math updates on arXiv.org

Mathematics (math) updates on the arXiv.org e-print archive



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<p>We describe the class (semigroup) of quantum channels mapping states with finite entropy into states with finite entropy. We show, in particular, that this class is naturally decomposed into three convex subclasses, two of them are closed under concatenations and tensor products. We obtain asymptotically tight universal continuity bounds for the output entropy of two types of quantum channels: channels with finite output entropy and energy-constrained channels preserving finiteness of the entropy. </p>
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<p>In geometry, understanding the topologies and the differentiable structures of manifolds in constructive ways is fundamental and important. It is in general difficult, especially for higher dimensional manifolds. </p> <p>The author is interested in this and trying to understand manifolds via construction of explicit fold maps: differentiable maps locally represented as product maps of Morse functions and identity maps on open balls. Fold maps have been fundamental and useful in investigating the manifolds by observing (the sets of) singular points and values and preimages as Thom and Whitney's pioneering studies and recent studies of Kobayashi, Saeki, Sakuma, and so on, show. Here, construction of explicit fold maps on explicit manifolds is difficult. </p> <p>The author constructed several explicit families of fold maps and investigated the manifolds admitting the maps. Main fundamental methods are surgery operations (bubbling operations), the author recently introduced motivated by Kobayashi and Saeki's studies such as operations to deform generic differentiable maps whose codimensions are negative into the plane preserving the differentiable structure of the manifold in 1996 and so on. We remove a neighborhood of a (an immersed) submanifold consisting of regular values in the target space, attach a new map and obtain a new fold map such that the number of connected components of the set consisting of singular points increases. In this paper, we investigate cases where the numbers increase by two and obtain cases of a new type. </p>
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<p>Let $\mathcal{O}$ be the ring of integers of a number field, and let $n\geq 3$. This paper studies bi-interpretability of the ring of integers $\mathbb{Z}$ with the special linear group $\text{SL}_n(\mathcal{O})$, the general linear group $\text{GL}_n(\mathcal{O})$ and solvable group of all invertible uppertriangular matrices over $\mathcal{O}$, $\text{T}_n(\mathcal{O})$. For each of these groups we provide a complete characterization of arbitrary models of their complete elementary theories. </p>
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<p>In this paper, we define a set of good basic invariants for the elliptic Weyl group for the elliptic root system. For the elliptic root system of codimension $1$, we show that a set of good basic invariants give the flat invariants obtained by Saito and the Taylor coefficients of the good basic invariants give the structure constants of the multiplication of the Frobenius structure obtained by the author. </p>
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<p>In this paper, it is proved that, for the truth value algebra of interval-valued fuzzy sets, the distributive laws do not imply the monotonicity condition for the set inclusion operation. Then, a lattice-ordered $t_{r}$-norm, which is not the convolution of $t$-norms on $[0, 1]$, is obtained. These results negatively answer two open problems posed by Walker and Walker in [15]. </p>
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<p>We compute and provide a detailed description on the Jordan constants of the multiplicative subgroup of quaternion algebras over number fields of small degree. As an application, we determine the Jordan constants of the multiplicative subgroup of the endomorphism algebras of simple abelian surfaces over fields of positive characteristic. </p>
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<p>In this paper, we present an implicit finite difference method for the numerical solution of the Black-Scholes model of American put options without dividend payments. We combine the proposed numerical method by using a front fixing approach where the option price and the early exercise boundary are computed simultaneously. Consistency and stability properties of the method are studied. We choose to improve the accuracy of the computed solution via a mesh refinement based on Richardson's extrapolation. Comparisons with some proposed methods for the American options problem are carried out to validate the obtained numerical results and to show the efficiency of the proposed numerical methods. Finally, by \textit{a posteriori} error estimator, we find a suitable computational grid requiring that the computed solution verifies a prefixed tolerance. </p>
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<p>We give short elementary expositions of combinatorial proofs of some variants of Euler's partitition problem that were first addressed analytically by George Andrews, and later combinatorially by others. Our methods, based on ideas from a previous paper by the author , enable us to state and prove new generalizations of two of these results. </p>
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<p>We give a classification of 5- and 6-dimensional complex one-generated nilpotent Novikov algebras </p>
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<p>The Novikov equation is an integrable Camassa-Holm type equation with cubic nonlinearity. One of the most important features of this equation is the existence of peakon and multi-peakon solutions, i.e. peaked traveling waves behaving as solitons. This paper aims to prove both, the orbital and asymptotic stability of peakon trains solutions, i.e. multi-peakon solutions such that their initial configuration is increasingly ordered. Furthermore, we give an improvement of the orbital stability of a single peakon so that we can drop the non-negativity hypothesis on the momentum density. The same result also holds for the orbital stability for peakon trains, i.e. in this latter case we can also avoid assuming non-negativity of the initial momentum density. Finally, as a corollary of these results together with some asymptotic formulas for the position and momenta vectors for multi-peakon solutions, we obtain the orbital and asymptotic stability for initially not well-ordered multipeakons. </p>
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<p>We consider the minimization of an energy functional given by the sum of a crystalline perimeter and a nonlocal interaction of Riesz type, under volume constraint. We show that, in the small mass regime, if the Wulff shape of the anisotropic perimeter has certain symmetry properties, then it is the unique global minimizer of the total energy. In dimension two this applies to convex polygons which are reflection symmetric with respect to the bisectors of the angles. We further prove a rigidity result for the structure of (local) minimizers in two dimensions. </p>
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<p>Combining intuitive probabilistic assumptions with the basic laws of classical thermodynamics, using the latter to express probabilistic parameters in terms of the thermodynamic quantities, we get a simple unified derivation of the fundamental ensembles of statistical physics avoiding any limiting procedures, quantum hypothesis and even statistical entropy maximization. This point of view leads also to some related classes of correlated particle statistics. </p>
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<p>In this work, an inverse problem in the fractional diffusion equation with random source is considered. The measurements used are the statistical moments of the realizations of single point data $u(x_0,t,\omega).$ We build the representation of the solution $u$ in integral sense, then prove that the unknowns can be bounded by the moments theoretically. For the numerical reconstruction, we establish an iterative algorithm with regularized Levenberg-Marquardt type and some numerical results generated from this algorithm are displayed. For the case of highly heterogeneous media, the Generalized Multiscale finite element method (GMsFEM) will be employed. </p>
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<p>In this paper, we present a convex formulation of $H_{\infty}$-optimal control problem for coupled linear ODE-PDE systems with one spatial dimension. First, we reformulate the coupled ODE-PDE system as a Partial Integral Equation (PIE) system and show that stability and $H_{\infty}$ performance of the PIE system implies that of the ODE-PDE system. We then construct a dual PIE system and show that asymptotic stability and $H_{\infty}$ performance of the dual system is equivalent to that of the primal PIE system. Next, we pose a convex dual formulation of the stability and $H_{\infty}$-performance problems using the Linear PI Inequality (LPI) framework. LPIs are a generalization of LMIs to Partial Integral (PI) operators and can be solved using PIETOOLS, a MATLAB toolbox. Next, we use our duality results to formulate the stabilization and $H_{\infty}$-optimal state-feedback control problems as LPIs. Finally, we illustrate the accuracy and scalability of the algorithms by constructing controllers for several numerical examples. </p>
