study of its parts. This is relevant for applications. In device-independent cryptography, for instance, the approach yields essentially optimal security bounds valid for general attacks, as shown by Arnon-Friedman et al. </p>
back
<p>Matter-wave interferometry and spectroscopy of optomechanical resonators offer complementary advantages. Interferometry with cold atoms is employed for accurate and long-term stable measurements, yet it is challenged by its dynamic range and cyclic acquisition. Spectroscopy of optomechanical resonators features continuous signals with large dynamic range, however it is generally subject to drifts. In this work, we combine the advantages of both devices. Measuring the motion of a mirror and matter waves interferometrically with respect to a joint reference allows us to operate an atomic gravimeter in a seismically noisy environment otherwise inhibiting readout of its phase. Our method is applicable to a variety of quantum sensors and shows large potential for improvements of both elements by quantum engineering. </p>
back
<p>The hydrodynamic representation of quantum mechanics describes virtual flow as if a quantum system were fluid in motion. This formulation illustrates pointlike vortices when the phase of a wavefunction becomes nonintegrable at nodal points. We study the dynamics of such pointlike vortices in the hydrodynamic representation for a two-particle wavefunction. In particular, we discuss how quantum entanglement influences vortex-vortex dynamics. For this purpose, we employ the time-dependent quantum variational principle combined with the Rayleigh-Ritz method. We analyze the vortex dynamics and establish connections with Dirac's generalized Hamiltonian formalism. </p>
back
<p>Quantum walk search may exhibit phenomena beyond the intuition from a conventional random walk theory. One of such examples is exceptional configuration phenomenon -- it appears that it may be much harder to find any of two or more marked vertices, that if only one of them is marked. In this paper, we analyze the probability of finding any of marked vertices in such scenarios and prove upper bounds for various sets of marked vertices. We apply the upper bounds to large collection of graphs and show that the quantum search may be slow even when taking real-world networks. </p>
back
<p>Dynamical decoupling is the leading technique to remove unwanted interactions in a vast range of quantum systems through fast rotations. But what determines the time-scale of such rotations in order to achieve good decoupling? By providing an explicit counterexample of a qubit coupled to a charged particle and magnetic monopole, we show that such time-scales cannot be decided by the decay profile induced by the noise: even though the system shows a quadratic decay (a Zeno region revealing non-Markovian noise), it cannot be decoupled, no matter how fast the rotations. </p>
back
<p>The logarithmic negativity of a bipartite quantum state is a widely employed entanglement measure in quantum information theory, due to the fact that it is easy to compute and serves as an upper bound on distillable entanglement. More recently, the $\kappa$-entanglement of a bipartite state was shown to be the first entanglement measure that is both easily computable and has a precise information-theoretic meaning, being equal to the exact entanglement cost of a bipartite quantum state when the free operations are those that completely preserve the positivity of the partial transpose [Wang and Wilde, Phys. Rev. Lett. 125(4):040502, July 2020]. In this paper, we provide a non-trivial link between these two entanglement measures, by showing that they are the extremes of an ordered family of $\alpha$-logarithmic negativity entanglement measures, each of which is identified by a parameter $\alpha\in[ 1,\infty] $. In this family, the original logarithmic negativity is recovered as the smallest with $\alpha=1$, and the $\kappa$-entanglement is recovered as the largest with $\alpha=\infty$. We prove that the $\alpha $-logarithmic negativity satisfies the following properties: entanglement monotone, normalization, faithfulness, and subadditivity. We also prove that it is neither convex nor monogamous. Finally, we define the $\alpha$-logarithmic negativity of a quantum channel as a generalization of the notion for quantum states, and we show how to generalize many of the concepts to arbitrary resource theories. </p>
back
<p>In many cases, Neural networks can be mapped into tensor networks with an exponentially large bond dimension. Here, we compare different sub-classes of neural network states, with their mapped tensor network counterpart for studying the ground state of short-range Hamiltonians. We show that when mapping a neural network, the resulting tensor network is highly constrained and thus the neural network states do in general not deliver the naive expected drastic improvement against the state-of-the-art tensor network methods. We explicitly show this result in two paradigmatic examples, the 1D ferromagnetic Ising model and the 2D antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model, addressing the lack of a detailed comparison of the expressiveness of these increasingly popular, variational ans\"atze. </p>
back
