physics updates on arXiv.org

Physics (physics) updates on the arXiv.org e-print archive



back
<p>Many-body systems from soap bubbles to suspensions to polymers learn the drives that push them far from equilibrium. This learning has been detected with thermodynamic properties, such as work absorption and strain. We progress beyond these macroscopic properties that were first defined for equilibrium contexts: We quantify statistical mechanical learning with representation learning, a machine-learning model in which information squeezes through a bottleneck. We identify a structural parallel between representation learning and far-from-equilibrium statistical mechanics. Applying this parallel, we measure four facets of many-body systems' learning: classification ability, memory capacity, discrimination ability, and novelty detection. Numerical simulations of a classical spin glass illustrate our technique. This toolkit exposes self-organization that eludes detection by thermodynamic measures. Our toolkit more reliably and more precisely detects and quantifies learning by matter. </p>
back
<p>Rare-earth ion doped crystals for hybrid quantum technologies is an area of growing interest in the solid-state physics community. We have earlier theoretically proposed a hybrid scheme of a mechanical resonator which is fabricated out of a rare-earth doped mono-cristalline structure. The rare-earth ion dopants have absorption energies which are sensitive to crystal strain, and it is thus possible to couple the ions to the bending motion of the crystal cantilever. Here, we present the design and fabrication method based on focused-ion-beam etching techniques which we have successfully employed in order to create such microscale resonators, as well as the design of the environment which will allow to study the quantum behavior of the resonators. </p>
back
<p>We present experimental results of vacuum laser acceleration (VLA) of electrons using radially polarized laser pulses interacting with a plasma mirror. Tightly focused radially polarized laser pulses have been proposed for electron acceleration because of their strong longitudinal electric field, making them ideal for VLA. However, experimental results have been limited until now because injecting electrons into the laser field has remained a considerable challenge. Here, we demonstrate experimentally that using a plasma mirror as an injector solves this problem and permits to inject electrons at the ideal phase of the laser, resulting in the acceleration of electrons along the laser propagation direction while reducing the electron beam divergence compared to the linear polarization case. We obtain electron bunches with few-MeV energies and a 200 pC charge, thus demonstrating for the first time electron acceleration to relativistic energies using a radially polarized laser. High-harmonic generation from the plasma surface is also measured and provides additional insight into the injection of electrons into the laser field upon its reflection on the plasma mirror. Detailed comparisons between experimental results and full 3D simulations unravel the complex physics of electron injection and acceleration in this new regime: we find that electrons are injected into the radially polarized pulse in the form of two spatially-separated bunches emitted from the p-polarized regions of the focus. Finally, we leverage on the insight brought by this study to propose and validate a more optimal experimental configuration that can lead to extremely peaked electron angular distributions and higher energy beams. </p>
back
<p>Unveiling and controlling the coherent evolution of low energy states is a key to attain light driven new functionalities of materials. Here we investigate the coherent evolution of non-equilibrium photon-phonon Raman interactions in the low photon number regime via femtosecond time-resolved multimode heterodyne detection. The time dependence of the weak probe spectral components is revealed by interferential amplification with shaped phase-locked reference fields that allow for a frequency selective amplification. We report measurements on $\alpha$-quartz that show that both amplitude and phase of the probe spectral components are modulated at the phonon frequency, but encode qualitatively different responses which are representative respectively of the time dependent position and momentum of the atoms. We stress that the sensitivity achieved here (1-10 photons per pulse) may be of relevance for both quantum information technologies and time domain studies on photosensitive materials. </p>
back
<p>Modern challenges arising in the fields of theoretical and experimental physics require new powerful tools for high-precision electronic structure modelling; one of the most perspective tools is the relativistic Fock space coupled cluster method (FS-RCC). Here we present a new extensible implementation of the FS-RCC method designed for modern parallel computers. The underlying theoretical model, algorithms and data structures are discussed. The performance and scaling features of the implementation are analyzed. The software developed allows to achieve a completely new level of accuracy for prediction of properties of atoms and molecules containing heavy and superheavy nuclei. </p>
back
<p>The transport properties of iron under inner core conditions are essential input for the geophysical modeling of the Earth's interior but are poorly constrained experimentally. We calculate the electrical and thermal conductivities of iron at Earth's inner core conditions taking into account consistently the thermal disorder due to the motion of ions and the electronic correlations. We focus mainly on the body-centered cubic (bcc) phase predicted to be stable at the core's conditions by several recent works. The total calculated thermal conductivity is 220 W/(m*K) including both the electron-electron scattering (EES) and electron-lattice scattering (ELS), with the EES contribution of about 20%. Thermal disorder is found to suppress the non-Fermi-liquid behavior characteristic for the perfect bcc iron and thus to reduce the EES. The total conductivity exhibits a markedly weaker sensitivity to increase of the EES as compared to the Matthiessen's rule, hence, the electron-lattice and electron-electron contributions are intertwined and cannot be treated separately. We also calculate the conductivity in the hexagonal close packed (hcp) iron phase, and again find the EES is not increased by the thermal disorder and is found to be weak there, too. Our main finding of a relatively weak EES thus holds for the both likely iron phases at Earth's core conditions. </p>
back
<p>Current density distributions in active integrated circuits (ICs) result in patterns of magnetic fields that contain structural and functional information about the IC. Magnetic fields pass through standard materials used by the semiconductor industry and provide a powerful means to fingerprint IC activity for security and failure analysis applications. Here, we demonstrate high spatial resolution, wide field-of-view, vector magnetic field imaging of static (DC) magnetic field emanations from an IC in different active states using a Quantum Diamond Microscope (QDM). The QDM employs a dense layer of fluorescent nitrogen-vacancy (NV) quantum defects near the surface of a transparent diamond substrate placed on the IC to image magnetic fields. We show that QDM imaging achieves simultaneous $\sim10$ $\mu$m resolution of all three vector magnetic field components over the 3.7 mm $\times$ 3.7 mm field-of-view of the diamond. We study activity arising from spatially-dependent current flow in both intact and decapsulated field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs); and find that QDM images can determine pre-programmed IC active states with high fidelity using machine-learning classification methods. </p>
back
<p>Recently, we reported the commissioning of the new cryogenic ion storage ring RICE, which demonstrated potential capabilities for the precise studies of molecular structures and reaction dynamics. In the present article, we describe the status of experimental programs ongoing at RICE with a focus on the laser spectroscopy and merged-beam collision experiments. </p>
back
<p>Within national and international innovation systems a pandemic calls for large-scale action by many actors across sectors, to mobilise resources, developing and manufacturing Crisis-Critical Products (CC-Products) efficiently and in the huge quantities needed. Nowadays, this also includes digital innovations from complex epidemiological models, AI, to open data platforms for prevention, diagnostic and treatment. Amongst the many challenges during a pandemic, innovation and manufacturing stakeholders find themselves engaged in new relationships, and are likely to face intellectual property (IP) related challenges. This paper adopts an IP perspective on the COVID-19 pandemic to identify pandemic related IP considerations and IP challenges. The focus is on challenges related to research, development and urgent upscaling of capacity to manufacture CC-Products in the huge volumes suddenly in demand. Its purpose is to provide a structure for steering clear of IP challenges to avoid delays in fighting a pandemic. We identify 4 stakeholder groups concerned with IP challenges: (i) governments, (ii) organisations owning existing Crisis-Critical IP, described as incumbents in Crisis-Critical Sectors (CC-Sectors), (iii) manufacturing firms from other sectors normally not producing CC-Products suddenly rushing into CC-Sectors to support the manufacturing of CC-Products (new entrants), and (iv) voluntary grassroot initiatives that are formed during a pandemic. This paper discusses IP challenges related to the development and manufacturing of technologies and products for (i) prevention (of spread), (ii) diagnosis of infected patients and (iii) the development of treatments. We offer an initial discussion of potential response measures to reduce IP associated risks among industrial stakeholders during a pandemic. </p>
back
<p>Presented here is the development and demonstration of a tunable cavity-enhanced terahertz frequency-domain optical Hall effect technique. The cavity consists of at least one fixed and one tunable Fabry-P\'erot resonator. The approach is suitable for enhancement of the optical signatures produced by the optical Hall effect in semi-transparent conductive layer structures with plane parallel interfaces. The physical principle is the constructive interference of electric field components that undergo multiple optical Hall effect induced polarization rotations upon multiple light passages through the conductive layer stack. Tuning one of the cavity parameters, such as the external cavity thickness, permits shifting of the frequencies of the constructive interference, and enhancement of the optical signatures produced by the optical Hall effect can be obtained over large spectral regions. A cavity-tuning optical stage and gas flow cell are used as examples of instruments that exploit tuning an external cavity to enhance polarization changes in a reflected terahertz beam. Permanent magnets are used to provide the necessary external magnetic field. Conveniently, the highly reflective surface of a permanent magnet can be used to create the tunable external cavity. The signal enhancement allows the extraction of the free charge carrier properties of thin films, and can eliminate the need for expensive super-conducting magnets. Furthermore, the thickness of the external cavity establishes an additional independent measurement condition, similar to, for example, the magnetic field strength, terahertz frequency, and angle of incidence. A high electron mobility transistor structure and epitaxial graphene are studied as examples. We discuss the theoretical background, instrument design, data acquisition, and data analysis procedures. </p>
back
<p>Proceeding from the more general to the more concrete, we propose an equilibrium field theory describing spin ice systems in terms of its topological charges and magnetic monopoles. We show that for a spin ice on a graph, the entropic interaction in a Gaussian approximation is the inverse of the graph Laplacian matrix, while the screening function for external charges is the inverse of the screened laplacian. We particularize the treatment to square and pyrochlore ice. For square ice we highlight the gauge-free duality between direct and perpendicular structure in terms of symmetry between charges and currents, typical of magnetic fragmentation in a two-dimensional setting. We derive structure factors, correlations, correlation lengths, and susceptibilities for spins, topological charges, and currents. We show that the divergence of the correlation length at low temperature is exponential and inversely proportional to the mean square charge. While in three dimension real and entropic interactions among monopoles are both 3D-Coulomb, in two dimension the former is a 3D-Coulomb and the latter 2D-Coulomb, or logarithmic, leading to weak singularities in correspondence of the pinch points and destroying charge screening. This suggests that the monopole plasma of square ice is a magnetic charge insulator. </p>
back
<p>The Dimits shift is the shift between the threshold of the drift-wave primary instability and the actual onset of turbulent transport in magnetized plasma. It is generally attributed to the suppression of turbulence by zonal flows, but developing a more detailed understanding calls for consideration of specific reduced models. The modified Terry--Horton system has been proposed by St-Onge [J. Plasma Phys. $\boldsymbol{\rm 83}$, 905830504 (2017)] as a minimal model capturing the Dimits shift. Here, we use this model to develop an analytic theory of the Dimits shift and a related theory of the tertiary instability of zonal flows. We show that tertiary modes are localized near extrema of the zonal velocity $U(x)$, where $x$ is the radial coordinate. By approximating $U(x)$ with a parabola, we derive the tertiary-instability growth rate using two different methods and show that the tertiary instability is essentially the primary drift-wave instability modified by the local $U''$. Then, depending on $U''$, the tertiary instability can be suppressed or unleashed. The former corresponds to the case when zonal flows are strong enough to suppress turbulence (Dimits regime), while the latter corresponds to the case when zonal flows are unstable and turbulence develops. This understanding is different from the traditional paradigm that turbulence is controlled by the flow shear $U'$. Our analytic predictions are in agreement with direct numerical simulations of the modified Terry--Horton system. </p>
back
<p>We consider a topological Floquet insulator consisting of two honeycomb arrays of identical waveguides having opposite helicities. The interface between the arrays supports two distinct topological edge states, which can be resonantly coupled by additional weak longitudinal refractive index modulation with a period larger than the helix period. In the presence of Kerr nonlinearity, such coupled edge states enable topological Bragg solitons. Theory and examples of such solitons are presented. </p>