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<p>Sparsity-inducing regularization problems are ubiquitous in machine learning applications, ranging from feature selection to model compression. In this paper, we present a novel stochastic method -- Orthant Based Proximal Stochastic Gradient Method (OBProx-SG) -- to solve perhaps the most popular instance, i.e., the l1-regularized problem. The OBProx-SG method contains two steps: (i) a proximal stochastic gradient step to predict a support cover of the solution; and (ii) an orthant step to aggressively enhance the sparsity level via orthant face projection. Compared to the state-of-the-art methods, e.g., Prox-SG, RDA and Prox-SVRG, the OBProx-SG not only converges to the global optimal solutions (in convex scenario) or the stationary points (in non-convex scenario), but also promotes the sparsity of the solutions substantially. Particularly, on a large number of convex problems, OBProx-SG outperforms the existing methods comprehensively in the aspect of sparsity exploration and objective values. Moreover, the experiments on non-convex deep neural networks, e.g., MobileNetV1 and ResNet18, further demonstrate its superiority by achieving the solutions of much higher sparsity without sacrificing generalization accuracy. </p>
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<p>In this paper we use the parameterization method to provide a complete description of the dynamics of an $n$-dimensional oscillator beyond the classical phase reduction. The parameterization method allows, via efficient algorithms, to obtain a parameterization of the attracting invariant manifold of the limit cycle in terms of the phase-amplitude variables. The method has several advantages. It provides analytically a Fourier-Taylor expansion of the parameterization up to any order, as well as a simplification of the dynamics that allows for a numerical globalization of the manifolds. Thus, one can obtain the local and global isochrons and isostables, including the slow attracting manifold, up to high accuracy, which offer a geometrical portrait of the oscillatory dynamics. Furthermore, it provides straightforwardly the infinitesimal Phase and Amplitude Response Functions, that is, the extended infinitesimal Phase and Amplitude Response Curves, which monitor the phase and amplitude shifts beyond the asymptotic state. Thus, the methodology presented yields an accurate description of the phase dynamics for perturbations not restricted to the limit cycle but to its attracting invariant manifold. Finally, we explore some strategies to reduce the dimension of the dynamics, including the reduction of the dynamics to the slow stable submanifold. We illustrate our methods by applying them to different three dimensional single neuron and neural population models in neuroscience. </p>
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<p>Specific low-bitrate coding strategies are examined through their effect on LQ control performance. By limiting the subject to these methods, we are able to identify principles underlying coding for control; a subject of significant recent interest but few tangible results. In particular, we consider coding the quantized output signal deploying period-two codes of differing delay-versus-accuracy tradeoff. The quantification of coding performance is via the LQ control cost. The feedback control system comprises the coder-decoder in the path between the output and the state estimator, which is followed by linear state-variable feedback, as is optimal in the memoryless case. The quantizer is treated as the functional composition of an infinitely-long linear staircase function and a saturation. This permits the analysis to subdivide into estimator computations, seemingly independent of the control performance criterion, and an escape time evaluation, which ties the control back into the choice of quantizer saturation bound. An example is studied which illustrates the role of the control objective in determining the efficacy of coding using these schemes. The results mesh well with those observed in signal coding. However, the introduction of a realization-based escape time is a novelty departing significantly from mean square computations. </p>
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<p>We consider a scenario wherein two parties Alice and Bob are provided $X_{1}^{n}$ and $X_{2}^{n}$ samples that are IID from a PMF $p_{X_1 X_2}$. Alice and Bob can communicate to Charles over (noiseless) communication links of rate $R_1$ and $R_2$ respectively. Their goal is to enable Charles generate samples $Y^{n}$ such that the triple $(X_{1}^{n},X_{2}^{n},Y^{n})$ has a PMF that is close, in total variation, to $\prod p_{X_1 X_2 Y}$. In addition, the three parties may posses shared common randomness at rate $C$. We address the problem of characterizing the set of rate triples $(R_1,R_2,C)$ for which the above goal can be accomplished. We provide a set of sufficient conditions, i.e., an achievable rate region for this three party setup. Our work also provides a complete characterization of a point-to-point setup wherein Bob is absent and Charles is provided with side-information. </p>
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<p>We study one-dimensional Eulerian dynamics with nonlocal alignment interactions, featuring strong short-range alignment, and long-range misalignment. Compared with the well-studied Euler-alignment system, the presence of the misalignment brings different behaviors of the solutions, including the possible creation of vacuum at infinite time, which destabilizes the solutions. We show that with a strongly singular short-range alignment interaction, the solution is globally regular, despite the effect of misalignment. </p>
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<p>We discuss some aspects of Extrapolation theory. The presentation includes many examples and open problems. </p>
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<p>This note considers the expected time required for a piece of data to be disseminated through-out a network of $n$ nodes according to a graphical Markov model $\overline{ \mathcal{G}}_{n,\hat{p}}$ with probability parameter $\hat{p}$. In this model, the probability that an edge exists at discrete time $k \in \mathbb{N}^+$ is equal to $\hat{p}$ if this link existed at $k-1$, and is equal to $(1-\hat{p})$ if this link did not exist at $k-1$. Each edge is interpreted as a bidirectional communication link over which data between neighbors is shared. The initial communication graph is assumed to be an Erdos-Renyi random graph with parameters $(n,\hat{p})$, hence we consider a \emph{stationary} Markov model $\overline{\mathcal{G}}_{n,\hat{p}}$. For $n$ approaching infinity, tight and exhaustive bounds are obtained on the expected number of iterations required for all nodes to obtain the data, when initially some $u_0 \in [ 1, n-1]$ nodes possess the data. This is defined as the asymptotic "$u_0$-expected flooding time" of the stationary Markov model $\overline{\mathcal{G}}_{n,\hat{p}}$. Although most previous results on the asymptotic flooding time in graphical Markov models are either \emph{almost sure} or \emph{with high probability}, the bounds obtained in this note are \emph{in expectation}. However, the bounds we obtain are tighter and can be more complete than previous results. </p>
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<p>We offer a formula for the probability distribution of the number of misseated airplane passengers resulting from the presence of multiple absent-minded passengers, given the number of seats available and the number of absent-minded passengers. This extends the work of Henze and Last on the absent-minded passenger problem. </p>
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<p>The Lean mathematical library mathlib is developed by a community of users with very different backgrounds and levels of experience. To lower the barrier of entry for contributors and to lessen the burden of reviewing contributions, we have developed a number of tools for the library which check proof developments for subtle mistakes in the code and generate documentation suited for our varied audience. </p>
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<p>In this article we give two applications of the spectral sequence of the log Hodge-Witt cohomology of a proper SNCL scheme over the log point of a perfect field of characterisitic $p&gt;0$. </p>
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<p>The well-known Worpitzky identity provides a connection between two bases of $\mathbb{Q}[x]$: The standard basis $(x+1)^n$ and the binomial basis ${{x+n-i} \choose {n}}$, where the Eulerian numbers for the Coxeter group of type $A$ (the symmetric group) serve as the entries of the transformation matrix. Brenti has generalized this identity to the Coxeter groups of types $B$ and $D$ (signed and even-signed permutations groups, respectively) using generating function techniques. </p> <p>Motivated by Foata-Sch\"utzenberger and Rawlings' proof for the Worpitzky identity in the symmetric group, we provide combinatorial proofs of this identity and for their $q-$analogues in the Coxeter groups of types $B$ and $D$. </p>