<p>A universal scheme is introduced to speed up the dynamics of a driven open quantum system along a prescribed trajectory of interest. This framework generalizes counterdiabatic driving to open quantum processes. Shortcuts to adiabaticity designed in this fashion can be implemented in two alternative physical scenarios: one characterized by the presence of balanced gain and loss, the other involves non-Markovian dynamics with time-dependent Lindblad operators. As an illustration, we engineer superadiabatic cooling, heating, and isothermal strokes for a two-level system, and provide a protocol for the fast thermalization of a quantum oscillator. </p>
back
<p>We present a framework for investigating effective dynamics of SU(3) color charge. Two- and three-body effective interaction terms inspired by the Heisenberg spin model are considered. In particular, a toy model for a three-source "baryon" is constructed and investigated analytically and numerically for various choices of interactions. VPython is used to visualize the nontrivial color charge dynamics. The treatment should be accessible to undergraduate students who have taken a first course in quantum mechanics, and suggestions for independent student projects are proposed. </p>
back
<p>Driving an open spin system by two strong, nearly degenerate fields enables addressing populations of individual spin states, characterisation of their interaction with thermal bath, and measurements of their relaxation/decoherence rates. With such addressing we observe nested magnetic resonances having nontrivial dependence on microwave field intensity: while the width of one of the resonances undergoes a strong power broadening, the other one exhibits a peculiar field-induced stabilization. We also observe light-induced narrowing of such composite resonances. The observations are explained by the dynamics of bright and dark superposition states and their interaction with reservoir. </p>
back
<p>We investigate the interplay of superradiant phase transition (SPT) and energy band physics in an extended Dicke-Hubbard lattice whose unit cell consists of a Dicke model coupled to an atomless cavity. We found in such a periodic lattice the critical point that occurs in a single Dicke model becomes a critical region that is periodically changing with the wavenumber $k$. In the weak-coupling normal phase of the system we observed a flat band and its corresponding localization that can be controlled by the ground-state SPT. Our work builds the connection between flat band physics and SPT, which may fundamentally broaden the regimes of many-body theory and quantum optics. </p>
back
<p>We introduce a new setting for two-party cryptography with temporarily trusted third parties. In addition to Alice and Bob in this setting, there are additional third parties, which Alice and Bob both trust to be honest during the protocol. However, once the protocol concludes, there is no guarantee over the behaviour of these third parties. It is possible that they collaborate and act adversarially. Our goal is to use these third parties to facilitate protocols which are impossible in two-party cryptography. We implement a variant of bit commitment in this setting, which we call erasable bit commitment. In this primitive, Alice has the choice of either opening or erasing her commitment after the commit phase. The ability to ask for an erasure allows Alice to ask the trusted parties to erase her commitment in case the trust period is about to expire. This erasure prevents a future coalition of the third parties and Bob from extracting any information about the commitment. However, this ability also makes erasable bit commitment weaker than the standard version of bit commitment. In addition to satisfying the security requirements of bit commitment, our protocol also does not reveal any information about the commitment to the third parties. Lastly, our protocol for this primitive requires a constant number of trusted third parties and can tolerate a small number of corrupt trusted parties as well as implementation errors. </p>
back
<p>Given two pairs of quantum states, a fundamental question in the resource theory of asymmetric distinguishability is to determine whether there exists a quantum channel converting one pair to the other. In this work, we reframe this question in such a way that a catalyst can be used to help perform the transformation, with the only constraint on the catalyst being that its reduced state is returned unchanged, so that it can be used again to assist a future transformation. What we find here, for the special case in which the states in a given pair are commuting, and thus quasi-classical, is that this catalytic transformation can be performed if and only if the relative entropy of one pair of states is larger than that of the other pair. This result endows the relative entropy with a fundamental operational meaning that goes beyond its traditional interpretation in the setting of independent and identical resources. Our finding thus has an immediate application and interpretation in the resource theory of asymmetric distinguishability, and we expect it to find application in other domains. </p>
back
<p>We derive a semi-classical nonequilibrium work identity by applying the Wigner-Weyl quantization scheme to the Jarzynski identity for a classical Hamiltonian. This allows us, to the leading order in $\hbar$, to overcome the problem of defining the concept of work in quantum mechanics. We propose a geometric interpretation of this semi-classical relation in terms of trajectories in a complex phase space and illustrate it with the exactly solvable case of the quantum harmonic oscillator. </p>