back
<p>I will argue, pace a great many of my contemporaries, that there's something right about Boltzmann's attempt to ground the second law of thermodynamics in a suitably amended deterministic time-reversal invariant classical dynamics, and that in order to appreciate what's right about (what was at least at one time) Boltzmann's explanatory project, one has to fully apprehend the nature of microphysical causal structure, time-reversal invariance, and the relationship between Boltzmann entropy and the work of Rudolf Clausius. </p>
back
<p>The translation of an early (1958), Russian article by B. I. Korenblum, S. I. Tetelbaum and A. A. Tyutin on the development of x-ray computed tomography is provided. A new method to acquire cross-sectional x-ray images is studied which is based on processing information contained in an x-ray sinogram recorded at varying angles of an object. A derivation of the respective integral equation and its solution are given as well as a functional scheme of a computing and television screen-based device enabling to acquire a selected cross-sectional x-ray images of the object. </p>
back
<p>A customized finite-difference field solver for the particle-in-cell (PIC) algorithm that provides higher fidelity for wave-particle interactions in intense electromagnetic waves is presented. In many problems of interest, particles with relativistic energies interact with intense electromagnetic fields that have phase velocities near the speed of light. Numerical errors can arise due to (1) dispersion errors in the phase velocity of the wave, (2) the staggering in time between the electric and magnetic fields and between particle velocity and position and (3) errors in the time derivative in the momentum advance. Errors of the first two kinds are analyzed in detail. It is shown that by using field solvers with different $\mathbf{k}$-space operators in Faraday's and Ampere's law, the dispersion errors and magnetic field time-staggering errors in the particle pusher can be simultaneously removed for electromagnetic waves moving primarily in a specific direction. The new algorithm was implemented into OSIRIS by using customized higher-order finite-difference operators. Schemes using the proposed solver in combination with different particle pushers are compared through PIC simulation. It is shown that the use of the new algorithm, together with an analytic particle pusher (assuming constant fields over a time step), can lead to accurate modeling of the motion of a single electron in an intense laser field with normalized vector potentials, $eA/mc^2$, exceeding $10^4$ for typical cell sizes and time steps. </p>
back
<p>We present a model describing the temporal evolution of opinions due to interactions among a network of individuals. This Accept-Shift-Constrict (ASC) model is formulated in terms of coupled nonlinear differential equations for opinions and uncertainties. The ASC model dynamics allows for the emergence and persistence of majority positions so that the mean opinion can shift even for a symmetric network. The model also formulates a distinction between opinion and rhetoric in accordance with a recently proposed theory of the group polarization effect. This enables the modeling of discussion-induced shifts toward the extreme without the typical modeling assumption of greater resistance to persuasion among extremists. An experiment is described in which triads engaged in online discussion. Simulations show that the ASC model is in qualitative and quantitative agreement with the experimental data. </p>
back
<p>The report presents the results of using the nonperturbative kinetic approach to describe the excitation of plasma oscillations in a graphene monolayer. As examples the constant electric field as well as an electric field of short high-frequency pulses are considered. The dependence of the induced conduction and polarization currents characteristics on the pulse intensity, pulse duration, and polarization is investigated. The characteristics of secondary electromagnetic radiation resulting from the alternating currents is investigated. The nonlinear response to the external electric field characterizes graphene as an active medium. Qualitative agreement is obtained with the existing experimental result of measurements of currents in constant electric fields and radiation from graphene in the case of excitation by means of the infrared and optical pulses. </p>
back
<p>The world has witnessed unprecedented human and economic loss from the COVID-19 disease, caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Extensive research is being conducted across the globe to identify therapeutic agents against the SARS-CoV-2. Here, we use a powerful and efficient computational strategy by combining machine learning (ML) based models and high-fidelity ensemble docking simulations to enable rapid screening of possible therapeutic molecules (or ligands). Our screening is based on the binding affinity to either the isolated SARS-CoV-2 S-protein at its host receptor region or to the Sprotein-human ACE2 interface complex, thereby potentially limiting and/or disrupting the host-virus interactions. We first apply our screening strategy to two drug datasets (CureFFI and DrugCentral) to identify hundreds of ligands that bind strongly to the aforementioned two systems. Candidate ligands were then validated by all atom docking simulations. The validated ML models were subsequently used to screen a large bio-molecule dataset (with nearly a million entries) to provide a rank-ordered list of ~19,000 potentially useful compounds for further validation. Overall, this work not only expands our knowledge of small-molecule treatment against COVID-19, but also provides an efficient pathway to perform high-throughput computational drug screening by combining quick ML surrogate models with expensive high-fidelity simulations, for accelerating the therapeutic cure of diseases. </p>
back
<p>All elementary particles in nature can be classified as fermions with half-integer spin and bosons with integer spin. Within quantum electrodynamics (QED), even though the spin of the Dirac particle is well defined, there exist open questions on the quantized description of the spin of the gauge field particle - the photon. Here, we discover the quantum operators for the spin angular momentum (SAM) $\boldsymbol{S}_{M}=(1/c)\int d^{3}x\boldsymbol{\pi}\times\boldsymbol{A}$ and orbital angular momentum (OAM) $\boldsymbol{L}_{M}=-(1/c)\int d^{3}x\pi^{\mu}\boldsymbol{x}\times\boldsymbol{\nabla}A_{\mu}$ of the photon, where $\pi^{\mu}$ is the the conjugate canonical momentum of the gauge field $A_{\mu}$. Using relativistic field theory, we show that these physical quantities obey the canonical commutation relations for angular momenta. Importantly, we reveal a fundamental gauge-hiding mechanism that identifies the missing link between the complete photon spin operator and helicity, an experimental observable. Our work resolves the long-standing issues on the decomposition of the orbital and spin angular momentum of the photon with applications in quantum optics, topological photonics as well as nanophotonics and also has important ramifications for the spin structure of nucleons. </p>
back
<p>In this paper, a theoretical research on the second-order conservative phase field (SOCPF) equation is presented. The theoretical results include the following three aspects. First, three new derivation methods for the SOCPF equation are given. The SOCPF equation can be viewed as the gradient flow, the special diffusion equation and the diffuse interface form of a sharp interface formulation for the piecewise constant function, respectively. These derivation methods help us to understand the SOCPF equation at different perspectives. Second, the conservation's properties of the solution of SOCPF equation are studied. Compared with the Cahn-Hilliard equation and the Allen-Cahn equation, it is found that the solution of SOCPF equation satisfies more conservation laws. Third, the wetting boundary condition for the SOCPF equation is investigated. We find that the no-flux boundary condition is equivalent to the wetting boundary condition for two-component phase field model. Moreover, applying the no-flux boundary conditions for $N$-component phase field model, we give a set of wetting boundary conditions for $N$ phase field parameters. </p>
back
<p>Modelling the vortex structures and then translating them into the corresponding velocity fields are two essential aspects for the vortex-based modelling works in wall-bounded turbulence. This work develops a datadriven method, which allows an effective reconstruction for the velocity field based on a given vortex field. The vortex field is defined as a vector field by combining the swirl strength and the real eigenvector of the velocity gradient tensor. The distinctive properties for the vortex field are investigated, with the relationship between the vortex magnitude and orientation revealed by the differential geometry. The vortex-to-velocity reconstruction method incorporates the vortex-vortex and vortex-velocity correlation information and derives the inducing model functions under the framework of the linear stochastic estimation. Fast Fourier transformation is employed to improve the computation efficiency in implementation. The reconstruction accuracy is accessed and compared with the widely-used Biot-Savart law. Results show that the method can effectively recover the turbulent motions in a large scale range, which is very promising for the turbulence modelling. The method is also employed to investigate the inducing effects of vortices at different heights, and some revealing results are discussed and linked to the hot research topics in wall-bounded turbulence. </p>
back
<p>We investigate the initiation and early evolution of 12 solar eruptions, including six active region hot channel and six quiescent filament eruptions, which were well observed by the \textsl{Solar Dynamics Observatory}, as well as by the \textsl{Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory} for the latter. The sample includes one failed eruption and 11 coronal mass ejections, with velocities ranging from 493 to 2140~km~s$^{-1}$. A detailed analysis of the eruption kinematics yields the following main results. (1) The early evolution of all events consists of a slow-rise phase followed by a main-acceleration phase, the height-time profiles of which differ markedly and can be best fit, respectively, by a linear and an exponential function. This indicates that different physical processes dominate in these phases, which is at variance with models that involve a single process. (2) The kinematic evolution of the eruptions tends to be synchronized with the flare light curve in both phases. The synchronization is often but not always close. A delayed onset of the impulsive flare phase is found in the majority of the filament eruptions (5 out of 6). This delay, and its trend to be larger for slower eruptions, favor ideal MHD instability models. (3) The average decay index at the onset heights of the main acceleration is close to the threshold of the torus instability for both groups of events (although based on a tentative coronal field model for the hot channels), suggesting that this instability initiates and possibly drives the main acceleration. </p>
back
<p>Transitional metal ions widely exist in biological environments and are crucial to many life-sustaining physiological processes. Recently, transition metal ion such as Cu$^{2+}$, Zn$^{2+}$, Ni$^{2+}$, have been shown can increase the solubilities of aromatic biomolecules. Comparing with Cu$^{2+}$, Zn$^{2+}$ shows less enhancement to the solubilities of biomolecules such as tryptophan (Trp). On the other hand, Zn$^{2+}$ has a higher concentration in human blood plasma and appears in protein the most among transition metal ions, clarifying whether Zn$^{2+}$ can enhance the solubilities of other aromatic amino acids is significantly important. Herein, we observed that the solubility of aromatic amino acid histidine (His) is greatly enhanced in ZnCl$_2$ solution. Based on first principle calculations, this enhancement of solubility is attributed to cation-$\pi$ interaction between His and Zn$^{2+}$. Our results here are of great importance for the bioavailability of aromatic drugs and provide new insights for the understanding of physiological functions of Zn$^{2+}$. </p>
back
<p>The document describes a numerical algorithm to simulate plasmas and fluids in the 3 dimensional space by the Euler method, in which the spatial meshes are fixed to the space. The plasmas and fluids move through the spacial Euler mesh boundary. The Euler method can represent a large deformation of the plasmas and fluids. On the other hand, when the plasmas or fluids are compressed to a high density, the spatial resolution should be ensured to describe the density change precisely. The present 3D Euler code is developed to simulate a nuclear fusion fuel ignition and burning. Therefore, the 3D Euler code includes the DT fuel reactions, the alpha particle diffusion, the alpha particle deposition to heat the DT fuel and the DT fuel depletion by the DT reactions, as well as the thermal energy diffusion based on the three-temperature compressible fluid model. </p>
back
<p>We theoretically analyse the equation of topological solitons in a chain of particles interacting via a repulsive power-law potential and confined by a periodic lattice. Starting from the discrete model, we perform a gradient expansion which delivers the kink equation in the continuum limit. The power-law interaction modifies the sine-Gordon equation, giving rise to a rescaling of the coefficient in from of the second derivative (the kink width) and to an additional integral term. We argue that the integral term does not affect the local properties of the kink, but it governs the behaviour at the asymptotics. The kink behaviour at the center is dominated by a sine-Gordon equation, where the kink width tends to increase with the power law exponent. When the interaction is the Coulomb repulsion, in particular, the kink width depends logarithmically on the chain size. We define an appropriate thermodynamic limit and compare our results with existing studies performed for infinite chains. Our formalism allows one to systematically take into account the finite-size effects and also slowly varying external potentials, such as for instance the curvature in an ion trap. </p>
back