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<p>In many applications, it is of interest to assess the relative contribution of features (or subsets of features) toward the goal of predicting a response -- in other words, to gauge the variable importance of features. Most recent work on variable importance assessment has focused on describing the importance of features within the confines of a given prediction algorithm. However, such assessment does not necessarily characterize the prediction potential of features, and may provide a misleading reflection of the intrinsic value of these features. To address this limitation, we propose a general framework for nonparametric inference on interpretable algorithm-agnostic variable importance. We define variable importance as a population-level contrast between the oracle predictiveness of all available features versus all features except those under consideration. We propose a nonparametric efficient estimation procedure that allows the construction of valid confidence intervals, even when machine learning techniques are used. We also outline a valid strategy for testing the null importance hypothesis. Through simulations, we show that our proposal has good operating characteristics, and we illustrate its use with data from a study of an antibody against HIV-1 infection. </p>
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<p>We provide a large family of atoms for Bergman spaces on irreducible bounded symmetric domains. This vastly generalizes results by Coifman and Rochberg from 1980. The atomic decompositions are derived using the holomorphic discrete series representations for the domain, and the approach is inspired by recent advances in wavelet and coorbit theory. This approach also settles the relation between atomic decompositions for the bounded and unbounded realizations of the domain. </p>
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<p>We present a novel greedy Gauss-Seidel method for solving large linear least squares problem. This method improves the greedy randomized coordinate descent (GRCD) method proposed recently by Bai and Wu [Bai ZZ, and Wu WT. On greedy randomized coordinate descent methods for solving large linear least-squares problems. Numer Linear Algebra Appl. 2019;26(4):1--15], which in turn improves the popular randomized Gauss-Seidel method. Convergence analysis of the new method is provided. Numerical experiments show that, for the same accuracy, our method outperforms the GRCD method in term of the computing time. </p>
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<p>It was shown recently that the heart of a twin cotorsion pair ((S,T),(U,V)) on an extriangulated category is semi-abelian. We provide a sufficient condition for the heart to be integral and another for the heart to be quasi-abelian. This unifies and improves the corresponding results on exact and triangulated categories. Furthermore, if T=U, then we show that the Gabriel-Zisman localisation of the heart at the class of its regular morphisms is equivalent to the heart of the single twin cotorsion pair (S,T). This generalises and improves the known result for triangulated categories, thereby providing new insights in the exact setting. </p>
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<p>Despite several (accepted) standards, core notions typically employed in information technology (IT) architectures lack the precise and exact foundations encountered in logic, algebra, and other branches of mathematics. In this contribution we define the term "architecture" in a mathematically rigorous way. We motivate our particular choice by demonstrating (i) how commonly understood and expected properties of an architecture can be suitably defined or derived within our formalization, and (ii) how our concept is fully compatible with real life (business) architectures. Based on our fundamental definitions we further develop a rigorous notion of architectural \emph{similarity} based on the notion of "homomorphisms" between architectures. We demonstrate the (theoretical) applicability by deriving some theorems on the characterization n-tier architectures. </p>
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<p>We characterise and investigate co-Higgs sheaves and associated algebraic and combinatorial invariants on toric varieties. In particular, we compute explicit examples. </p>
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<p>We say that a function $f\in C[a,b]$ is $q$-monotone, $q\ge3$, if $f\in C^{q-2}(a,b)$ and $f^{(q-2)}$ is convex in $(a,b)$. Let $f$ be continuous and $2\pi$-periodic, and change its $q$-monotonicity finitely many times in $[-\pi,\pi]$. We are interested in estimating the degree of approximation of $f$ by trigonometric polynomials which are co-$q$-monotone with it, namely, trigonometric polynomials that change their $q$-monotonicity exactly at the points where $f$ does. Such Jackson type estimates are valid for piecewise monotone ($q=1$) and piecewise convex (q=2) approximations. However, we prove, that no such estimates are valid, in general, for co-$q$-monotone approximation, when $q\ge3$. </p>
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<p>In optimal control problems, disturbances are typically dealt with using robust solutions, such as H-infinity or tube model predictive control, that plan control actions feasible for the worst-case disturbance. Yet, planning for every contingency can lead to over-conservative, poorly performing solutions or even, in extreme cases, to infeasibility. Resilience addresses this shortcomings by adapting the underlying control problems, e.g., by relaxing its specifications, to obtain a feasible, possibly still valuable trajectory. Despite their different aspects, robustness and resilience are often conflated in the context of dynamical systems and control. The goal of this paper is to formalize, in the context of optimal control, the concept of resilience understood in terms of adaptation as above. To do so, we introduce a resilient formulation of optimal control by allowing disruption-dependent modifications of the requirements that induce the desired resilient behavior. We then propose a framework to design these behaviors automatically by trading off control performance and requirement violations. We analyze this resilience-by-compromise method to obtain inverse optimality results and quantify the effect of disturbances on the induced requirement relaxations. By proving that robustness and resilience optimize different objectives, we show that these are in fact distinct system properties. We conclude by illustrating the effect of resilience in different control problems. </p>
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<p>In this paper, a diffusion operator including conformable fractional derivatives of order {\alpha} ({\alpha} in (0,1)) is considered. The asymptotics of the eigenvalues, eigenfunctions and nodal points of the operator are obtained. Furthermore, an effective procedure for solving the inverse nodal problem is given. </p>
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<p>Recently, the Wasserstein loss function has been proven to be effective when applied to deterministic full-waveform inversion (FWI) problems. We consider the application of this loss function in Bayesian FWI so that the uncertainty can be captured in the solution. Other loss functions that are commonly used in practice are also considered for comparison. Existence and stability of the resulting Gibbs posteriors are shown on function space under weak assumptions on the prior and model. In particular, the distribution arising from the Wasserstein loss is shown to be quite stable with respect to high-frequency noise in the data. We then illustrate the difference between the resulting distributions numerically, using Laplace approximations and dimension-robust MCMC to estimate the unknown velocity field and uncertainty associated with the estimates. </p>
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<p>Many control applications require that a system be constrained to a particular set of states, often termed as safe set. A practical and flexible method for rendering safe sets forward-invariant involves computing control input using Control Barrier Functions and Quadratic Programming methods. Many prior results however require the resulting control input to be continuous, which requires strong assumptions or can be difficult to demonstrate theoretically. In this paper we use differential inclusion methods to show that simultaneously rendering multiple sets invariant can be accomplished using a discontinuous control input. We present an optimization formulation which computes such control inputs and which can be posed in multiple forms, including a feasibility problem, a linear program, or a quadratic program. In addition, we discuss conditions under which the optimization problem is feasible and show that any feasible solution of the considered optimization problem which is measurable renders the multiple safe sets forward invariant. </p>
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<p>An explicit formula to find symmetry recursion operators for partial differential equations (PDEs) is obtained from new results connecting variational integrating factors and non-variational symmetries. The formula is special case of a general formula that produces a pre-symplectic operator from a non-gradient adjoint-symmetry. These formulas are illustrated by several examples of linear PDEs and integrable nonlinear PDEs. Additionally, a classification of quasilinear second-order PDEs admitting a multiplicative symmetry recursion operator through the first formula is presented. </p>
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<p>In this paper, we discuss a proof of the isotopy invariance of a parametrized Khovanov link homology including categorifications of the Jones polynomial and the Kauffman bracket polynomial though it is a known fact. In order to present a proof easy-to-follow, we give an explicit description of retractions and chain homotopies between complexes to induce the invariance under isotopy of links. This is a refined version of arXiv: <a href="/abs/0907.2104">0907.2104</a>. </p>