back
<p>We study a circularly moving impurity in an atomic condensate for the realisation of superradiance phenomena in tabletop experiments. The impurity is coupled to the density fluctuations of the condensate and, in a quantum field theory language, it serves as an analog of a detector for the quantum phonon field. For sufficiently large rotation speeds, the zero-point fluctuations of the phonon field induce a sizeable excitation rate of the detector even when the condensate is initially at rest in its ground state. For spatially confined condensates and harmonic detectors, such a superradiant emission of sound waves provides a dynamical instability mechanism leading to a new concept of phonon lasing. Following an analogy with the theory of rotating black holes, our results suggest a promising avenue to quantum simulate basic interaction processes involving fast moving detectors in curved space-times. </p>
back
<p>Noncontextual Pauli Hamiltonians decompose into sets of Pauli terms to which joint values may be assigned without contradiction. We construct a quasi-quantized model for noncontextual Pauli Hamiltonians. Using this model, we give an algorithm to classically simulate noncontextual VQE. We also use the model to show that the noncontextual Hamiltonian problem is NP-complete. Finally, we explore the applicability of our quasi-quantized model as an approximate simulation tool for contextual Hamiltonians. These results support the notion of noncontextuality as classicality in near-term quantum algorithms. </p>
back
<p>Quantum dots are both excellent single-photon sources and hosts for single spins. This combination enables the deterministic generation of Raman-photons -- bandwidth-matched to an atomic quantum-memory -- and the generation of photon cluster states, a resource in quantum communication and measurement-based quantum computing. GaAs quantum dots in AlGaAs can be matched in frequency to a rubidium-based photon memory, and have potentially improved electron spin coherence compared to the widely used InGaAs quantum dots. However, their charge stability and optical linewidths are typically much worse than for their InGaAs counterparts. Here, we embed GaAs quantum dots into an $n$-$i$-$p$-diode specially designed for low-temperature operation. We demonstrate ultra-low noise behaviour: charge control via Coulomb blockade, close-to lifetime-limited linewidths, and no blinking. We observe high-fidelity optical electron-spin initialisation and long electron-spin lifetimes for these quantum dots. Our work establishes a materials platform for low-noise quantum photonics close to the red part of the spectrum. </p>
back
<p>The fast Fourier transform (FFT) is one of the most successful numerical algorithms of the 20th century and has found numerous applications in many branches of computational science and engineering. The FFT algorithm can be derived from a particular matrix decomposition of the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) matrix. In this paper, we show that the quantum Fourier transform (QFT) can be derived by further decomposing the diagonal factors of the FFT matrix decomposition into products of matrices with Kronecker product structure. We analyze the implication of this Kronecker product structure on the discrete Fourier transform of rank-1 tensors on a classical computer. We also explain why such a structure can take advantage of an important quantum computer feature that enables the QFT algorithm to attain an exponential speedup on a quantum computer over the FFT algorithm on a classical computer. Further, the connection between the matrix decomposition of the DFT matrix and a quantum circuit is made. We also discuss a natural extension of a radix-2 QFT decomposition to a radix-d QFT decomposition. No prior knowledge of quantum computing is required to understand what is presented in this paper. Yet, we believe this paper may help readers to gain some rudimentary understanding of the nature of quantum computing from a matrix computation point of view. </p>
back
<p>We explore the nonlinear dynamics of a cavity optomechanical system. Our realization consisting of a drumhead nano-electro-mechanical resonator (NEMS) coupled to a microwave cavity, allows for a nearly ideal platform to study the nonlinearities arising purely due to radiation-pressure physics. Experiments are performed under a strong microwave Stokes pumping which triggers mechanical self-sustained oscillations. We analyze the results in the framework of an extended nonlinear optomechanical theory, and demonstrate that quadratic and cubic coupling terms in the opto-mechanical Hamiltonian have to be considered. Quantitative agreement with the measurements is obtained considering only genuine geometrical nonlinearities: no thermo-optical instabilities are observed, in contrast with laser-driven systems. Based on these results, we describe a method to quantify nonlinear properties of microwave optomechanical devices. Such a technique, available now in the quantum electro-mechanics toolbox, but completely generic, is mandatory for the development of new schemes where higher-order coupling terms are proposed as a new resource, like Quantum Non-Demolition measurements, or in the search for new fundamental quantum signatures, like Quantum Gravity. We also find that the motion imprints a wide comb of extremely narrow peaks in the microwave output field, which could also be exploited in specific microwave-based measurements, potentially limited only by the quantum noise of the optical and the mechanical fields for a ground-state cooled NEMS device. </p>