<p>Calculating how long a coupled multi-species reactive-diffusive transport process in a heterogeneous medium takes to effectively reach steady state is important in many applications. In this paper, we show how the time required for such processes to transition to within a small specified tolerance of steady state can be calculated accurately without having to solve the governing time-dependent model equations. Two numerical examples are presented to confirm the analysis and investigate the efficacy of the approach. In particular, we find that our approach works well provided the two smallest reaction rates are well separated. MATLAB code implementing the methodology and reproducing the results in the paper is made available. </p>
back
<p>In this document it is shown that the chemical shift, spin-spin couplings and return to equilibrium observed in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) are naturally contained in the realtime nuclear spin dynamics, if the dynamics is calculated directly from molecular Quantum Electrodynamics at finite temperatures. Thus, no effective NMR parameters or relaxation superoperators are used for the calculation of \textit{continuous} NMR spectra. This provides a basis for the repeal of Ramsey's theory from the 1950s, NMR relaxation theory and later developments which form the current basis for NMR theory. The presented approach replaces the discrete spectrum of the effective spin model by a continuous spectrum, whose numerical calculation is enabled by the usage of the mathematical structure of algebraic Quantum Field Theory. While the findings are demonstrated for the hydrogen atom, it is outlined that the approach can be applied to any molecular system for which the electronic structure can be calculated by using a common quantum chemical method. Thus, the presented approach has potential for an improved NMR data analysis and more accurate predictions for hyperpolarized Magnetic Resonance Imaging. </p>
back
<p>More and more countries show a significant slowdown in the number of new COVID-19 infections due to effective governmentally instituted lockdown and social distancing measures. We have analyzed the growth behavior of the top 25 most affected countries by means of a local slope analysis and found three distinct patterns that individual countries follow depending on the strictness of the lockdown protocols: exponential rise and fall, power law, or logistic. For countries showing power law growth we have determined the scaling exponents. For countries that showed a strong slowdown in the rate of infections we have extrapolated the expected saturation of the number of infections and the expected final date. Two different extrapolation methods (logistic and parabolic) were used. Both methods agree on the order of magnitude of saturation and end dates. Global infections rates are analyzed with the same methods. The relevance and accuracy of these extrapolations is discussed. </p>
back
<p>Modern communication systems will require antennas with adaptive functionality which are able to modify their performance based on the requirements of the channel. For example, mobile ad-hoc networks need directive antennas that are able to radiate in any direction across the 360{\deg} azimuth plane. Conformal antennas that can be simply operated to have multi-functional performance characteristics are therefore of interest. In this paper, we present a gradient-index lens antenna designed to radiate with a 45{\deg} beamwidth across 8 different sectors. When fed by a simple switched feeding network, the lens is able to provide 360{\deg} azimuth coverage in 45{\deg} segments. Further analysis of the radiation patterns shows how two distinct multi-beam patterns can be produced from simple feed networks and simultaneous excitation of each feeding element. The proposed lens is fabricated by multi-material 3D printing. The final lens radiates with a gain of 8.5 dBi when a single sector is excited, and with a maximum gain of 5.9 dBi in multi-beam mode. Finally, it is shown how the lens can also radiate omnidirectionally when optimised phase and amplitude weightings are applied to each port. </p>
back
<p>John Couch Adams predicted the location of Neptune in the sky, calculated the expectation of the change in the mean motion of the Moon due to the Earth's pull, and determined the origin and the orbit of the Leonids meteor shower which had puzzled astronomers for almost a thousand years. With his achievements Adams can be compared with his good friend George Stokes. Not only were they born in the same year, but were also both senior wranglers, received the Smith's Prizes and Copley medals, lived, thought and researched at Pembroke College, and shared an appreciation of Newton. On the other hand, Adams' prediction of Neptune's location had absolutely no influence on its discovery in Berlin. His lunar theory did not offer a physical explanation for the Moon's motion. The origin of the Leonids was explained by others before him. Adams refused a knighthood and an appointment as Astronomer Royal. He was reluctant and slow to publish, but loved to derive the values of logarithms to 263 decimal places. The maths and calculations at which he so excelled mark one of the high points of celestial mechanics, but are rarely taught nowadays in undergraduate courses. The differences and similarities between Adams and Stokes could not be more striking. This volume attests to the lasting legacy of Stokes' scientific work. What is then Adams' legacy? In this contribution I will outline Adams' life, instances when Stokes' and Adams' lives touched the most, his scientific achievements and a usually overlooked legacy: female higher education and support of a woman astronomer. </p>
back
<p>In the past two decades, tremendous efforts have been exerted to understand and control the delivery of ultrashort laser pulses into various types of transparent materials ranging from glass and crystal to polymer and even bio-materials. This approach opens up the route toward determinative and highly localized modification within the transparent materials, enabling three-dimensional (3D) micromachining of the materials into sophisticated structures and devices with the extreme geometrical flexibility. Owing to the linear diffraction and nonlinear self-focusing effects, the focal volume typically exhibits an asymmetric profile stretching along the longitudinal direction. This effect becomes more severe when focusing deeply into the transparent substrates for printing objects of large heights. In this work a new laser-material interaction regime is identified with the exceptional incubation effect originating from self-regulated multiple-pulse interactions with accumulated material changes. Our finding reveals a focal-volume-invariant modification deeply inside the fused silica glass, in striking contrary to the traditional believes that the geometrical shape of the laser induced modification follows the intensity distribution of the inscription laser. A macro-scale geometrically complex glass sculpture is successfully manufactured with the incubation assisted ultrashort laser inscription at uniform micrometer resolutions in all three dimensions. </p>
back
<p>Ultraviolet (UV) diode lasers are widely used in many photonics applications. But their frequency stabilization schemes are not as mature as frequency-doubling lasers, mainly due to some limitations in the UV spectral region. Here we developed a high-performance UV frequency stabilization technique implemented directly on UV diode lasers by combining the dichroic atomic vapor laser lock and the resonant transfer cavity lock. As an example, we demonstrate a stable locking with frequency standard deviations of approximately 200 KHz and 300 KHz for 399nm and 370nm diode lasers in 20 minutes. We achieve a long-term frequency drift of no more than 1 MHz for the target 370nm laser within an hour, which was further verified with fluorescence counts rates of a single trapped $^{171}$Yb$^+$ ion. We also find strong linear correlations between lock points and environmental factors such as temperature and atmospheric pressure. </p>
back
<p>Tri-gate ferroelectric FETs with Hf0.5Zr0.5O2 gate insulator for memory and neuromorphic applications are fabricated and characterized for multi-level operation. The conductance and threshold voltage exhibit highly linear and symmetric characteristics. A compact analytical model is developed to accurately capture FET transfer characteristics, including series resistance, coulombic scattering, and vertical field dependent mobility degradation effects, as well as the evolvement of threshold voltage and mobility with ferroelectric polarization switching. The model covers both sub-threshold and strong inversion operation. Additional measurements confirm ferroelectric switching as opposed to carrier-trapping-based memory operation. The compact model is implemented in a simulation platform for online training of deep neural networks. </p>
back
<p>Ultrafast laser excitation can trigger multiplex coherent dynamics in molecules. Here, we report attosecond transient absorption experiments addressing simultaneous probing of electronic and vibrational dynamics in a prototype molecule, deuterium bromide (DBr), following its strong-field ionization. Electronic and vibrational coherences in the ionic X$^2\Pi_{3/2}$ and X$^2\Pi_{1/2}$ states are characterized in the Br-$3d$ core-level absorption spectra via quantum beats with 12.6-fs and 19.9-fs periodicities, respectively. Polarization scans reveal that the phase of the electronic quantum beats depends on the probe direction, experimentally showing that the coherent electronic motion corresponds to the oscillation of the hole density along the ionization-field direction. The vibrational quantum beats are found to maintain a relatively constant amplitude, whereas the electronic quantum beats exhibit a partial decrease in time. Quantum wave-packet simulations show that the decoherence effect from the vibrational motion is insignificant because of the parallel relation between the X$^2\Pi_{3/2}$ and X$^2\Pi_{1/2}$ potentials. A comparison between the DBr and HBr results suggests that rotation motion is responsible for the decoherence since it leads to initial alignment prepared by the strong-field ionization. </p>
back
<p>We propose a Susceptible-Infected (SI) epidemic spreading model including containment measures. In absence of containment measures the epidemics spreads exponentially fast for any value of the infectivity $\lambda&gt;0$. The containment measures are modeled by considering a time-dependent modulation of the bare infectivity $\lambda$ leading to an effective infectivity that decays in time for each infected individual, mimicking for instance the combined effect of asymptomatic onset of the disease, testing policies and quarantine. We consider a wide range of temporal kernels for the effective infectivity and we investigate the effect of the considered containment measures. We find that not all kernels are able to push the epidemic dynamics below the epidemic threshold, with some containment measures only able to reduce the rate of the exponential growth of new infected individuals. We also propose a model with pandemic caused by a growing number of new separated foci. This model provides a stylized mathematical framework that can shed light on the role of different containment measures in mitigating and suppressing the spread of an epidemics such as COVID-19. </p>
back
<p>The High Resolution Energetic X-Ray Imager (HREXI) CZT detector development program at Harvard is aimed at developing tiled arrays of finely pixelated CZT detectors for use in wide-field coded aperture 3-200 keV X-ray telescopes. A pixel size of $\simeq$ 600 $\mu m$ has already been achieved in the ProtoEXIST2 (P2) detector plane with CZT read out by the NuSTAR ASIC. This paves the way for even smaller 300 $\mu m$ pixels in the next generation HREXI detectors. This article describes a new HREXI calibration facility (HCF) which enables a high resolution sub-pixel level (100 $\mu m$) 2D scan of a 256 $cm^2$ tiled array of 2 $\times$ 2 cm CZT detectors illuminated by a bright X-ray AmpTek Mini-X tube source at timescales of around a day. HCF is a significant improvement from the previous apparatus used for scanning these detectors which took $\simeq$ 3 weeks to complete a 1D scan of a similar detector plane. Moreover, HCF has the capability to scan a large tiled array of CZT detectors ($32cm \times 32cm$) at 100 $\mu m$ resolution in the 10 - 50 keV energy range which was not possible previously. This paper describes the design, construction, and implementation of HCF for the calibration of the P2 detector plane. </p>
back
<p>Knowledge about the daily number of new infections of Covid-19 is important because it is the basis for political decisions resulting in lockdowns and urgent health care measures. We use Germany as an example to illustrate shortcomings of official numbers, which are, at least in Germany, disclosed only with several days of delay and severely underreported on weekends (more than 40%). These shortcomings outline an urgent need for alternative data sources. The other widely cited source provided by the Center for Systems Science and Engineering at Johns Hopkins University (JHU) also deviates for Germany on average by 79% from the official numbers. We argue that Google Search and Twitter data should complement official numbers. They predict even better than the original values from Johns Hopkins University and do so several days ahead. These two data sources could also be used in parts of the world where official numbers do not exist or are perceived to be unreliable. </p>
back
<p>A novel quantum-classical hybrid scheme is proposed to efficiently solve large-scale combinatorial optimization problems. The key concept is to introduce a Hamiltonian dynamics of the classical flux variables associated with the quantum spins of the transverse-field Ising model. Molecular dynamics of the classical fluxes can be used as a powerful preconditioner to sort out the frozen and ambivalent spins for quantum annealers. The performance and accuracy of our smooth hybridization in comparison to the standard classical algorithms (the tabu search and the simulated annealing) are demonstrated by employing the MAX-CUT and Ising spin-glass problems. </p>
back
<p>The coherent manipulation of acoustic waves on the nanoscale usually requires multilayers with thicknesses and interface roughness defined down to the atomic monolayer. This results in expensive devices with predetermined functionality. Nanoscale mesoporous materials present high surface-to-volume ratio and tailorable mesopores, which allow the incorporation of chemical functionalization to nanoacoustics. However, the presence of pores with sizes comparable to the acoustic wavelength is intuitively perceived as a major roadblock in nanoacoustics. Here we present multilayered nanoacoustic resonators based on mesoporous SiO$_2$ thin-films showing acoustic resonances in the 5-100 GHz range. We characterize the acoustic response of the system using coherent phonon generation experiments. Despite resonance wavelengths comparable to the pore size, we observe for the first time unexpectedly well-defined acoustic resonances with Q-factors around 10. Our results open the path to a promising platform for nanoacoustic sensing and reconfigurable acoustic nanodevices based on soft, inexpensive fabrication methods. </p>