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<p>In this paper, we formulate the Load Flow (LF) problem in radial electricity distribution networks as an unconstrained Riemannian optimization problem, consisting of two manifolds, and we consider alternative retractions and initialization options. Our contribution is a novel LF solution method, which we show belongs to the family of Riemannian approximate Newton methods guaranteeing monotonic descent and local superlinear convergence rate. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first exact LF solution method employing Riemannian optimization. Extensive numerical comparisons on several test networks illustrate that the proposed method outperforms other Riemannian optimization methods (Gradient Descent, Newton's), and achieves comparable performance with the traditional Newton-Raphson method, albeit besting it by a guarantee to convergence. We also consider an approximate LF solution obtained by the first iteration of the proposed method, and we show that it significantly outperforms other approximants in the LF literature. Lastly, we derive an interesting comparison with the well-known Backward-Forward Sweep method. </p>
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<p>Inferring causal relationships or related associations from observational data can be invalidated by the existence of hidden confounders or measurement errors. We focus on high-dimensional linear regression settings, where the measured covariates are affected by hidden confounding. We propose the Doubly Debiased Lasso estimator for single components of the regression coefficient vector. Our advocated method is novel as it simultaneously corrects both the bias due to estimating the high-dimensional parameters as well as the bias caused by the hidden confounding. We establish its asymptotic normality and also prove that it is efficient in the Gauss-Markov sense. The validity of our methodology relies on a dense confounding assumption, i.e. that every confounding variable affects many covariates. The finite sample performance is illustrated with an extensive simulation study and a genomic application. </p>
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<p>This paper is concerned with numerical approximation of some two-dimensional Keller-Segel chemotaxis models, especially those generating pattern formations. The numerical resolution of such nonlinear parabolic-parabolic or parabolic-elliptic systems of partial differential equations consumes a significant computational time when solved with fully implicit schemes. Standard linearized semi-implicit schemes, however, require reasonable computational time, but suffer from lack of accuracy. In this work, two methods based on a single-layer neural network are developed to build linearized implicit schemes: a basic one called the each step training linearized implicit (ESTLI) method and a more efficient one, the selected steps training linearized implicit (SSTLI) method. The proposed schemes make use also of a spatial finite volume method with a hybrid difference scheme approximation for convection-diffusion fluxes. Several numerical tests are performed to illustrate the accuracy, efficiency and robustness of the proposed methods. Generalization of the developed methods to other nonlinear partial differential equations is straightforward. </p>
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<p>We prove that the graded quotients of the filtration by ramification groups of any henselian discrete valuation field of residue characteristic $p&gt;0$ are $F_p$-vector spaces. We define an injection of the character group of each graded quotient to a twisted cotangent space defined using a cotangent complex. </p>
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<p>We prove that for the mean curvature flow of closed embedded hypersurfaces, the intrinsic diameter stays uniformly bounded as the flow approaches the first singular time, provided all singularities are of neck or conical type. In particular, assuming Ilmanen's multiplicity one conjecture and no cylinder conjecture, we conclude that in the two-dimensional case, the diameter always stays bounded. We also obtain sharp $L^{n-1}$ bound for the curvature. The key ingredients for our proof are the Lojasiewicz inequalities by Colding-Minicozzi and Chodosh-Schulze, and the solution of the mean-convex neighbourhood conjecture by Choi, Haslhofer, Hershkovits and White. Our results improve the prior results by Gianniotis-Haslhofer, where diameter and curvature control has been obtained under the more restrictive assumption that the flow is globally two-convex. </p>
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<p>We give a characterization of ramification groups of local fields with imperfect residue fields, using those for local fields with perfect residue fields. As an application, we reprove an equality of ramification groups for abelian extensions defined in different ways. </p>
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<p>The purpose of this note is to discuss examples of geometric transition from hyperbolic structures to half-pipe and Anti-de Sitter structures in dimensions two, three and four. As a warm-up, explicit examples of transition to Euclidean and spherical structures are presented. No new results appear here; nor an exhaustive treatment is aimed. On the other hand, details of some elementary computations are provided to explain certain techniques involved. This note, and in particular the last section, can also serve as an introduction to the ideas behind the four-dimensional construction of [RS19]. </p>
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<p>We relate the moduli space of analytic equivalent germs of reduced quasi-homogeneous functions at $(\mathbb{C}^2,0)$ with their bi-Lipschitz equivalence classes. We show that any non-degenerate continuous family of (reduced) quasi-homogeneous functions with constant Henry-Parusi\'nski invariant is analytically trivial. Further we show that there are only a finite number of distinct bi-Lipschitz classes among quasi-homogeneous functions with the same Henry-Parusi\'nski invariant providing a maximum quota for this number. </p>
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<p>We consider a Chinese remainder theorem for (labeled) graphs. For $X$ a GKM $T$-variety and $Y$ an invariant subvariety, we use this to give a condition for surjectivity of the restriction map $H^*(X) \to H^*(Y)$. In particular, this applies to certain invariant subvarieties in a smooth toric variety. </p>
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<p>The geometry and topology of cosmological spacetimes and vector bundles thereon are discussed. Global hyperbolicty and factorization properties that are normally assumed in bulk in the literature are derived from a minimal set of assumptions using recent progress in pure mathematics. </p>
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<p>We define and analyze a multi-agent multi-armed bandit problem in which decision-making agents can observe the choices and rewards of their neighbors under a linear observation cost. Neighbors are defined by a network graph that encodes the inherent observation constraints of the system. We define a cost associated with observations such that at every instance an agent makes an observation it receives a constant observation regret. We design a sampling algorithm and an observation protocol for each agent to maximize its own expected cumulative reward through minimizing expected cumulative sampling regret and expected cumulative observation regret. For our proposed protocol, we prove that total cumulative regret is logarithmically bounded. We verify the accuracy of analytical bounds using numerical simulations. </p>
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<p>We propose to study the multifractal behavior of weighted ergodic averages. Our study in this paper is concentrated on the symbolic dynamics. We introduce a thermodynamical formalism which leads to a multifractal spectrum. It is proved that this thermodynamical formalism applies to different kinds of dynamically defined weights, including stationary ergodic random weights, uniquely ergodic weights etc. But the validity of the thermodynamical formalism for very irregular weights, like M\"{o}bius function, is an unsolved problem. The paper ends with some other unsolved problems. </p>
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<p>Binary sequences with low odd-periodic correlation magnitudes have found important applications in communication systems. It is well known that the nega-cyclic shift and negation preserve the odd-periodic autocorrelation function (OACF) values in general. In this paper, we define a new operation based on Parker's transformation, which also preserves the OACF values of binary sequences. This enables us to classify Parker's 16 cases into 8 ones, and may possibly further allow to classify all constructions based on Parker's transformation. </p>
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<p>Considered is a generalized Gibbs ensemble of the classical Toda lattice. We establish that the collision rate ansatz follows from (i) the charge-current susceptibility matrix is symmetric and (ii) the stretch current is proportional to the momentum, hence conserved. </p>
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<p>We show that if a $PD_3$-group $G$ splits as an HNN extension $A*_C\varphi$ where $C$ is a $PD_3$-group then the Poincar\'e dual in $H^1(G;\mathbb{Z})=Hom(G,\mathbb{Z})$ of the homology class $[C]$ is the epimorphism $f:G\to\mathbb{Z}$ with kernel the normal closure of $A$. We also make several other observations about $PD_3$-groups which split over $PD_2$-groups. </p>