back
<p>We introduce and study a novel class of sensors whose sensitivity grows exponentially with the size of the device. Remarkably, this drastic enhancement does not rely on any fine-tuning, but is found to be a stable phenomenon immune to local perturbations. Specifically, the physical mechanism behind this striking phenomenon is intimately connected to the anomalous sensitivity to boundary conditions observed in non-Hermitian topological systems. We outline concrete platforms for the practical implementation of these non-Hermitian topological sensors (NTOS) ranging from classical meta-materials to synthetic quantum-materials. </p>
back
<p>We investigate the absorption and transmission properties of a weak probe field under the influence of a strong control field in a hybrid cavity magnomechanical system in the microwave regime. This hybrid system consists of two ferromagnetic material yttrium iron garnet (YIG) spheres strongly coupled to a single cavity mode. In addition to two magnon-induced transparency (MIT) that arise due to strong photon-magnon interactions, we observe a magnomechanically induced transparency (MMIT) due to the presence of nonlinear phonon-magnon interaction. In addition, we discuss the emergence and tunability of the multiple Fano resonances in our system. We find that due to strong photon-magnon coupling the group delay of the probe field can be enhanced significantly. The subluminal or superluminal propagation depends on the frequency of the magnons, which can be easily tuned by an external bias magnetic field. Besides, the group delay of the transmitted field can also be controlled with the control field power. </p>
back
<p>We study a model of isothermal steady-state work-to-work converter, where a single quantum two-level system (TLS) driven by time-dependent periodic external fields acts as the working medium and is permanently put in contact with a thermal reservoir at fixed temperature $T$. By combining Short-Iterative Lanczos (SIL) method and analytic approaches, we study the converter performance in the linear response regime and in a wide range of driving frequencies, from weak to strong dissipation. We show that for our ideal quantum machine several parameter ranges exist where a violation of Thermodynamics Uncertainty Relations (TUR) occurs. We find the violation to depend on the driving frequency and on the dissipation strength, and we trace it back to the degree of coherence of the quantum converter. We eventually discuss the influence of other possible sources of violation, such as non-Markovian effects during the converter dynamics. </p>
back
<p>The algebraic reformulation of molecular Quantum Electrodynamics (mQED) at finite temperatures is applied to Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) in order to provide a foundation for the reconstruction of much more detailed molecular structures, than possible with current methods. Conventional NMR theories are based on the effective spin model which idealizes nuclei as fixed point particles in a lattice $L$, while molecular vibrations, bond rotations and proton exchange cause a delocalization of nuclei. Hence, a lot information on molecular structures remain hidden in experimental NMR data, if the effective spin model is used for the investigation. </p> <p>In this document it is shown how the quantum mechanical probability density $\mid\Psi^\beta(X)\mid^2$ on $\mathbb{R}^{3n}$ for the continuous, spatial distribution of $n$ nuclei can be reconstructed from NMR data. To this end, it is shown how NMR spectra can be calculated directly from mQED at finite temperatures without involving the effective description. The fundamental problem of performing numerical calculations with the infinite-dimensional radiation field is solved by using a purified representation of a KMS state on a $W^*$-dynamical system. Furthermore, it is shown that the presented method corrects wrong predictions of the effective spin model. It is outlined that the presented method can be applied to any molecular system whose electronic ground state can be calculated using a common quantum chemical method. Therefore, the presented method may replace the effective spin model which forms the basis for NMR theory since 1950. </p>
back
<p>The quantum nature of the state of a bosonic quantum field manifests itself in its entanglement, coherence, or optical nonclassicality which are each known to be resources for quantum computing or metrology. We provide quantitative and computable bounds relating entanglement measures with optical nonclassicality measures. These bounds imply that strongly entangled states must necessarily be strongly optically nonclassical. As an application, we infer strong bounds on the entanglement that can be produced with an optically nonclassical state impinging on a beam splitter. For Gaussian states, we analyze the link between the logarithmic negativity and a specific nonclassicality witness called "quadrature coherence scale". </p>