back
<p>We propose a method to generate femtosecond, relativistic and high-charge electron bunches using few-cycle and tightly focused radially polarized laser pulses. In this scheme, the incident laser pulse reflects off an overdense plasma that injects electrons into the reflected pulse. Particle-In-Cell simulations show that the plasma injects electrons ideally, resulting in a dramatic increase of charge and energy of the accelerated electron bunch in comparison to previous methods. This method can be used to generate femtosecond pC bunches with energies in the 1-10 MeV range using realistic laser parameters corresponding to current kHz laser systems. </p>
back
<p>Our society is built on a complex web of interdependencies whose effects become manifest during extraordinary events such as the COVID-19 pandemic, with shocks in one system propagating to the others to an exceptional extent. We analyzed more than 100 millions Twitter messages posted worldwide in 64 languages during the epidemic emergency due to SARS-CoV-2 and classified the reliability of news diffused. We found that waves of unreliable and low-quality information anticipate the epidemic ones, exposing entire countries to irrational social behavior and serious threats for public health. When the epidemics hit the same area, reliable information is quickly inoculated, like antibodies, and the system shifts focus towards certified informational sources. Contrary to mainstream beliefs, we show that human response to falsehood exhibits early-warning signals that might be mitigated with adequate communication strategies. </p>
back
<p>In this article, two wide band high-efficiency metasurface structures as a linear-cross polarizer in transmission mode based on asymmetric split-ring resonators (ASRR) are proposed and tested to indicate that this is not a purely theoretical work. A unit cell of the first structure consists of double polarization-sensitive S-shape resonators (SRs) on the bottom side of the dielectric layer. The superiority of this proposed structure is its filtering property and high conversion efficiency at its resonant frequency, 100 GHz, where its cross-polarized transmission coefficient reaches 0.87. The simulation results show that the polarization conversion ratio (PCR) exceeds 85% in the frequency range of 86 to 139 GHz. Additionally, the second structure consistsed of a wire-grid array as the bottom layer. This structure has extremely low co-polarized transmission amplitude which represents a good polarization transformer in cross-direction. Furthermore, this structure has a polarization conversion ration more than 95% in frequency range of 50 to 200GHz, having wider relative bandwidth compared to the first proposed polarizer. The performance of both polarizers has very weak angular dependence under the oblique incident of x-polarized EM wave with from to .A prototype of these proposed polarizers has been fabricated and a good agreement between experimental and simulation results has been observed. These proposed structures can find application in mm-wave and THz sensing and imaging systems which benefit from polarimetric measurements. </p>
back
<p>We present a new way to mitigate focal-ratio degradation (FRD) when using optical fibers to transport multimode light. Our approach exploits a custom multicore fiber (MCF) with six dissimilar cores that are single mode at ~1550 nm wavelength and minimally coupled over 7 m. We fabricated adiabatic mode-selective photonic lanterns (PLs) at each end of the MCF to create a fiber link with multimode ports, the PLs coupling each spatial mode of the multimode ports to a specific core of the MCF and vice versa. The PL-MCF-PL link exhibits superior FRD behavior compared to a conventional multimode fiber that also supports 6 modes, because it inhibits the transfer of light from lower-order modes to higher-order modes. These results open up a potentially powerful new approach to mitigate FRD in multimode fiber links, with particular applications in astronomical instruments. </p>
back
<p>Assuming the existence of supra luminal matter, referred to as 'tachyonic', we reconsider possible Lorentz style transformations between tachyon observers and sub luminal ('braydons') observers. We consider a unique possibility following from a straightforward argument based on relative motion as a Lie group. The result is novel in that it requires the time direction to be reversed for tachyon observers. We use this result to find the transformation between supra luminal observers. </p> <p>An extended discussion {\it speculates} concerning physical evidence for, and consequences of, a supra luminal regime dual to the sub space luminal regime. It appears that supra luminal particles are likely to be of very low energy and hence be difficult to detect. However, their momentum may be significant depending on their asymptotic mass. Tachyons are candidates for astronomical 'dark matter' and perhaps vacuum energy as manifested in the cosmological constant. Quantum tachyons might be detected as periodic variations in Casimir type measurements corresponding to their De Broglie wavelength. We suggest that supra luminal and sub luminal particles can be entangled at both Cauchy and event horizons, so that transitions may be possible for quantum particles. </p>
back
<p>The saturated state of turbulence driven by the ion-temperature-gradient instability is investigated using a two-dimensional long-wavelength fluid model that describes the perturbed electrostatic potential and perturbed ion temperature in a magnetic field with constant curvature (a $Z$-pinch) and an equilibrium temperature gradient. Numerical simulations reveal a well-defined transition between a finite-amplitude saturated state dominated by strong zonal-flow and zonal-temperature perturbations, and a blow-up state that fails to saturate on a box-independent scale. We argue that this transition is equivalent to the Dimits transition from a low-transport to a high-transport state seen in gyrokinetic numerical simulations. A quasi-static staircase-like structure of the temperature gradient intertwined with zonal flows, which have patch-wise constant shear, emerges near the Dimits threshold. The turbulent heat flux in the low-collisionality near-marginal state is dominated by turbulent bursts, triggered by coherent long-lived structures closely resembling those found in gyrokinetic simulations with imposed equilibrium flow shear. The break up of the low-transport Dimits regime is linked to a competition between the two different sources of poloidal momentum in the system -- the Reynolds stress and the advection of the diamagnetic flow by the $\boldsymbol{E}\times\boldsymbol{B}$ flow. By analysing the linear ITG modes, we obtain a semi-analytic model for the Dimits threshold at large collisionality. </p>
back
<p>The usual Chern-Simons extension of Einstein gravity theory consists in adding a squared Riemann contribution to the Hilbert Lagrangian, which means that a square-curvature term is added to the linear-curvature leading term governing the dynamics of the gravitational field. However, in such a way the Lagrangian consists of two terms with a different number of curvatures, and therefore not homogeneous. To develop a homogeneous Chern-Simons correction to Einstein gravity we may, on the one hand, use the above-mentioned square-curvature contribution as the correction for the most general square-curvature Lagrangian, or on the other hand, find some linear-curvature correction to the Hilbert Lagrangian. In the first case, we will present the most general square-curvature leading term, which is in fact the already-known re-normalizable Stelle Lagrangian. In the second case, the topological current has to be an axial-vector built only in terms of gravitational degrees of freedom and with a unitary mass dimension, and we will display such an object. The comparison of the two theories will eventually be commented. </p>
back
<p>Inertia-gravity waves (IGWs) play an essential role in the terrestrial atmospheric dynamics as they can lead to energy and momentum flux when propagating upwards. An open question is to which extent IGWs contribute to the total energy and to flattening of the energy spectrum observed at the mesoscale. In this work, we present an experimental investigation of the energy distribution between the large-scale balanced flow and the small-scale imbalanced flow. Weakly nonlinear IGWs emitted from baroclinic jets are observed in the differentially heated rotating annulus experiment. Similar to the atmospheric spectra, the experimental kinetic energy spectra reveal the typical subdivision into two distinct regimes with slopes $k^{-3}$ for the large scales and $k^{-5/3}$ for the small scales. By separating the spectra into the vortex and the wave component, it emerges that at the large-scale end of the mesoscale the gravity waves observed in the experiment cause a flattening of the spectra and provide most of the energy. At smaller scales, our data analysis suggests a transition towards a turbulent regime with a forward energy cascade up to where dissipation by diffusive processes occurs. </p>
back
<p>High intensity laser filamentation in air has recently demonstrated that, through plasma generation and its associated shockwave, fog can be cleared around the beam, leaving an optically transparent path to transmit light. However, for practical applications like free-space optical communication (FSO), channels of multi-centimeter diameters over kilometer ranges are required, which is extremely challenging for a plasma based method. Here we report a radically different approach, based on quantum control. We demonstrate that fog clearing can also be achieved by producing molecular quantum wakes in air, and that neither plasma generation nor filamentation are required. The effect is clearly associated with the rephasing time of the rotational wave packet in N2.Pump excitation provided in the form of resonant trains of 8 pulses separated by the revival time are able to transmit optical data through fog with initial extinction as much as -6 dB. </p>
back
<p>Four-wave-mixing-based quantum cascade laser frequency combs (QCL-FC) are a powerful photonic tool, driving a recent revolution in major molecular fingerprint regions, i.e. mid- and far-infrared domains. Their compact and frequency-agile design, together with their high optical power and spectral purity, promise to deliver an all-in-one source for the most challenging spectroscopic applications. Here, we demonstrate a metrological-grade hybrid dual comb spectrometer, combining the advantages of a THz QCL-FC with the accuracy and absolute frequency referencing provided by a free-standing, optically-rectified THz frequency comb. A proof-of-principle application to methanol molecular transitions is presented. The multi-heterodyne molecular spectra retrieved provide state-of-the-art results in line-center determination, achieving the same precision as currently available molecular databases. The devised setup provides a solid platform for a new generation of THz spectrometers, paving the way to more refined and sophisticated systems exploiting full phase control of QCL-FCs, or Doppler-free spectroscopic schemes. </p>
back
<p>We demonstrate that tight focusing of a circularly polarized Gaussian beam in optical tweezers leads to spin-momentum locking - with the transverse spin angular momentum density being independent of helicity, while the transverse momentum (Poynting vector) becomes helicity dependent. Our theoretical calculations, numerical simulations, and experiments reveal that the presence of a stratified medium in the path of the trapping beam significantly enhances the magnitude of transverse momentum in the radial direction with respect to the beam axis, and likewise, also leads to high off-axial intensity. This overlap allows us to experimentally observe the circular motion of a birefringent particle, trapped off-axis, in response to an input circularly polarized fundamental Gaussian beam carrying no intrinsic orbital angular momentum. The circular motion is dependent on the helicity of the input beam, so that we can identify it to be the signature of the elusive Belinfante spin in propagating light beams obtained in our optical tweezers setup. Our work can be extended to higher-order beams carrying intrinsic orbital angular momentum leading to simple routes of achieving complex particle manipulation using optical tweezers. </p>
back
<p>We simulate the pump-probe experiments of lasing in molecular nitrogen ions with particular interest on the effects of rotational wave-packet dynamics. Our computations demonstrate that the coherent preparation of rotational wave packets in N$_2^+$ by an intense short non-resonant pulse results in a modulation of the subsequent emission from $B^2\Sigma_u^+ \rightarrow X^2\Sigma_g^+$ transitions induced by a resonant seed pulse. We model the dynamics of such pumping and emission using density matrix theory to describe the N$_2^+$ dynamics and the Maxwell wave equation to model the seed pulse propagation. We show that the gain and absorption of a delayed seed pulse is dependent on the pump-seed delay, that is, the rotational coherences excited by the pump pulse can modulate the gain and absorption of the delayed seed pulse. Further, we demonstrate that the coherent rotational dynamics of the nitrogen ions can cause lasing without electronic inversion. </p>
back
<p>We report a measurement of the antineutrino rate from the fission of U-235 with the STEREO detector using 119 days of reactor turned on. Considering several corrections, which are presented in detail, we achieve accurate results and report the most precise single measurement at reactors with highly enriched U-235 fuel. We measure an IBD cross-section per fission of $\sigma_f$ = (6.34 $\pm$ 0.06 [stat] $\pm$ 0.15 [sys] $\pm$ 0.15 [model]) $\cdot$ 10${}^{-43}$ cm${}^{2}$/fission and observe a rate deficit of (5.2 $\pm$ 0.8 [stat] $\pm$ 2.3 [sys] $\pm$ 2.3 [model])% compared to the model. Here, the first and second uncertainties are experimental and the third is from the model. We confirm the deficit between the world average and the model. </p>
back
<p>We present LBsoft, an open-source software developed mainly to simulate the hydro-dynamics of colloidal systems based on the concurrent coupling between lattice Boltzmann methods for the fluid and discrete particle dynamics for the colloids. Such coupling has been developed before, but, to the best of our knowledge, no detailed discussion of the programming issues to be faced in order to attain efficient implementation on parallel architectures, has ever been presented to date. In this paper, we describe in detail the underlying multi-scale models, their coupling procedure, along side with a description of the relevant input variables, to facilitate third-parties usage. The code is designed to exploit parallel computing platforms, taking advantage also of the recent AVX-512 instruction set. We focus on LBsoft structure, functionality, parallel implementation, performance and availability, so as to facilitate the access to this computational tool to the research community in the field. The capabilities of LBsoft are highlighted for a number of prototypical case studies, such as pickering emulsions, bicontinuous systems, as well as an original study of the coarsening process in confined bijels under shear. </p>