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<p>We study modal completeness and incompleteness of several sublogics of the interpretability logic $\mathbf{IL}$. We introduce the sublogic $\mathbf{IL}^-$, and prove that $\mathbf{IL}^-$ is sound and complete with respect to Veltman prestructures which are introduced by Visser. Moreover, we prove the modal completeness of twelve logics between $\mathbf{IL}^-$ and $\mathbf{IL}$ with respect to Veltman prestructures. On the other hand, we prove that eight natural sublogics of $\mathbf{IL}$ are modally incomplete. Finally, we prove that these incomplete logics are complete with respect to generalized Veltman prestructures. As a consequence of these investigations, we obtain that the twenty logics studied in this paper are all decidable. </p>
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<p>We study small Hankel operators $h_b$ with operator-valued holomorphic symbol $b$ on a class of vector-valued Fock type spaces. We show that the boundedness / compactness of $h_b$ is equivalent to the membership of $b$ to a specific growth space, which is described via a Littlewood-Paley type condition and a Bergman type projection, and estimate the norm of $h_b$. We also establish some properties of duality and density for these Fock spaces. </p>
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<p>In recent years, mobile edge computing (MEC) has attracted tremendous research thanks to its advantage in handling computation intensive latency critical tasks. To overtake the bad channel condition in the process of task offloading, multiple-relay assisted MEC system is considered in this paper. In specific, three cases including TDMA scenario, FDMA scenario in decode-and-forward (DF) mode and amplify-and-forward (AF) mode are investigated. The target is to minimize the overall energy consumption of mobile user and relays by jointly optimizing offloading data amount, transmit power and slot duration (in TDMA, or bandwidth allocation in FDMA, or amplitude gain in AF). In the scenario of TDMA, we show the associated problem is convex and solve it in a easier way through the manner of bi-level optimization. In the upper level, the optimal data amount for offloading is acquired, which corresponds to a simpler convex optimization problem, while in the lower level, the optimal solution of the rest of variable are found via KKT conditions. In the scenario of FDMA, the associated optimization problem is non-convex. Global optimal solution is found with the help of bi-level optimization and monotonic programming. For AF mode, bi-level optimization is also utilized in which neither of the two levels is convex. To this end, geometric programming and successive convex approximation (SCA) is used to find the convergent solution of the lower level while monotonic programming is adopted in the upper level. Numerical results proves the effectiveness of the proposed strategies under various scenarios investigated in this paper. </p>
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<p>Let $p$ be a monic hyperbolic polynomial and let $H$ be the Bezoutian matrix of $p$ and $p'$. Then $H$ symmetrizes the Sylvester matrix associated with $p$. This fact is observed by E.Jannelli. We give a simple proof of this fact and at the same time show that the family of Bezoutian matrices of Nuij approximation of $p$ gives quasi-symmetrizers introduced by S.Spagnolo. A relation connecting $H$with the symmetrizer which was used by J.Leray for strictly hyperbolic polynomial is given. </p>
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<p>We study the symbolic powers of determinantal ideals of generic, generic symmetric, and Hankel matrices of variables, and of Pfaffians of generic skew-symmetric matrices, in prime characteristic. Specifically, we show that the limit $\lim\limits_{n\to\infty} \frac{\textrm{reg}(I^{(n)})}{n}$ exists and that $\textrm{depth}(R/I^{(n)})$ stabilizes for $n\gg 0$. Furthermore, we give explicit formulas for the stable value of $\textrm{depth}(R/I^{(n)})$ in the generic and skew-symmetric cases. In order to show these results, we introduce the notion of symbolic $F$-purity of ideals which is satisfied by the classes of ideals mentioned above. Moreover, we find several properties satisfied by symbolic $F$-pure ideals. For example, we show that their symbolic Rees algebras and symbolic associated graded algebras are $F$-pure. As a consequence, their $a$-invariants and depths present good behaviors. In addition, we provide a Fedder's-like Criterion for symbolic $F$-purity. </p>
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<p>We consider the linear wave equation with the time-dependent scale-invariant damping and mass. We also treat the corresponding equation with the energy critical nonlinearity. Our aim is to show that the solution scatters to a modified linear wave solution and to obtain its asymptotic order. </p>
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<p>Muthukumar and Ponnusamy \cite{MP-Tp-spaces} studied the multiplication operators on $\mathbb{T}_p$ spaces. In this article, we mainly consider multiplication operators between $\mathbb{T}_p$ and $\mathbb{T}_q$ ($p\neq q$). In particular, we characterize bounded and compact multiplication operators from $\mathbb{T}_{p}$ to $\mathbb{T}_{q}$. For $p\neq q$, we prove that there are no invertible multiplication operators from $\mathbb{T}_{p}$ to $\mathbb{T}_{q}$ and also there are no isometric multiplication operators from $\mathbb{T}_{p}$ to $\mathbb{T}_{q}$. Finally, we discuss about fixed points of a multiplication operator on $\mathbb{T}_{p}$. </p>
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<p>In this article, we show the existence of a unique entropy solution to the following problem. \begin{equation} \begin{split} (-\Delta)_{p,\alpha}^su&amp;= f(x)h(u)+g(x) ~\text{in}~\Omega,\\ u&amp;&gt;0~\text{in}~\Omega,\\ u&amp;= 0~\text{in}~\mathbb{R}^N\setminus\Omega\nonumber \end{split} \end{equation} where the domain $\Omega\subset \mathbb{R}^N$ is bounded and contains the origin, $ \alpha\in[0,\frac{N-ps}{2})$, $s\in (0,1)$, $2-\frac{s}{N}&lt;p&lt;\infty$, $sp&lt;N$, $g\in L^1(\Omega)$, $f\in L^q(\Omega)$ for $q&gt;1$, $h$ is a general singular function with singularity at 0, the fractional $p$-Laplacian with weight $\alpha$ is given by $$(-\Delta)_{p,\alpha}^su(x)=\text{P. V.}\int_{\mathbb{R}^N}\frac{|u(x)-u(y)|^{p-2}(u(x)-u(y))}{|x-y|^{N+ps}}\frac{dy}{|x|^\alpha|y|^{\alpha}}.$$ </p>
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<p>In order to better understand and to compare interleavings between persistence modules, we elaborate on the algebraic structure of interleavings in general settings. In particular, we provide a representation-theoretic framework for interleavings, showing that the category of interleavings under a fixed translation is isomorphic to the representation category of what we call a shoelace. Using our framework, we show that any two interleavings of the same pair of persistence modules are themselves interleaved. Furthermore, in the special case of persistence modules over $\mathbb{Z}$, we show that matchings between barcodes correspond to the interval-decomposable interleavings. </p>
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<p>Given an ample line bundle $L$ on a geometrically reduced projective scheme defined over an arbitrary non-Archimedean field, we establish a differentiability property for the relative volume of two continuous metrics on the Berkovich analytification of $L$, extending previously known results in the discretely valued case. As applications, we provide fundamental solutions to certain non-Archimedean Monge--Amp\`ere equations, and generalize an equidistribution result for Fekete points. Our main technical input comes from determinant of cohomology and Deligne pairings. </p>
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<p>In this document it is shown that the chemical shift, spin-spin couplings and return to equilibrium observed in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) are naturally contained in the realtime nuclear spin dynamics, if the dynamics is calculated directly from molecular Quantum Electrodynamics at finite temperatures. Thus, no effective NMR parameters or relaxation superoperators are used for the calculation of \textit{continuous} NMR spectra. This provides a basis for the repeal of Ramsey's theory from the 1950s, NMR relaxation theory and later developments which form the current basis for NMR theory. The presented approach replaces the discrete spectrum of the effective spin model by a continuous spectrum, whose numerical calculation is enabled by the usage of the mathematical structure of algebraic Quantum Field Theory. While the findings are demonstrated for the hydrogen atom, it is outlined that the approach can be applied to any molecular system for which the electronic structure can be calculated by using a common quantum chemical method. Thus, the presented approach has potential for an improved NMR data analysis and more accurate predictions for hyperpolarized Magnetic Resonance Imaging. </p>