back
<p>There is renewed interest in using the coherence between beams generated in separate down-converter sources for new applications in imaging, spectroscopy, microscopy and optical coherence tomography (OCT). These schemes make use of continuous wave (CW) pumping in the low parametric gain regime, which generates frequency entanglement between the signal-idler pairs generated in a single source. Is this frequency entanglement a requisite to observe coherence between signal photons generated in separate biphoton sources? We will show that it is not. This might be an advantage for OCT applications. High axial resolution requires a large bandwidth. For CW pumping this requires the use of short nonlinear crystals. This is detrimental since short crystals generate small photon fluxes. We show that the use of ultrashort pump pulses allows improving axial resolution even for long crystal that produce higher photon fluxes. </p>
back
<p>Continuous-time quantum walks have proven to be an extremely useful framework for the design of several quantum algorithms. Often, the running time of quantum algorithms in this framework is characterized by the quantum hitting time: the time required by the quantum walk to find a vertex of interest with a high probability. In this article, we provide improved upper bounds for the quantum hitting time that can be applied to several CTQW-based quantum algorithms. In particular, we apply our techniques to the glued-trees problem, improving their hitting time upper bound by a polynomial factor: from $O(n^5)$ to $O(n^2\log n)$. Furthermore, our methods also help to exponentially improve the dependence on precision of the continuous-time quantum walk based algorithm to find a marked node on any ergodic, reversible Markov chain by Chakraborty et al. [PRA 102, 022227 (2020)]. </p>
back
<p>The realization of equilibrium superradiant quantum phases (photon condensates) in a spatially-uniform quantum cavity field is forbidden by a "no-go" theorem stemming from gauge invariance. We here show that the no-go theorem does not apply to spatially-varying quantum cavity fields. We find a criterion for its occurrence that depends solely on the static, non-local orbital magnetic susceptibility $\chi_{\rm orb}(q)$, of the electronic system (ES) evaluated at a cavity photon momentum $\hbar q$. Only 3DESs satisfying the Condon inequality $\chi_{\rm orb}(q)&gt;1/(4\pi)$ can harbor photon condensation. For the experimentally relevant case of two-dimensional (2D) ESs embedded in quasi-2D cavities the criterion again involves $\chi_{\rm orb}(q)$ but also the vertical size of the cavity. We use these considerations to identify electronic properties that are ideal for photon condensation. Our theory is non-perturbative in the strength of electron-electron interaction and therefore applicable to strongly correlated ESs. </p>
back
<p>The measurement of the tunneling time in attosecond experiments, termed as attoclock, offers a fruitful opportunity to understand the role of time in quantum mechanics. It has triggered a hot debate about the tunneling time and the separation into two regimes or processes of different character, the multiphoton ionization and the tunneling (field) ionization. In the present work, we show that our tunneling model presented in previous work, explains the non-adiabatic effects (photon absorption) in the interaction of atoms with strong field as well. Again, as it was the case in the adiabatic field calibration, we reach a very good agreement with the experimental data in the non-adiabatic field calibration of Hofmann et al (J. of Mod. Opt. 66, 1052, 2019). Interestingly, our model offers a clear picture for the multiphoton and tunneling parts. In particular, the tunneling part is now resolve by the non-adiabaticity, which is mainly the absorption of a number of photons that is characteristic for the barrier height. The well known separation of multiphoton and tunneling regimes (usually by Keldysh parameter) is clarified with a more advanced picture. Surprisingly, at a field strength $F &lt; F_a$ the model indicates always a delay time with respect to the quantum limit, which is the ionization time at atomic field strength $F_a$, where the barrier suppression ionization sets up. </p>
back
<p>Protocols in a quantum network involve multiple parties performing actions on their quantum systems in a carefully orchestrated manner over time in order to accomplish a given task. This sequence of actions over time is often referred to as a strategy, or policy. In this work, we consider policy optimization in a quantum network. Specifically, as a first step towards developing full-fledged quantum network protocols, we consider policies for generating elementary links in a quantum network. We start by casting elementary link generation as a quantum partially observable Markov decision process, as defined in [Phys. Rev. A 90, 032311 (2014)]. Then, we analyze in detail the commonly used memory cutoff policy. Under this policy, once an elementary link is established it is kept in quantum memory for some amount $t^{\star}$ of time, called the cutoff, before it is discarded and the elementary link generation is reattempted. For this policy, we determine the average quantum state of the elementary link as a function of time for an arbitrary number of nodes in the link, as well as the average fidelity of the link as a function of time for any noise model for the quantum memories. Finally, we show how optimal policies can be obtained in the finite-horizon setting using dynamic programming. By casting elementary link generation as a quantum decision process, this work goes beyond the analytical results derived here by providing the theoretical framework for performing reinforcement learning of practical quantum network protocols. </p>