back
<p>Bell's theorem is supposed to exclude all local hidden-variable models of quantum correlations. However, an explicit counterexample shows that a new class of local realistic models, based on generalized arithmetic and calculus, can exactly reconstruct quantum probabilities typical of two-electron singlet states. The model is classical because probability is a ratio of two measures computed by means of appropriate integrals. Both the ratio and the integral are computed according to the rules of the generalized arithmetic and calculus. The system we consider is therefore classical, deterministic, local, rotationally invariant, observers have free will, detectors are perfect, so is free of all the standard loopholes discussed in the literature. </p>
back
<p>In this work, we employ the Synthetic Minority Oversampling Technique (SMOTE) to generate instances of the minority class of an imbalanced Coronary Artery Disease dataset. We firstly analyze the public dataset Z -- Alizadeh Sani, a dataset used for non-invasive prediction of CAD. We perform feature selection to exclude attributes unrelated to Coronary Artery Disease risk. The generation of new samples is performed using SMOTE, a technique commonly employed in machine learning tasks. We design Artificial Neural Networks, Decision Trees, and Support Vector Machines to classify both the original dataset and the augmented. The results demonstrate that data augmentation may be beneficial in specific cases, but it is not a panacea, and its application in a specific dataset should be carefully examined. </p>
back
<p>Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is currently used to design and improve the hydraulic properties of biomedical devices, wherein the large scale blood circulation needs to be simulated by accounting for the mechanical response of red blood cells (RBCs) at mesoscales. In many practical instances, biomedical devices work on time-scales comparable to the intrinsic relaxation time of RBCs: thus, a systematic understanding of the time-dependent response of erythrocyte membranes is crucial for the effective design of such devices. So far, this information has been deduced from experimental data, which do not necessarily adapt to the the broad variety of the fluid dynamic conditions that can be encountered in practice. This work explores the novel possibility of studying the time-dependent response of an erythrocyte membrane to external mechanical loads via ab-initio, mesoscale numerical simulations, with a primary focus on the detailed characterisation of the RBC relaxation time $t_c$ following the arrest of the external mechanical load. The adopted mesoscale model exploits a hybrid Immersed Boundary-Lattice Boltzmann Method (IB-LBM), coupled with the Standard Linear Solid model (SLS) to account for the RBC membrane viscosity. We underscore the key importance of the 2D membrane viscosity $\mu_{m}$ to correctly reproduce the relaxation time of the RBC membrane. A detailed assessment of the dependencies on the typology and strength of the applied mechanical loads is also provided. Overall, our findings open interesting future perspectives for the study of the non-linear response of RBCs immersed in time-dependent strain fields. </p>
back
<p>We analyze planar electromagnetic waves confined by a slab waveguide formed by two perfect electrical conductors. Remarkably, 2D Maxwell equations describing transverse electromagnetic modes in such waveguides are exactly mapped onto equations for acoustic waves in fluids or gases. We show that interfaces between two slab waveguides with opposite-sign permeabilities support 1D edge modes, analogous to surface acoustic plasmons at interfaces with opposite-sign mass densities. We analyze this novel type of edge modes for the cases of isotropic media and anisotropic media with tensor permeabilities (including hyperbolic media). We also take into account `non-Hermitian' edge modes with imaginary frequencies or/and propagation constants. Our theoretical predictions are feasible for optical and microwave experiments involving 2D metamaterials. </p>
back
<p>Surface wettability has a huge influence on its functional properties. For example, to minimize smudging, surfaces should be able to repel oil droplets. To quantify surface wettability, the most common approach is to measure the contact angles of a liquid droplet on the surface. While well-established and relatively easy to perform, contact angle measurements are crude and imprecise; moreover, they cannot spatially resolve surface heterogeneities that can contribute to surface fouling. To address these shortcomings, we report on using an Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) technique to quantitatively measure the interaction forces between a micro-droplet and a surface with piconewton force resolution. We show how our technique can be used to spatially map topographical and chemical heterogeneities with micron resolution. </p>
back
<p>In this work we report that the public reacted on social media at an early stage of the COVID-19 pandemic in a surprisingly accurate way, with activity levels reflecting the severity of the contagion figures registered almost a month later. Specifically, the intensity of COVID-related social media activity from different Italian regions at the beginning of the epidemic (21-24/2/2020), predicts well the total number of deaths reached almost a month later (21/3/2020) in each region. It should be noted that at the time of the initial twitter reaction no tabled regional data on the epidemic was readily available. By the 24th February 2020 only two regions reported death cases and only three reported infected subjects. </p>
back
<p>Indian Railway Network has been analyzed on the basis of number of trains directly linking two railway zones. The network has been displayed as a weighted graph where the weights denote the number of trains between the zones. It may be pointed out that each zone is a complex network in itself and may depict different characteristic features. The zonal network therefore can be considered as a network of complex networks. In this paper, self links, in-degree and out-degree of each zone have been computed which provides information about the inter and intra zonal connectivity. Degree passenger correlation which gives an idea about number of trains and passengers originating from a particular zone which might play a role in policy making decisions has also been studied. Some other complex network parameters like betweenness, clustering coefficient and cliques have been obtained to get more insight about the complex Indian zonal network. </p>
back
<p>Experiments indicate that microdroplets undergoing micellar solubilization in the bulk of surfactant solution may excite Marangoni flows and self-propel spontaneously. Surprisingly, self-propulsion emerges even when critical micelle concentration is exceeded and Marangoni effect should be saturated. To explain this, we propose a novel model of a dissolving active droplet that is based on two fundamental assumptions: (a) products of the solubilization may inhibit surfactant adsorption; (b) solubilization prevents the formation of the monolayer of surfactant molecules at the interface. We use numerical simulations and asymptotic methods to demonstrate that our model indeed features spontaneous droplet self-propulsion. Our key finding is that in the case of axisymmetric flow and concentration fields, two qualitatively different types of droplet behavior may be stable for the same values of physical parameters: steady self-propulsion and steady symmetric pumping. Although stability of these steady regimes is not guaranteed in the absence of axial symmetry, we argue that they will retain their respective stable manifolds in the phase space of a fully 3D problem. </p>
back
<p>The research of geoneutrino is a new interdisciplinary subject of particle experiments and geo-science. Potassium-40 ($^\text{40}$K) decays contribute roughly 1/3 of the radiogenic heat of the Earth, but it is still missing from the experimental observation. Solar neutrino experiments with liquid scintillators have observed uranium and thorium geoneutrinos and are the most promising in the low-background neutrino detection. In this article, we present the new concept of using liquid-scintillator Cherenkov detectors to detect the neutrino-electron elastic scattering process of $^\text{40}$K geoneutrinos. Liquid-scintillator Cherenkov detectors using a slow liquid scintillator can achieve this goal with both energy and direction measurements for charged particles. Given the directionality, we can significantly suppress the dominant intrinsic background originating from solar neutrinos in conventional liquid-scintillator detectors. We simulated the solar- and geo-neutrino scatterings in the slow liquid scintillator detector, and implemented energy and directional reconstructions for the recoiling electrons. We found that $^\text{40}$K geoneutrinos can be detected with three standard deviation accuracy in a kiloton-scale detector. </p>
back
<p>A stationary wave solution is obtained for the proton driven plasma wake field accelerator (PDPWFA). The wake field excitation by trains of equidistant proton microbunches produced due to self modulational instability has been discussed. Also, considering the necessity of the external magnetic field to control focusing of the beam, studies on the effect of magnetic field on the wake field structures have been done. </p>
back
<p>We report on what is to our knowledge the first scattering experiment of surface waves on an accelerating transcritical flow, which in the Analogue Gravity context is described by an effective spacetime with a black-hole horizon. This spacetime has been probed by an incident co-current wave, which partially scatters into an outgoing counter-current wave on each side of the horizon. The measured scattering amplitudes are compatible with the predictions of the hydrodynamical theory, where the kinematical description in terms of the effective metric is exact. </p>
back
<p>We perform simulations of giant impacts onto the young Uranus using smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) with over 100 million particles. This 100--1000$\times$ improvement in particle number reveals that simulations with below 10^7 particles fail to converge on even bulk properties like the post-impact rotation period, or on the detailed erosion of the atmosphere. Higher resolutions appear to determine these large-scale results reliably, but even 10^8 particles may not be sufficient to study the detailed composition of the debris -- finding that almost an order of magnitude more rock is ejected beyond the Roche radius than with 10^5 particles. We present two software developments that enable this increase in the feasible number of particles. First, we present an algorithm to place any number of particles in a spherical shell such that they all have an SPH density within 1% of the desired value. Particles in model planets built from these nested shells have a root-mean-squared velocity below 1% of the escape speed, which avoids the need for long precursor simulations to produce relaxed initial conditions. Second, we develop the hydrodynamics code SWIFT for planetary simulations. SWIFT uses task-based parallelism and other modern algorithmic approaches to take full advantage of contemporary supercomputer architectures. Both the particle placement code and SWIFT are publicly released. </p>
back
<p>We use a hierarchy of numerical models (a 3-D Global Climate Model, a 1-D radiative-convective model and a 2-D Mantle Dynamics model) to explore the environmental effects of very large impacts on the atmosphere, surface and interior of early Mars. </p> <p>Using a combination of 1-D and 3-D climate simulations, we show that the environmental effects of the largest impact events recorded on Mars are characterized by: (i) a short impact-induced warm period; (ii) a low amount of hydrological cycling of water; (iii) deluge-style precipitation; and (iv) precipitation patterns that are uncorrelated with the observed regions of valley networks. We show that the impact-induced stable runaway greenhouse state predicted by Segura et al. 2012 is physically inconsistent. We confirm the results of Segura et al. 2008 and Urata &amp; Toon 2013 that water ice clouds can significantly extend the duration of the post-impact warm period, and even for cloud coverage lower than predicted in Ramirez &amp; Kasting 2017. However, the range of cloud microphysical properties for which this scenario works is very narrow. </p> <p>Using 2-D Mantle Dynamics simulations we find that large impacts can raise the near-surface internal heat flux up to several hundreds of mW/m$^2$ (i.e. up to $\sim$ 10 times the ambient flux) for several millions years at the edges of the impact crater. However, such internal heat flux is insufficient to keep the martian surface above the melting point of water. </p> <p>Our numerical results support the prediction of Palumbo &amp; Head 2018 that very large impact-induced rainfall could have caused degradation of craters and formed smooth plains, potentially erasing much of the previously visible morphological surface history. Such hot rainfalls may have also led to the formation of aqueous alteration products on Noachian-aged terrains. </p>
back
<p>We study theoretically the ultrafast electron dynamics of three-dimensional Weyl semimetals in the field of a laser pulse. For a circularly-polarized pulse, such dynamics is governed by topological resonance, which manifests itself as a specific conduction band population distribution in the vicinity of the Weyl points. The topological resonance is determined by the competition between the topological phase and the dynamic phase and depends on the handedness of a circularly polarized pulse. Also, we show that the conduction band population induced by a circularly-polarized pulse that consists of two oscillations with opposite handedness is highly chiral, which represents the intrinsic chirality of the Weyl points. </p>
back