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<p>We consider the problem of fitting a polynomial to a set of data points, each data point consisting of a feature vector and a response variable. In contrast to standard least-squares polynomial regression, we require that the polynomial regressor satisfy shape constraints, such as monotonicity with respect to a variable, Lipschitz-continuity, or convexity over a region. Constraints of this type appear quite frequently in a number of areas including economics, operations research, and pricing. We show how to use semidefinite programming to obtain polynomial regressors that have these properties. We further show that, under some assumptions on the generation of the data points, the regressors obtained are consistent estimators of the underlying shape-constrained function that maps the feature vectors to the responses. We apply our methodology to the US KLEMS dataset to estimate production of a sector as a function of capital, energy, labor, materials, and services. We observe that it outperforms the more traditional approach (which consists in modelling the production curves as Cobb-Douglas functions) on 50 out of the 65 industries listed in the KLEMS database. </p>
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<p>We introduce High-Relative Degree Stochastic Control Lyapunov functions and Barrier Functions as a means to ensure asymptotic stability of the system and incorporate state dependent high relative degree safety constraints on a non-linear stochastic systems. Our proposed formulation also provides a generalisation to the existing literature on control Lyapunov and barrier functions for stochastic systems. The control policies are evaluated using a constrained quadratic program that is based on control Lyapunov and barrier functions. Our proposed control design is validated via simulated experiments on a relative degree 2 system (2 dimensional car navigation) and relative degree 4 system (two-link pendulum with elastic actuator). </p>
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<p>The aim of this paper is twofold. The first is to study the asymptotics of a parabolically scaled, continuous and space-time stationary in time version of the well-known Funaki-Spohn model in Statistical Physics. After a change of unknowns requiring the existence of a space-time stationary eternal solution of a stochastically perturbed heat equation, the problem transforms to the qualitative homogenization of a uniformly elliptic, space-time stationary, divergence form, nonlinear partial differential equation, the study of which is the second aim of the paper. An important step is the construction of correctors with the appropriate behavior at infinity. </p>
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<p>In this paper we consider a punctured Riemann surface endowed with a Hermitian metric that equals the Poincar{\'e} metric near the punctures, and a holomorphic line bundle that polarizes the metric. We show that the quotient of the Bergman kernel of high tensor powers of the line bundle and of the Bergman kernel of the Poincar{\'e} model near the singularity tends to one up to arbitrary negative powers of the tensor power. </p>
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<p>We survey the published work of Harry Kesten in probability theory, with emphasis on his contributions to random walks, branching processes, percolation, and related topics. </p>
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<p>It is well known that for higher order elliptic equations the positivity preserving property (PPP) may fail. In striking contrast to what happens under Dirichlet boundary conditions, we prove that the PPP holds for the biharmonic operator on rectangular domains under partially hinged boundary conditions, i.e. nonnegative loads yield positive solutions. The result follows by fine estimates of the Fourier expansion of the corresponding Green function. </p>
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<p>Polar codes are able to achieve the capacity of memoryless channels under successive cancellation (SC) decoding. Soft Cancellation (SCAN) is a soft-output decoder based on the SC schedule, useful in iterative decoding and concatenation of polar codes. However, the sequential nature of this decoder leads to high decoding latency compared to state-of-the-art codes. To reduce the latency of SCAN, in this paper we identify special nodes in the decoding tree, corresponding to specific frozen-bit sequences, and propose dedicated low-latency decoding approaches for each of them. The resulting fast-SCAN decoder does not alter the soft-output compared to the standard SCAN while dramatically reducing the decoding latency and yielding the same error-correction performance. </p>
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<p>We study the one-dimensional branching random walk in the case when the step size distribution has a stretched exponential tail, and, in particular, no finite exponential moments. The tail of the step size $X$ decays as $\mathbb{P}[X \geq t] \sim a \exp(-\lambda t^r)$ for some constants $a, \lambda &gt; 0$ where $r \in (0,1)$. We give a detailed description of the asymptotic behaviour of the position of the rightmost particle, proving almost-sure limit theorems, convergence in law and some integral tests. The limit theorems reveal interesting differences betweens the two regimes $ r \in (0, 2/3)$ and $ r \in (2/3, 1)$, with yet different limits in the boundary case $r = 2/3$. </p>
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<p>This chapter focuses on the performance enhancement brought by the addition of caching capabilities to full-duplex (FD) radios in the context of ultra-dense networks (UDNs). More specifically, we aim at showing that the interference footprint of such networks, i.e., the major bottleneck to overcome to observe the theoretical FD throughput doubling at the network level, can be significantly reduced thanks to edge caching. Fundamental results show that most of the gain, as compared to their half-duplex (HD) counterparts, can be achieved by such networks only if costly modifications to their infrastructure are performed and/or if high-rate signaling is exchanged between user equipments (UEs) over suitable control links. Therefore, we aim at proposing a viable and cost-effective alternative to these solutions based on pre-fetching locally popular contents at the network edge. We start by considering an interference-rich scenario such as an ultra-dense FD small-cell network, in which several non-cooperative FD base stations (BSs) serve their associated UEs while communicating with a wireless backhaul node (BN) to retrieve the content to deliver. We then describe a geographical caching policy aiming at capturing local files popularity and compute the corresponding cache-hit probability. Thereupon, we calculate the probability of successful transmission of a file requested by a UE, either directly by its serving small-cell base station (SBS) or by the corresponding BN: this quantity is then used to lower-bound the throughput of the considered network. Our approach leverages tools from stochastic geometry in order to guarantee both analytical tractability of the problem and generality of the results. Our numerical simulations show that shifting from cache-free to cache-aided FD small-cell networks yields a remarkable performance improvement. </p>
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<p>We study an SEIQR (Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Quarantined-Recovered) model for an infectious disease, with time delays for latency and an asymptomatic phase. For fast pandemics where nobody has prior immunity and everyone has immunity after recovery, the SEIQR model decouples into two nonlinear delay differential equations (DDEs) with five parameters. One parameter is set to unity by scaling time. The subcase of perfect quarantining and zero self-recovery before quarantine, with two free parameters, is examined first. The method of multiple scales yields a hyperbolic tangent solution; and a long-wave approximation yields a first order ordinary differential equation (ODE). With imperfect quarantining and nonzero self-recovery, the long-wave approximation is a second order ODE. These three approximations each capture the full outbreak, from infinitesimal initiation to final saturation. Low-dimensional dynamics in the DDEs is demonstrated using a six state non-delayed reduced order model obtained by Galerkin projection. Numerical solutions from the reduced order model match the DDE over a range of parameter choices and initial conditions. Finally, stability analysis and numerics show how correctly executed time-varying social distancing, within the present model, can cut the number of affected people by almost half. Alternatively, faster detection followed by near-certain quarantining can potentially be even more effective. </p>
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<p>This paper studies the inverse Steklov spectral problem for curvilinear polygons. For generic curvilinear polygons with angles less than $\pi$, we prove that the asymptotics of Steklov eigenvalues obtained in <a href="/abs/1908.06455">arXiv:1908.06455</a> determines, in a constructive manner, the number of vertices, and the properly ordered sequence of side lengths, as well as the angles up to a certain equivalence relation. We also present counterexamples to this statement if the generic assumptions fail. In particular, we show that there exist non-isometric triangles with asymptotically close Steklov spectra. </p>
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<p>We study Schreier dynamical systems associated with a vast family of groups that hosts many known examples of groups of intermediate growth. We are interested in the orbital graphs for the actions of these groups on $d-$regular rooted trees and on their boundaries, viewed as topological spaces or as spaces with measure. They form interesting families of finitely ramified graphs, and we study their combinatorics, their isomorphism classes and their geometric properties, such as growth and the number of ends. </p>