back
<p>As a model of so-called quantum battery (QB), quantum degrees of freedom as energy storage, we study a charging protocol of a many-body QB consisting of $N$ two-level systems (TLSs) using quantum heat engines (QHEs). We focus on the collective enhancement effects in the charging performance of QBs in comparison to the individual charging. It is a challenging goal of QBs to achieve large collective enhancements in the charging power and the capacity while keeping the experimental feasibility, the stability, and the cheapness of the required control and resources. We show that our model actually exhibits these features. In fact, our protocol simultaneously achieves the asymptotically-perfect charge and almost $N$-order average power enhancement with only thermal energy resource and simple local interactions in a stable manner. The capacity is collectively enhanced due to the emergent bosonic quantum statistics caused by the symmetry of the interaction between the engine and the batteries, which results in asymptotically perfect excitation of all the TLSs. The charging speed, and hence the average power are collectively enhanced by the superradiance-like cooperative excitation in the effective negative temperature. Our results suggest that QHEs actually fit for a charger of QBs, efficiently exploiting the collective enhancements, not only converting the disordered thermal energy to the ordered energy stored in quantum degrees of freedom. </p>
back
<p>The negatively charged silicon monovacancy $V_{Si}^-$ in 4H-silicon carbide (SiC) is a spin-active point defect that has the potential to act as a qubit or quantum memory in solid-state quantum computation applications. Photonic crystal cavities (PCCs) can augment the optical emission of the $V_{Si}^-$, yet fine-tuning the defect-cavity interaction remains challenging. We report on two post-fabrication processes that result in enhancement of the $V_1^{'}$ optical emission from our 1-dimensional PCCs, indicating improved coupling between the ensemble of silicon vacancies and the PCC. One process involves below bandgap illumination at 785 nm and 532 nm wavelengths and above bandgap illumination at 325 nm, carried out at times ranging from a few minutes to several hours. The other process is thermal annealing at $100^o C$, carried out over 20 minutes. Every process except above bandgap irradiation improves the defect-cavity coupling, manifested in augmented Purcell factor enhancement of the $V_1^{'}$ zero phonon line at 77K. The below bandgap laser process is attributed to a modification of charge states, changing the relative ratio of $V_{Si}^0$ (dark state) to $V_{Si}^-$ (bright state), while the thermal annealing process may be explained by diffusion of carbon interstitials, $C_i$, that subsequently recombine with other defects to create additional $V_{Si}^-$s. Above bandgap radiation is proposed to initially convert $V_{Si}^{0}$ to $V_{Si}^-$, but also may lead to diffusion of $V_{Si}^-$ away from the probe area, resulting in an irreversible reduction of the optical signal. Observations of the PCC spectra allow insights into defect modifications and interactions within a controlled, designated volume and indicate pathways to improve defect-cavity interactions. </p>
back
<p>We give a variational formula for the sandwiched Renyi divergences on von Neumann algebras that is similar in nature to Kosaki's approach to the relative entropy. As an illustration, we use the formula in quantum field theory to compute the divergence between the vacuum in a bipartite system and an "orbifolded" -- in the sense of conditional expectation -- system in terms of the Jones index. We obtain a statement for the dual inclusion by means of an entropic certainty relation for arbitrary von Neumann subalgebras of a factor. This certainty relation has an equivalent formulation in terms of error correcting codes. </p>
back
<p>Kant and Hegel are among the philosophers who are guiding the way in which we reason these days. It is thus of interest to see how physical theories have been developed along the line of Kant and Hegel. Einstein became interested in how things appear to moving observers. Quantum mechanics is also an observer-dependent science. The question then is whether quantum mechanics and relativity can be synthesized into one science. The present form of quantum field theory is a case in point. This theory however is based on the algorithm of the scattering matrix where all participating particles are free in the remote past and in the remote future. We thus need, in addition, a Lorentz-covariant theory of bound state which will address the question of how the hydrogen atom would look to moving observers. The question is then whether this Lorentz-covariant theory of bound states can be synthesized with the field theory into a Lorentz-covariant quantum mechanics. This article reviews the progress made along this line. This integrated Kant-Hegel process is illustrated in terms of the way in which Americans practice their democracy. </p>