<p>This work introduces a compartment-based model for apparent soma and neurite density imaging (SANDI) using non-invasive diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI). The existing conjecture in brain microstructure imaging trough DW-MRI presents water diffusion in white (WM) and grey (GM) matter as restricted diffusion in neurites, modelled by infinite cylinders of null radius embedded in the hindered extra-neurite water. The extra-neurite pool in WM corresponds to water in the extra-axonal space, but in GM it combines water in the extra-cellular space with water in soma. While several studies showed that this microstructure model successfully describe DW-MRI data in WM and GM at b&lt;3 ms/{\mum^2}, it has been also shown to fail in GM at high b values (b&gt;&gt;3 ms/{\mum^2}). Here we hypothesize that the unmodelled soma compartment may be responsible for this failure and propose SANDI as a new model of brain microstructure where soma (i.e. cell body of any brain cell type: from neuroglia to neurons) is explicitly included. We assess the effects of size and density of soma on the direction-averaged DW-MRI signal at high b values and the regime of validity of the model using numerical simulations and comparison with experimental data from mouse (bmax = 40 ms/{/mum^2}) and human (bmax = 10 ms/{\mum^2}) brain. We show that SANDI defines new contrasts representing new complementary information on the brain cyto- and myelo-architecture. Indeed, we show for the first-time maps from 25 healthy human subjects of MR soma and neurite signal fractions, that remarkably mirror contrasts of histological images of brain cyto- and myelo-architecture. Although still under validation, SANDI might provide new insight into tissue architecture by introducing a new set of biomarkers of potential great value for biomedical applications and pure neuroscience. </p>
back
<p>Asteroid impacts pose a major threat to all life on Earth. The age of the dinosaurs was abruptly ended by a 10-km-diameter asteroid. Currently, a nuclear device is the only means of deflecting large Potentially Hazardous Asteroids (PHAs) away from an Earth-impacting trajectory. The Enhanced Kinetic Impactor (EKI) concept is proposed to deflect large PHAs via maneuvering space rocks. First, an unmanned spacecraft is launched to rendezvous with an intermediate Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA). Then, more than one hundred tons of rocks are collected from the NEA as the EKI. The NEA can also be captured as the EKI if the NEA is very small. Finally, the EKI is maneuvered to impact the PHA at a high speed, resulting in a significant deflection of the PHA. For example, to deflect Apophis, as much as 200 t of rocks could be collected from a NEA as the EKI based on existing engineering capabilities. The EKI can produce a velocity increment (delta-v) of 39.81 mm/s in Apophis, thereby increasing the minimum geocentric distance during the close encounter in 2029 by 1,866.93 km. This mission can be completed in 3.96 years with a propellant cost of 2.98 t. Compared with a classic kinetic impactor, the deflection distance can be increased one order of magnitude. The EKI concept breaks through the limitation of the ground-based launch capability, which can significantly increase the mass of the impactor. We anticipate that our research will be a starting point for efficient planetary defense against large PHAs. </p>
back
<p>We report direct-detection constraints on light dark matter particles interacting with electrons. The results are based on a method that exploits the extremely low levels of leakage current of the DAMIC detector at SNOLAB of 2-6$\times$10$^{-22}$ A cm$^{-2}$. We evaluate the charge distribution of pixels that collect $&lt;10~\rm{e^-}$ for contributions beyond the leakage current that may be attributed to dark matter interactions. Constraints are placed on so-far unexplored parameter space for dark matter masses between 0.6 and 100 MeV$c^{-2}$. We also present new constraints on hidden-photon dark matter with masses in the range $1.2$-$30$ eV$c^{-2}$. </p>
back
<p>We use laser light shaped by a digital micro-mirror device to realize arbitrary optical dipole potentials for one-dimensional (1D) degenerate Bose gases of 87Rb trapped on an atom chip. Superposing optical and magnetic potentials combines the high flexibility of optical dipole traps with the advantages of magnetic trapping, such as effective evaporative cooling and the application of radio-frequency dressed state potentials. As applications, we present a 160 ${\mu}$m long box-like potential with a central tuneable barrier, a box-like potential with a sinusoidally modulated bottom and a linear confining potential. These potentials provide new tools to investigate the dynamics of 1D quantum systems and will allow us to address exciting questions in quantum thermodynamics and quantum simulations. </p>
back
<p>Nonlinear wavefront control is a crucial requirement in realizing nonlinear optical applications with metasurfaces. Numerous aspects of nonlinear frequency conversion and wavefront control have been demonstrated for plasmonic metasurfaces. However, several disadvantages limit their applicability in nonlinear nanophotonics, including high dissipative loss and low optical damage threshold. In contrast, it has been shown that metasurfaces made of high-index dielectrics can provide strong nonlinear responses. Regardless of the recent progress in nonlinear optical processes using all-dielectric nanostructures and metasurfaces, much less advancement has been made in realizing a full wavefront control directly with the generation process. Here, we demonstrate the nonlinear wavefront control for the third-harmonic generation with a silicon metasurface. We use a Pancharatnam-Berry phase approach to encode phase gradients and holographic images on nanostructured silicon metasurfaces. We experimentally demonstrate the polarization-dependent wavefront control and the reconstruction of an encoded hologram at the third-harmonic wavelength with high fidelity. Further, we show that holographic multiplexing is possible by utilizing the polarization states of the third harmonic generation. Our approach eases design and fabrication processes and paves the way to an easy to use toolbox for nonlinear optical wavefront control with all-dielectric metasurfaces. </p>
back
<p>We report a numerical study of the diffusiophoresis of short polymers using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. More precisely, we consider polymer chains in a fluid containing a solute which has a concentration gradient, and examine the variation of the induced diffusiophoretic velocity of the polymer chains as the interaction between the monomer and the solute is varied. We find that there is a non-monotonic relation between the diffusiophoretic mobility and the strength of the monomer-solute interaction. In addition we find a weak dependence of the mobility on the length of the polymer chain, which shows clear difference from the diffusiophoresis of a solid particle. Interestingly, the hydrodynamic flow through the polymer is much less screened than for pressure driven flows. </p>
back
<p>This paper aims to clarify the expression for the rate at which laser shot noise energy is delivered to a particle in levitated optomechanics. While previous articles have the same overall form and dependencies, the proportionality constants are often incorrect or misleading. The rate at which energy is delivered to an optically trapped particle's respective degrees of freedom depends on the radiation pattern of scattered light as well as the direction of laser propagation. For a traveling plane wave with linearly polarized light, in the Rayleigh regime this leads the translational shot noise heating rate to be proportional to $1/10$ of the total rate in the laser polarization direction, $7/10$ in the laser propagation direction, and $2/10$ in the direction perpendicular to both. Analytical expressions for the shot noise heating rate are provided in the Rayleigh limit as well as numerical calculations for particles in the Mie regime for silica and diamond. For completeness, numerical calculations of the shot noise heating for silica Mie particles at the focus of a strongly focused laser beam are calculated for varying numerical aperture and common laser wavelengths. Both numerical calculations show that the Rayleigh expression generally gives an overestimate of the shot noise heating especially for larger radii, but is still a good approximation even for incident focal fields. The exception to the relative decrease is when a Mie resonance is reached which was found for diamond. Lastly, Rayleigh expressions for the rotational shot noise heating for a symmetric top-like particle for linear, elliptically, and unpolarized light are also provided. </p>
back
<p>The various mathematical models developed in the past to interpret the behavior of natural and manmade materials were based on observations and experiments made at that time. Classical laws (such as Newton's for gravity, Hooke's for elasticity, Navier-Stokes for fluidity, Fick's/Fourier's for diffusion/heat transfer, Coulomb's for electricity, as well as Maxwell's for electromagnetism and Einstein's for relativity) formed the basis of current technology and shaping of our civilization. The discovery of new phenomena with the aid of recently developed experimental probes have led to various modifications of these laws across disciplines and the scale spectrum: from subatomic and elementary particle physics to cosmology and from atomistic and nano/micro to macro/giga scales. The emergence of nanotechnology and the further advancement of space technology are ultimately connected with the design of novel tools for observation and measurements, as well as the development of new methods and approaches for quantification and understanding. The paper first reviews the author's previously developed weakly nonlocal or gradient models for elasticity, diffusion and plasticity within a unifying internal length gradient (ILG) framework. It then proposes a similar extension for fluids and Maxwell's equations of electromagnetism. Finally, it ventures a gradient modification of Newton's law of gravity and examines its implications to some problems of elementary particle physics, also relevant to cosmology. Along similar lines, it suggests an analogous extension of London's quantum mechanical potential to include both an "attractive" and a "repulsive" branch. It concludes with some comments on a fractional generalization of the ILG framework. </p>
back
<p>The electric double layer (EDL) formed around charged nanostructures at the liquid-solid interface determines their electrochemical activity and influences their electrical and optical polarizability. We experimentally demonstrate that restructuring of the EDL at the nanoscale can be detected by dark-field scattering microscopy. Temporal and spatial characterization of the scattering signal demonstrates that the potentiodynamic optical contrast is proportional to the accumulated charge of polarisable ions at the interface and its time derivative represents the nanoscale ionic current. The material-specificity of the EDL formation is used in our work as a label-free contrast mechanism to image nanostructures and perform spatially-resolved cyclic voltametry on ion current density of a few attoamperes, corresponding to the exchange of only a few hundred ions. </p>
back
<p>Relaminarization of wall-bounded turbulent flows by means of external static magnetic fields is a long-known phenomenon in the physics of electrically conducting fluids at low magnetic Reynolds numbers. Despite the large literature on the subject, it is not yet completely clear what combination of the Hartmann ($M$) and the Reynolds number has to be used to predict the laminar-turbulent transition in channel or pipe flows fed by upstream turbulent flows free of magnetic perturbations. Relying upon standard phenomenological approaches related to mixing length and structural concepts, we put forward that $M/R_\tau$, where $R_\tau$ is the friction Reynolds number, is the appropriate controlling parameter for relaminarization, a proposal which finds good support from available experimental data. </p>
back
<p>In this paper, we study a cosmological model in the background of FLRW space time by assuming an appropriate parametrization in the form of a differential equation in terms of energy density of scalar field $ \rho_{\phi} $, which is defined as Energy Density Scalar Field Differential equation (EDSFD) parametrization. This EDSFD parametrization leads to a required phase transition from early deceleration to present cosmic acceleration. This parametrization is used to reconstruct the equation of state parameter $ \omega_{\phi}(z) $ to examine the evolutionary history of the universe in a flat FLRW space time. Here, we constrain the model parameter using the various observational datasets of Hubble parameter $ H(z) $, latest Union $ 2.1 $ compilation dataset $ SNeIa $, $ BAO $, joint dataset $ H(z)+SNeIa $ and $ H(z)+SNeIa+BAO $ for detail analysis of the behaviour of physical parameters and we find its best fit present value. Also, we study the dynamics of our parametric model, briefly analyse the behaviours of the physical features using some diagnostic tools, and examine the viability of our model. </p>
back
<p>This work thoroughly investigates a semi-Lagrangian lattice Boltzmann (SLLBM) solver for compressible flows. In contrast to other LBM for compressible flows, the vertices are organized in cells, and interpolation polynomials up to fourth order are used to attain the off-vertex distribution function values. Differing from the recently introduced Particles on Demand (PoD) method, the method operates in a static, non-moving reference frame. Yet the SLLBM in the present formulation grants supersonic flows and exhibits a high degree of Galilean invariance. The SLLBM solver allows for an independent time step size due to the integration along characteristics and for the use of unusual velocity sets, like the D2Q25, which is constructed by the roots of the fifth-order Hermite polynomial. The properties of the present model are shown in diverse example simulations of a two-dimensional Taylor-Green vortex, a Sod shock tube, a two-dimensional Riemann problem and a shock-vortex interaction. It is shown that the cell-based interpolation and the use of Gauss-Lobatto-Chebyshev support points allow for spatially high-order solutions and minimize the mass loss caused by the interpolation. Transformed grids in the shock-vortex interaction show the general applicability to non-uniform grids. </p>
back
<p>We briefly describe the basic physics principles considered for planning of the AWAKE Run 2 experiment. These principles are based on experimental results obtained during Run 1 and knowledge obtained from numerical simulation results and other experiments. The goal of Run 2 is to accelerate an electron bunch with a narrow relative energy spread and an emittance sufficiently low for applications. The experiment will use two plasmas, electron bunch seeding for the SM process, on-axis external injection of an electron bunch and electron bunch parameters to reach plasma blow-out, beam loading and beam matching. </p>
back