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<p>In this paper we study amenability, nuclearity and tensor products of $C^{\ast}$-Fell bundles by the method of induced representation theory. </p>
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<p>In this paper, we introduce one family of vectorial prolate spheroidal wave functions of real order $\alpha&gt;-1$ on the unit ball in $R^3$, which satisfy the divergence free constraint, thus are termed as divergence free vectorial ball PSWFs. They are vectorial eigenfunctions of an integral operator related to the finite Fourier transform, and solve the divergence free constrained maximum concentration problem in three dimensions, i.e., to what extent can the total energy of a band-limited divergence free vectorial function be concentrated on the unit ball? Interestingly, any optimally concentrated divergence free vectorial functions, when represented in series in vector spherical harmonics, shall be also concentrated in one of the three vectorial spherical harmonics modes. Moreover, divergence free ball PSWFs are exactly the vectorial eigenfunctions of the second order Sturm-Liouville differential operator which defines the scalar ball PSWFs. Indeed, the divergence free vectorial ball PSWFs possess a simple and close relation with the scalar ball PSWFs such that they share the same merits. Simultaneously, it turns out that the divergence free ball PSWFs solve another second order Sturm-Liouville eigen equation defined through the curl operator $\nabla\times $ instead of the gradient operator $\nabla$. </p>
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<p>We prove global gradient estimates for parabolic $p$-Laplace type equations with measure data, whose model is $$u_t - \textrm{div} \left(|Du|^{p-2} Du\right) = \mu \quad \textrm{in} \ \Omega \times (0,T) \subset \mathbb{R}^n \times \mathbb{R},$$ where $\mu$ is a signed Radon measure with finite total mass. We consider the singular case $$\frac{2n}{n+1} &lt;p \le 2-\frac{1}{n+1}$$ and give possibly minimal conditions on the nonlinearity and the boundary of $\Omega$, which guarantee the regularity results for such measure data problems. </p>
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<p>Majorana representations have been introduced by Ivanov in order to provide an axiomatic framework for studying the actions on the Griess algebra of the Monster and of its subgroups generated by Fischer involutions. A crucial step in this programme is to obtain an explicit description of the Majorana representations of $A_{12}$, for this might eventually lead to a new and independent construction of the Monster group. </p> <p>In this paper we prove that $A_{12}$ has a unique Majorana representation on the set of its involutions of type $2^2$ and $2^6$ (that is the involutions that fall into the class of Fischer involutions when $A_{12}$ is embedded in the Monster) and we determine the degree and the decomposition into irreducibles of such representation. As a consequence we get that Majorana algebras affording a $2A$-representation of $A_{12}$ and of the Harada-Norton sporadic simple group satisfy the Straight Flush Conjecture. As a by-product we also determine the degree and the decomposition into irreducibles of the Majorana representation induced on the $A_8$ subgroup of $A_{12}$. We finally state a conjecture about Majorana representations of the alternating groups $A_n$, $8\leq n\leq 12$. </p>
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<p>We prove that a Kawamata log terminal pair has the canonical model. </p>
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<p>We study the heat equation in the exterior of the unit ball with a linear dynamical boundary condition. Our main aim is to find upper and lower bounds for the rate of convergence to solutions of the Laplace equation with the same dynamical boundary condition as the diffusion coefficient tends to infinity. </p>
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<p>Recently, in a series of papers "simple" versions of direct-injective and direct-projective modules have been investigated. These modules are termed as "simple-direct-injective" and "simple-direct-projective", respectively. In this paper, we give a complete characterization of the aforementioned modules over the ring of integers and over semilocal rings. The ring is semilocal if and only if every right module with zero Jacobson radical is simple-direct-projective. The rings whose simple-direct-injective right modules are simple-direct-projective are fully characterized. These are exactly the left perfect right $H$-rings. The rings whose simple-direct-projective right modules are simple-direct-injective are right max-rings. For a commutative Noetherian ring, we prove that simple-direct-projective modules are simple-direct-injective if and only if simple-direct-injective modules are simple-direct-projective if and only if the ring is Artinian. Various closure properties and some classes of modules that are simple-direct-injective (resp. projective) are given. </p>
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<p>Let $x$ and $y$ be positive $n$-vectors. We show that there exists a $2n\times 2n$ positive definite real matrix whose symplectic spectrum is $y,$ and the symplectic spectrum of whose diagonal is $x$ if and only if $x$ is weakly supermajorised by $y.$ </p>
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<p>We study the radius of analyticity~$R(t)$ in space, of strong solutions to systems of scale-invariant semi-linear parabolic equations. It is well-known that near the initial time,~$R(t)t^{-\frac12}$ is bounded from below by a positive constant. In this paper we prove that~$\displaystyle\liminf_{t\rightarrow 0} R(t)t^{-\frac12}= \infty$, and assuming higher regularity for the initial data, we obtain an improved lower bound near time zero. As an application, we prove that for any global solution~$u\in C([0,\infty); H^{\frac12}(\R^3))$ of the Navier-Stokes equations, there holds~$\displaystyle\liminf_{t\rightarrow \infty} R(t)t^{-\frac12}= \infty$. </p>
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<p>We study ranks of the $r\textrm{th}$ Hadamard powers of doubly nonnegative matrices and show that the matrix $A^{\circ r}$ is positive definite for every $n\times n$ doubly nonnegative matrix $A$ and for every $r&gt;n-2$ if and only if no column of $A$ is a scalar multiple of any other column of $A.$ A particular emphasis is given to the study of rank, positivity and monotonicity of Hadamard powers of rank two, positive semidefinite matrices that have all entries positive. </p>
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<p>A Tychonoff space $X$ is called ({\em sequentially}) {\em Ascoli} if every compact subset (resp. convergent sequence) of $C_k(X)$ is equicontinuous, where $C_k(X)$ denotes the space of all real-valued continuous functions on $X$ endowed with the compact-open topology. The classical Ascoli theorem states that each compact space is Ascoli. We show that a pseudocompact space $X$ is Asoli iff it is sequentially Ascoli iff it is selectively $\omega$-bounded. We also study the class of selectively $\omega$-bounded spaces and show among others that it is closed under arbitrary products. </p>
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<p>It is conjectured that the central quotient of every irreducible Artin group is either virtually cyclic or acylindrically hyperbolic. We prove this conjecture for Artin groups associated to triangle-free graphs and Artin groups of large type associated to cones over square-free bipartite graphs. In fact, we treat Artin groups that are known to be CAT(0) groups by a result of Brady and McCammond. </p>
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<p>The aim of this paper is to study Jindalrae and Gaenari numbers and polynomials in connection with Jindalrae-Stirling numbers of the first and second kinds. For this purpose, we first introduce Jindalrae-Stirling numbers of the first and second kinds as extensions of the notions of the degenerate Stirling numbers of the first and second kinds, and deduce several relations involving those special numbers. Then we introduce Jindalrae and Gaenari numbers and polynomials and obtain some explicit expressions and identities associated with those numbers and polynomials. In addition, we interpret our results by using umbral calculus. </p>
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<p>Although distribution grid customers are obliged to share their consumption data with distribution system operators (DSOs), a possible leakage of this data is often disregarded in operational routines of DSOs. This paper introduces a privacy-preserving optimal power flow (OPF) mechanism for distribution grids that secures customer privacy from unauthorised access to OPF solutions, e.g., current and voltage measurements. The mechanism is based on the framework of differential privacy that allows to control the participation risks of individuals in a dataset by applying a carefully calibrated noise to the output of a computation. Unlike existing private mechanisms, this mechanism does not apply the noise to the optimization parameters or its result. Instead, it optimizes OPF variables as affine functions of the random noise, which weakens the correlation between the grid loads and OPF variables. To ensure feasibility of the randomized OPF solution, the mechanism makes use of chance constraints enforced on the grid limits. The mechanism is further extended to control the optimality loss induced by the random noise, as well as the variance of OPF variables. The paper shows that the differentially private OPF solution does not leak customer loads up to specified parameters. </p>