back
<p>In this report we study certification of quantum measurements, which can be viewed as the extension of quantum hypotheses testing. This extensions involves the study of the input state and the measurement procedure. Here, we will be interested in two-point (binary) certification scheme in which the null alternative hypotheses are single element sets. Our goal is to minimize the probability of the type II error given some fixed statistical significance. In this report, we begin with studying the two-point certification of pure quantum states and unitary channels to later use them to prove our main result, which is the certification of von Neumann measurements in single-shot and parallel scenarios. From our main result follow the conditions when two pure states, unitary operations and von Neumann measurements cannot be distinguished perfectly but still can be certified with a given statistical significance. Moreover, we show the connection between the certification of quantum channels and the notion of $q$-numerical range. </p>
back
<p>When is decoherence "effectively irreversible"? Here we examine this central question of quantum foundations using the tools of quantum computational complexity. We prove that, if one had a quantum circuit to determine if a system was in an equal superposition of two orthogonal states (for example, the $|$Alive$\rangle$ and $|$Dead$\rangle$ states of Schr\"{o}dinger's cat), then with only a slightly larger circuit, one could also $\mathit{swap}$ the two states (e.g., bring a dead cat back to life). In other words, observing interference between the $|$Alive$\rangle$and $|$Dead$\rangle$ states is a "necromancy-hard" problem, technologically infeasible in any world where death is permanent. As for the converse statement (i.e., ability to swap implies ability to detect interference), we show that it holds modulo a single exception, involving unitaries that (for example) map $|$Alive$\rangle$ to $|$Dead$\rangle$ but $|$Dead$\rangle$ to -$|$Alive$\rangle$. We also show that these statements are robust---i.e., even a $\mathit{partial}$ ability to observe interference implies partial swapping ability, and vice versa. Finally, without relying on any unproved complexity conjectures, we show that all of these results are quantitatively tight. Our results have possible implications for the state dependence of observables in quantum gravity, the subject that originally motivated this study. </p>
back
<p>Quantum sensing, using quantum properties of sensors, can enhance resolution, precision, and sensitivity of imaging, spectroscopy, and detection. An intriguing question is: Can the quantum nature (quantumness) of sensors and targets be exploited to enable schemes that are not possible for classical probes or classical targets? Here we show that measurement of the quantum correlations of a quantum target indeed allows for sensing schemes that have no classical counterparts. As a concrete example, in case where the second-order classical correlation of a quantum target could be totally concealed by non-stationary classical noise, the higher-order quantum correlations can single out a quantum target from the classical noise background, regardless of the spectrum, statistics, or intensity of the noise. Hence a classical-noise-free sensing scheme is proposed. This finding suggests that the quantumness of sensors and targets is still to be explored to realize the full potential of quantum sensing. New opportunities include sensitivity beyond classical approaches, non-classical correlations as a new approach to quantum many-body physics, loophole-free tests of the quantum foundation, et cetera. </p>
back
<p>In this paper, we generalize Jordan-Lee-Preskill, an algorithm for simulating flat-space quantum field theories, to 3+1 dimensional inflationary spacetime. The generalized algorithm contains the encoding treatment, the initial state preparation, the inflation process, and the quantum measurement of cosmological observables at late time. The algorithm is helpful for obtaining predictions of cosmic non-Gaussianities, serving as useful benchmark problems for quantum devices, and checking assumptions made about interacting vacuum in the inflationary perturbation theory. </p> <p>Components of our work also include a detailed discussion about the lattice regularization of the cosmic perturbation theory, a detailed discussion about the in-in formalism, a discussion about encoding using the HKLL-type formula that might apply for both dS and AdS spacetimes, a discussion about bounding curvature perturbations, a description of the three-party Trotter simulation algorithm for time-dependent Hamiltonians, a ground state projection algorithm for simulating gapless theories, a discussion about the quantum-extended Church-Turing Thesis, and a discussion about simulating cosmic reheating in quantum devices. </p>
back
<p>Using an analytically solvable model, we show that a qubit array-based detector allows to achieve the fundamental Heisenberg limit in detecting single photons. In case of superconducting qubits, this opens new opportunities for quantum sensing and communications in the important microwave range. </p>