<p>Mass-radius relationships for water-rich rocky planets are usually calculated assuming most water is present in condensed (either liquid or solid) form. Planet density estimates are then compared to these mass-radius relationships, even when these planets are more irradiated than the runaway greenhouse irradiation limit (around 1.1~times the insolation at Earth for planets orbiting a Sun-like star), for which water has been shown to be unstable in condensed form and would instead form a thick H2O-dominated atmosphere. Here we use the LMD Generic numerical climate model to derive new mass-radius relationships appropriate for water-rich rocky planets that are more irradiated than the runaway greenhouse irradiation limit, meaning planets endowed with a steam, water-dominated atmosphere. For a given water-to-rock mass ratio, these new mass-radius relationships lead to planet bulk densities much lower than calculated when water is assumed to be in condensed form. In other words, using traditional mass-radius relationships for planets that are more irradiated than the runaway greenhouse irradiation limit tends to dramatically overestimate -- possibly by several orders of magnitude -- their bulk water content. In particular, this result applies to TRAPPIST-1 b, c, and d, which can accommodate a water mass fraction of at most 2, 0.3 and 0.08 %, respectively, assuming planetary core with a terrestrial composition. In addition, we show that significant changes of mass-radius relationships (between planets less and more irradiated than the runaway greenhouse limit) can be used to remove bulk composition degeneracies in multiplanetary systems such as TRAPPIST-1. Finally, we provide an empirical formula for the H2O steam atmosphere thickness which can be used to construct mass-radius relationships for any water-rich, rocky planet more irradiated than the runaway greenhouse irradiation threshold. </p>
back
<p>Reducing atmospheres have recently emerged as a promising scenario to warm the surface of early Mars enough to drive the formation of valley networks and other ancient aqueous features that have been detected so far on the surface of Mars. Here we present a series of experiments and calculations to better constrain CO2+CH4 and CO2+H2 collision-induced absorptions (CIAs) as well as their effect on the prediction of early Mars surface temperature. First, we carried out a new set of experimental measurements (using the AILES line of the SOLEIL synchrotron) of both CO2+CH4 and CO2+H2 CIAs. These measurements confirm the previous results of Turbet et al. 2019, Icarus vol. 321, while significantly reducing the experimental uncertainties. Secondly, we fitted a semi-empirical model to these CIAs measurements, allowing us to compute the CO2+CH4 and CO2+H2 CIAs across a broad spectral domain (0-1500cm-1) and for a wide range of temperatures (100-600K). Last, we performed 1-D numerical radiative-convective climate calculations (using the LMD Generic Model) to compute the surface temperature expected on the surface of early Mars for several CO2, CH4 and H2 atmospheric contents, taking into account the radiative effect of these revised CIAs. These calculations demonstrate that thick CO2+H2-dominated atmospheres remain a viable solution for warming the surface of Mars above the melting point of water, but not CO2+CH4-dominated atmospheres. Our calculated CO2+CH4 and CO2+H2 CIA spectra and predicted early Mars surface temperatures are provided to the community for future uses. </p>
back
<p>We describe the design and show first results of a large solid angle X-ray emission spectrometer that is optimized for energies between 1.5 keV and 5.5 keV. The spectrometer is based on an array of 11 cylindrically bent Johansson crystal analyzers arranged in a non-dispersive Rowland circle geometry. The smallest achievable energy bandwidth is smaller than the core hole lifetime broadening of the absorption edges in this energy range. Energy scanning is achieved using an innovative design, maintaining the Rowland circle conditions for all crystals with only four motor motions. The entire spectrometer is encased in a high-vacuum chamber that allocates a liquid helium cryostat and provides sufficient space for in situ cells and operando catalysis reactors. </p>
back
<p>We present a comparison of different particles' velocity and acceleration statistics in two paradigmatic turbulent swirling flows: the von K\'arm\'an flow in a laboratory experiment, and the Taylor-Green flow in direct numerical simulations. Tracers, as well as inertial particles, are considered. Results indicate that, in spite of the differences in boundary conditions and forcing mechanisms, scaling properties and statistical quantities reveal similarities between both flows, pointing to new methods to calibrate and compare models for particles dynamics in numerical simulations, as well as to characterize the dynamics of particles in simulations and experiments. </p>
back
<p>We propose and investigate a pump-probe spectroscopy scheme to unveil the time-resolved dynamics of fermionic or bosonic impurities immersed in a harmonically trapped Bose-Einstein condensate. In this scheme a pump pulse initially transfers the impurities from a noninteracting to a resonantly interacting spin-state and, after a finite time in which the system evolves freely, the probe pulse reverses this transition. This directly allows to monitor the nonequilibrium dynamics of the impurities as the dynamical formation of coherent attractive or repulsive Bose polarons and signatures of their induced-interactions are imprinted in the probe spectra. We show that for interspecies repulsions exceeding the intraspecies ones a temporal orthogonality catastrophe occurs, followed by enhanced energy redistribution processes, independently of the impurity's flavor. This phenomenon takes place for the characteristic trap timescales. For much longer timescales a steady state is reached characterized by substantial losses of coherence of the impurities. This steady state is related to eigenstate thermalization and it is demonstrated to be independent of the system's characteristics. </p>
back
<p>We present a perspective on recent observations of the photoinduced phase separation of halides in multi-component lead-halide perovskites. The spontaneous phase separation of an initial homogeneous solid solution under steady-state illumination conditions is found experimentally to be reversible, stochastic, weakly dependent on morphology, yet strongly dependent on composition and thermodynamic state. Regions enriched in a specific halide species that form upon phase separation are self-limiting in size, pinned to specific compositions, and grow in number in proportion to the steady-state carrier concentration until saturation. These empirical observations of robustness rule out explanations based on specific defect structures and point to the local modulation of an existing miscibility phase transition in the presence of excess charge carriers. A model for rationalizing existing observations based on the coupling between composition, strain and charge density fluctuations through the formation of polarons is reviewed. </p>
back
<p>'Oriented external electric fields (OEEFs)' have been shown to have great potential in being able to provide unprecedented control of chemical reactions, catalysis and selectivity with applications ranging from H2 storage to molecular machines. We report a theoretical study of the atomic origins of molecular changes due to OEEFs; understanding the characteristics of OEEF-induced couplings between atomic and molecular properties is an important step toward comprehensive understanding of the effects of strong external fields on molecular structure, stability, and reactivity. We focus on the atomic and molecular (bond) properties of a set of homo- (H2, N2, O2, F2, and Cl2) and hetero-diatomic (HF, HCl, CO, and NO) molecules under intense external electric fields in the context of quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM). It is shown that atomic properties (atomic charges and energies, and localization index) correlate linearly with the field strengths, but molecular properties (bond length, electron density at bond critical point, bond length, and electron delocalization index) exhibit non-linear responses to the imposed fields. In particular, the changes in the electron density distribution alter the shapes and locations of the zero-flux surfaces, atomic volumes, atomic electron population, and localization/delocalization indices. At the molecular level, the topography and topology of the molecular electrostatic potential undergo dramatic changes. The external fields also perturb the covalent-polar-ionic characteristic of the studied chemical bonds, hallmarking the impact of electric fields on the stability and reactivity of chemical compounds. The findings are well-rationalized within the framework of the quantum theory of atoms in molecules and form a coherent conceptual understanding of these effects in prototypical molecules such as diatomics. </p>
back
<p>We have developed an trapped ion system for producing two-dimensional (2D) ion crystals for applications in scalable quantum computing, quantum simulations, and 2D crystal phase transition and defect studies. The trap is a modification of a Paul trap with its ring electrode flattened and split into eight identical sectors, and its two endcap electrodes shaped as truncated hollow cones for laser and imaging optics access. All ten trap electrodes can be independently DC-biased to create various aspect ratio trap geometries. We trap and Doppler cool 2D crystals of up to 30 Ba+ ions and demonstrate the tunability of the trapping potential both in the plane of the crystal and in the transverse direction. </p>
back
<p>The purpose of the present work is the study of reconstruction properties of a new Molecular Breast Imaging (MBI) device for the early diagnosis of breast cancer, in Limited Angle Tomography (LAT), by using two asymmetric detector heads with different collimators. The detectors face each other in anti-parallel viewing direction and, mild-compressing the breast phantom, they are able to reconstruct the inner tumour of the phantoms with only a limited number of projections using a dedicated maximum-likelihood expectation maximization (ML-EM) algorithm. Phantoms, MBI system, as well as Monte Carlo simulator using Geant 4 Application for Tomographic Emission (GATE) software, are briefly described. MBI system's model has been implemented in IDL (Interactive Data Visualization), in order to evaluate the best LAT configuration of the system and its reconstruction ability by varying tumour's size, depth and uptake. LAT setup in real and simulated configurations, as well as the ML-EM method and the preliminary reconstruction results, are discussed. </p>
back
<p>As a contribution requested by the editors of a Memorial Volume for Peter G.O. Freund (1936-2018), we recall the lively particle theory group at the Enrico Fermi Institute of the University of Chicago in the late sixties, of which Peter was a memorable member. We also discuss a period some twenty years later when our and Peter's research overlapped on the topic of p-adic strings. </p>
back
<p>The nonlinear processes of frequency conversion like second harmonic generation (SHG) usually obey certain selection rules, resulting from the preservation of different kind of physical quantities, e.g., the angular momentum. For SHG created by monolayer of transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) like WS2, the valley-exciton locked selection rule predicts an SHG signal in the cross-polarization state. By combining plasmonic nanostructures with a monolayer of TMDC, a hybrid metasurface is realized which affects this nonlinear process due to an additional polarization conversion process. Here, we observe that the plasmonic metasurface modifies the light-matter interaction with the TMDC resulting in an SHG signal that is co-polarized with respect to the incident field, which is usually forbidden for solely monolayers of TMDC. We fabricate such hybrid metasurfaces by placing plasmonic nanorods on top of a monolayer WS2 and study the valley-exciton locked SHG emission from such system for different parameters, such as wavelength and polarization. Furthermore, we show the potential of the hybrid metasurface for tailoring nonlinear processes by adding additional phase information to the SHG signal using the Pancharatnam-Berry phase effect. This allows direct tailoring of the SHG emission to the far-field. </p>
back
<p>Surfaces covered with layers of ultrathin nanoantenna structures, so-called metasurfaces, have recently been proven capable of completely controlling phase of light. Metalenses have emerged from the advance in the development of metasurfaces providing a new basis for recasting traditional lenses into thin, planar optical components capable of focusing light. The lens made of arrays of plasmonic gold nanorods were fabricated on a glass substrate by using electron beam lithography. A 1064 nm laser was used to create a high intensity circularly polarized light focal spot through metalens of focal length 800 $\mu$m, $N.A. = 0.6$ fabricated based on Pancharatnam-Berry phase principle. We demonstrated that optical rotation of birefringent nematic liquid crystal droplets trapped in the laser beam was possible through this metalens. The rotation of birefringent droplets convinced that the optical trap possesses strong enough angular momentum of light from radiation of each nanostructure acting like a local half waveplate and introducing an orientation-dependent phase to light. Here, we show the success in creating a miniaturized and robust metalens based optical tweezers system capable of rotating liquid crystals droplets to imitate an optical motor for future lab-on-a-chip applications. </p>
back
<p>We present a comparison between lens cavity filters and atomic line filters, discussing their relative merits for applications in quantum optics. We describe the design, characterization and stabilization procedure of a lens cavity filter, which consists of a high-reflection coated commercially available plano-convex lens, and compare it to an ultra-narrow atomic band-pass filter utilizing the D$_{2}$ absorption line in atomic rubidium vapor. We find that the cavity filter peak transmission frequency and bandwidth can be chosen arbitrarily but the transmission frequency is subject to thermal drift and the cavity needs stabilization to better than a few mK, while the atomic filter is intrinsically stable and tied to an atomic resonance frequency such that it can be used in a non-laboratory environment. </p>
back
<p>In this work, we study the mechanics of metamaterial sheets inspired by the pellicle of Euglenids. They are composed of interlocking elastic rods which can freely slide along their edges. We characterize the kinematics and the mechanics of these structures using the special Cosserat theory of rods and by assuming axisymmetric deformations of the tubular assembly. Through an asymptotic expansion, we investigate both structures that comprise a discrete number of rods and the limit case of a sheet composed by infinite rods. We apply our theoretical framework to investigate the stability of these structures in the presence of an axial load. Through a linear analysis, we compute the critical buckling force for both the discrete and the continuous case. For the latter, we also perform a numerical post-buckling analysis, studying the non-linear evolution of the bifurcation through finite elements simulations. </p>
back
<p>We present a method to invert a given density and find the Kohn-Sham (KS) potential in Density Functional Theory (DFT) which shares that density. Our method employs the concept of screening density, which is naturally constrained by the inversion procedure and thus ensures the density being inverted leads to a smooth KS potential with correct asymptotic behaviour. We demonstrate the applicability of our method by inverting both local (LDA) and non-local (Hartree-Fock and Coupled Cluster) densities; we also show how the method can be used to mitigate the effects of self-interactions in common DFT potentials with appropriate constraints on the screening density. </p>
back
<p>Absorption imaging is the most common probing technique in experiments with ultracold atoms. The standard procedure involves the division of two frames acquired at successive exposures, one with the atomic absorption signal and one without. A well-known problem is the presence of residual structured noise in the final image, due to small differences between the imaging light in the two exposures. Here we solve this problem by performing absorption imaging with only a single exposure, where instead of a second exposure the reference frame is generated by an unsupervised image-completion autoencoder neural network. The network is trained on images without absorption signal such that it can infer the noise overlaying the atomic signal based only on the information in the region encircling the signal. We demonstrate our approach on data captured with a quantum degenerate Fermi gas. The average residual noise in the resulting images is below that of the standard double-shot technique. Our method simplifies the experimental sequence, reduces the hardware requirements, and can improve the accuracy of extracted physical observables. The trained network and its generating scripts are available as an open-source repository (<a href="http://absDL.github.io/">this http URL</a>). </p>
back
<p>Data for inelastic processes due to hydrogen atom collisions with manganese and titanium are needed for accurate modeling of the corresponding spectra in late-type stars. In this work excitation and charge transfer in low-energy Mn+H and Ti+H collisions have been studied theoretically using a method based on an asymptotic two-electron linear combination of an atomic orbitals model of ionic-covalent interactions in the neutral atom-hydrogen-atom system, together with the multichannel Landau-Zener model to treat the dynamics. Extensive calculations of charge transfer (mutual neutralization, ion-pair production), excitation and de-excitation processes in the two collisional systems are carried out for all transitions between covalent states dissociating to energies below the first ionic limit and the dominating ionic states. Rate coefficients are determined for temperatures in the range 1000 - 20 000 K in steps of 1000 K. Like for earlier studies of other atomic species, charge transfer processes are found to lead to much larger rate coefficients than excitation processes. </p>
back
<p>A Universe with finite age also has a finite causal scale. Larger scales can not affect our local measurements or modeling, but far away locations could have different cosmological parameters. The size of our causal Universe depends on the details of inflation and is usually assumed to be larger than our observable Universe today. To account for causality, we propose a new boundary condition, that can be fulfill by fixing the cosmological constant (a free geometric parameter of gravity). This forces a cancellation of vacuum energy with the cosmological constant. As a consequence, the measured cosmic acceleration can not be explained by a simple cosmological constant or constant vacuum energy. We need some additional odd properties such as the existence of evolving dark energy (DE) with energy-density fine tuned to be twice that of dark matter today. We show here that we can instead explain cosmic acceleration without DE (or modified gravity) assuming that the causal scale is smaller than the observable Universe today. Such scale corresponds to half the sky at z=1 and 60 degrees at z=1100, which is consistent with the anomalous lack of correlations observed in the CMB. Late time cosmic acceleration could then be interpreted as the smoking gun of primordial Inflation. </p>
back
<p>A strong trend for quantum based technologies and applications follows the avenue of combining different platforms to exploit their complementary technological and functional advantages. Micro and nano-mechanical devices are particularly suitable for hybrid integration due to the easiness of fabrication at multi-scales and their pervasive coupling with electrons and photons. Here, we report on a nanomechanical technological platform where a silicon chip is combined with an aluminum nitride layer. Exploiting the AlN piezoelectricity, Surface Acoustic Waves are injected in the Si layer where the material has been localy patterned and etched to form a suspended nanostring. Characterizing the nanostring vertical displacement induced by the SAW, we found an external excitation peak efficiency in excess of 500 pm/V at 1 GHz mechanical frequency. Exploiting the long term expertise in silicon photonic and electronic devices as well as the SAW robustness and versatility, our technological platform represents a strong candidate for hybrid quantum systems. </p>
back
<p>In this work we analyse the growth of the cumulative number of confirmed infected cases by the COVID-19 until March 27th, 2020, from countries of Asia, Europe, North and South America. Our results show (i) that power-law growth is observed for all countries; (ii) by using the distance correlation, that the power-law curves between countries are statistically highly correlated, suggesting the universality of such curves around the World; and (iii) that soft quarantine strategies are inefficient to flatten the growth curves. Furthermore, we present a model and strategies which allow the government to reach the flattening of the power-law curves. We found that, besides the social distance of individuals, of well known relevance, the strategy of identifying and isolating infected individuals in a large daily rate can help to flatten the power-laws. These are essentially the strategies used in the Republic of Korea. The high correlation between the power-law curves of different countries strongly indicate that the government containment measures can be applied with success around the whole World. These measures must be scathing and applied as soon as possible. </p>
back
<p>Recent developments have renewed the demand for solar cells with increased tolerance to radiation damage. To investigate the specific irradiation damage of 1 MeV electron irradiation in GaInAsP lattice matched to InP for varying In and P contents, a simulation based analysis is employed: by fitting the quantum efficiency and open-circuit voltage simultaneously before and after irradiation, the induced changes in lifetime are detected. Furthermore, the reduction of irradiation damage during regeneration under typical satellite operating conditions for GEO missions (60{\deg}C and AM0 illumination) is investigated. A clear decrease of the radiation damage is observed after post irradiation regeneration. This regeneration effect is stronger for increasing InP-fraction. It is demonstrated that the irradiation induced defect recombination coefficient for irradiation with 1 MeV electrons after regeneration for 216 hours can be described with a linear function of InP-fraction between 1*10$^{-5}$ cm$^2$/s for GaAs and 7*10$^{-7}$ cm$^2$/s for InP. The results show that GaInAsP is a promising material for radiation hard space solar cells. </p>
back
<p>The linear stability of stratified two-phase flows in rectangular ducts is studied numerically. The linear stability analysis takes into account all possible infinitesimal three-dimensional disturbances and is carried out by solution of the associated eigenproblem. The neutral stability boundary and the corresponding critical wave number are obtained for liquid - liquid and air - water systems. Depending on the problem parameters, the instability sets in owing to short, intermediate, of long wave most unstable perturbations. Patterns of the most unstable disturbances are reported and discussed. It is shown that the instability arises due to shear, or interfacial mechanisms. Effects of the surface tension and of width/height aspect ratio are also studied. The results support the premise that the stability analysis of stratified two-phase flow in the simpler geometry of two-infinite plates can provide a reasonable estimation of the conditions for which this flow pattern can be considered to be linearly stable. </p>
back
<p>The radiation of twisted photons by undulators filled with a homogeneous dielectric dispersive medium is considered. The general formulas for the average number of radiated twisted photons are obtained. The radiation of undulators in the dipole regime and the radiation of the helical and planar wigglers are studied in detail. It is shown that the selection rules for radiation of twisted photons established for undulators in a vacuum also holds for undulators filled with a dielectric medium. In the case of a medium with plasma permittivity the lower undulator harmonics do not form. This fact can be used for generation of twisted photons with nonzero orbital angular momentum on the lowest admissible harmonic. The use of the effect of inverse radiation polarization for generation of twisted photons with larger orbital angular momentum is described. The influence of the anomalous Doppler effect on the projection of the total angular momentum of radiated twisted photons is investigated. The parameters of the undulator and the charged particles are found such that the produced radiation, in particular, the Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation, is a pure source of twisted photons with definite nonzero orbital angular momentum. The developed theory is used to describe the radiation of twisted photons by beams of electrons and protons in the undulators filled with helium. We also consider the radiation of X-ray twisted photons by electrons in the undulator filled with xenon. The parameters are chosen so as to be achievable at the present experimental facilities. </p>
back
<p>Many real-world signal sources are complex-valued, having real and imaginary components. However, the vast majority of existing deep learning platforms and network architectures do not support the use of complex-valued data. MRI data is inherently complex-valued, so existing approaches discard the richer algebraic structure of the complex data. In this work, we investigate end-to-end complex-valued convolutional neural networks - specifically, for image reconstruction in lieu of two-channel real-valued networks. We apply this to magnetic resonance imaging reconstruction for the purpose of accelerating scan times and determine the performance of various promising complex-valued activation functions. We find that complex-valued CNNs with complex-valued convolutions provide superior reconstructions compared to real-valued convolutions with the same number of trainable parameters, over a variety of network architectures and datasets. </p>
back
<p>Reduced blood flow, as occurring in ischemia or resulting from exposure to microgravity such as encountered in space flights, induces a decrease in the level of shear stress sensed by the endothelial cells forming the inner part of blood vessels. In the present study, we use a microvasculature-on-a-chip device in order to investigate in vitro the effect of such a reduction in shear stress on shear-adapted endothelial cells. We find that, within one hour of exposition to reduced wall shear stress, human umbilical vein endothelial cells undergo a reorganization of their actin skeleton, with a decrease in the number of stress fibers and actin being recruited into the cells' peripheral band, indicating a fairly fast change in cells' phenotype due to altered flow. </p>
back
<p>We present a novel diffractive imaging method that harnesses a low-resolution real-space image to guide the phase retrieval. A computational algorithm is developed to utilize such prior knowledge as a real-space constraint in the iterative phase retrieval procedure. Numerical simulations and proof-of-concept experiments are carried out, demonstrating our method's capability of reconstructing high-resolution details that are otherwise inaccessible with traditional phasing algorithms. With the present method, we formulate a conceptual design for the coherent imaging experiments at a next-generation X-ray light source. </p>
back
<p>We provide a procedure for identification of dominating compressible and Alfvenic MHD modes or isotropic turbulence in synchrotron emission polarization maps of Galactic objects. The results for the region of North Galactic Pole, Orion molecular cloud complex and the star-forming complex Cygnus X are presented. </p>
back
<p>An epidemic disease caused by a new coronavirus has spread in Northern Italy, with a strong contagion rate. We implement an SEIR model to compute the infected population and number of casualties of this epidemic. The example may ideally regard the situation in the Italian Region of Lombardy, where the epidemic started on February 25, but by no means attempts to perform a rigorous case study in view of the lack of suitable data and uncertainty of the different parameters, mainly the variation of the degree of home isolation and lockdown with time, the number of initially exposed individuals and infected people, and the fatality rate. First, we perform an analysis of the results of the model, by varying the parameters and initial conditions. Regarding the specific example, the results evolve as more data is available. We calibrate the model with the number of dead individuals to date (April 7, 2020). The peak occurs at day 40 (April 4), when there is a rapid decrease, with a reproduction ratio R0 = 2.6 initially, 2.08 at day 22 and 0.7 after day 35, indicating different degrees of home isolation and lockdown. The number of fatalities amounts to approximately 12000 at the end of the epidemic. The incubation period providing a better fit of the dead individuals is 5.16 days and the infection period is 3.53 days, with a fatality rate of 0.00057/day [values based on the reported (official) number of casualties]. Besides the specific example, the analysis proposed in this work shows that the use of isolation measures, social distancing and knowledge of the diffusion conditions help us to understand the dynamics of the epidemic. Hence, the importance to quantify the process to verify the effectiveness of the isolation. </p>