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<p>We construct the polynomial induction functor, which is the right adjoint to the restriction functor from the category of polynomial representations of a general linear group to the category of representations of its Weyl group. This construction leads to a representation-theoretic proof of Littlewood's plethystic formula for the multiplicity of an irreducible representation of the symmetric group in such a restriction. The unimodality of certain bipartite partition functions follows. </p>
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<p>Quantum or classical mechanical systems symmetric under $SU(2)$ are called spin systems. A $SU(2)$-equivariant map from $(n+1)$-square matrices to functions on the $2$-sphere, satisfying some basic properties, is called a spin-$j$ symbol correspondence ($n=2j\in\mathbb N$). Given a spin-$j$ symbol correspondence, the matrix algebra induces a twisted $j$-algebra of symbols. In this paper, we establish a new, more intuitive criterion for when the Poisson algebra of smooth functions on the $2$-sphere emerges asymptotically ($n\to\infty$) from the sequence of twisted $j$-algebras of symbols. This new, more geometric criterion, which in many cases is equivalent to the numerical criterion obtained in [Rios&amp;Straume], is now given in terms of a classical (asymptotic) localization of the symbols of projectors (quantum pure states). For some important kinds of symbol correspondence sequences, classical localization of all projector-symbols is equivalent to asymptotic emergence of the Poisson algebra. But in general, such a classical localization condition is stronger than Poisson emergence. We thus also consider some weaker notions of asymptotic localization of projector-symbols. Finally, we obtain some relations between asymptotic localization of a symbol correspondence sequence and its quantizations of the classical spin system. </p>
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<p>In this note we prove the strong unique continuation property at the origin for the solutions of the parabolic differential inequality \[ |\Delta u - u_t| \leq \frac{M}{|x|^2} |u|, \] with the critical inverse square potential. Our main result sharpens a previous one of Vessella concerned with the subcritical case. </p>
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<p>Multivariate subordinated L\'evy processes are widely employed in finance for modeling multivariate asset returns. We propose to exploit non-linear dependence among financial assets through multivariate cumulants of these processes, for which we provide a closed form formula by using the multi-index generalized Bell polynomials. Using multivariate cumulants, we perform a sensitivity analysis, to investigate non-linear dependence as a function of the model parameters driving the dependence structure </p>
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<p>In 2018 Liuquan Wang and Yifan Yang proved the existence of an infinite family of congruences for the smallest parts function corresponding to the third order mock theta function $\omega(q)$. Their proof took the form of an induction requiring 20 initial relations, and utilized a space of modular functions isomorphic to a free rank 2 $\mathbb{Z}[X]$-module. This proof strategy was originally developed by Paule and Radu to study families of congruences associated with modular curves of genus 1. We show that Wang and Yang's family of congruences, which is associated with a genus 0 modular curve, can be proved using a single-variable approach, via a ring of modular functions isomorphic to a localization of $\mathbb{Z}[X]$. To our knowledge, this is the first time that such an algebraic structure has been applied to the theory of partition congruences. Our induction is more complicated, and relies on sequences of functions which exhibit a somewhat irregular 5-adic growth. However, the proof ultimately rests upon the direct verification of only 10 initial relations, and is similar to the classical methods of Ramanujan and Watson. </p>
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<p>In 2015 Cristian-Silviu Radu designed an algorithm to detect identities of a class studied by Ramanujan and Kolberg. This class includes the famous identities by Ramanujan which provide a witness to the divisibility properties of $p(5n+4),$ $p(7n+5)$. We give an implementation of this algorithm using Mathematica. The basic theory is first described, and an outline of the algorithm is briefly given, in order to describe the functionality and utility of our package. We thereafter give multiple examples of applications to recent work in partition theory. In many cases we have used our package to derive alternate proofs of various identities or congruences; in other cases we have improved previously established identities, and in at least one case we have confirmed a standing conjecture. </p>
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<p>Channel symmetry properties that imply the tightness of Shannon's random coding inner bound have recently been used to determine the capacity region of discrete-memoryless two-way channels (DM-TWCs). For channels without such symmetry properties, outer bounds are often needed to estimate the capacity region. However, validating symmetry conditions and/or evaluating non-trivial outer bounds are computationally demanding, especially for channels with large input and output alphabets. In this paper, three easy-to-check conditions that identify DM-TWCs with no such symmetry properties as well as an easy-to-compute outer bound are derived. The bound is obtained from Shannon's inner bound computation but is non-trivial. Using this outer bound, approximate capacity results can be established for certain DM-TWCs. The results are illustrated by two examples. </p>
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<p>The conformal barycenter of a point cloud on the sphere at infinity of the Poincar\'e ball model of hyperbolic space is a hyperbolic analogue of the geometric median of a point cloud in Euclidean space. It was defined by Douady and Earle as part of a construction of a conformally natural way to extend homeomorphisms of the circle to homeomorphisms of the disk, and it plays a central role in Millson and Kapovich's model of the configuration space of cyclic linkages with fixed edgelengths. </p> <p>In this paper we consider the problem of computing the conformal barycenter. Abikoff and Ye have given an iterative algorithm for measures on $\mathbb{S}^1$ which is guaranteed to converge. We analyze Riemannian versions of Newton's method computed in the intrinsic geometry of the Poincare ball model. We give Newton-Kantorovich (NK) conditions under which we show that Newton's method with fixed step size is guaranteed to converge quadratically to the conformal barycenter for measures on any $\mathbb{S}^d$ (including infinite-dimensional spheres). For measures given by $n$ atoms on a finite dimensional sphere which obey the NK conditions, we give an explicit linear bound on the computation time required to approximate the conformal barycenter to fixed error. We prove that our NK conditions hold for all but exponentially few $n$ atom measures. For all measures with a unique conformal barycenter we show that a regularized Newton's method with line search will always converge (eventually superlinearly) to the conformal barycenter. Though we do not have hard time bounds for this algorithm, experiments show that it is extremely efficient in practice and in particular much faster than the Abikoff-Ye iteration. </p>
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<p>We present results extending the foundational work of Choromanska et al (2015) on the complexity of the loss surfaces of multi-layer neural networks. We remove the strict reliance on specifically ReLU activation functions and obtain broadly the same results for general activation functions. This is achieved with piece-wise linear approximations to general activation functions, Kac-Rice calculations akin to those of Auffinger, Ben Arous and \v{C}ern\`y (2013) and asymptotic analysis made possible by supersymmetric methods. Our results strengthen the case for the conclusions of Choromanska et al (2015) and the calculations contain various novel details required to deal with certain perturbations to the classical spin-glass calculations. </p>
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<p>We introduce and investigate binary $(k,k)$-designs -- combinatorial structures which are related to binary orthogonal arrays. We derive general linear programming bound and propose as a consequence a universal bound on the minimum possible cardinality of $(k,k)$-designs for fixed $k$ and length $n$. Designs which attain our bound are investigated. </p>
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<p>Polynomial chaos expansion (PCE) is an increasingly popular technique for uncertainty propagation and quantification in systems and control. Based on the theory of Hilbert spaces and orthogonal polynomials, PCE allows for a unifying mathematical framework to study systems under arbitrary uncertainties of finite variance; we introduce this problem as a so-called mapping under uncertainty. For practical PCE-based applications we require orthogonal polynomials relative to given probability densities, and their quadrature rules. With PolyChaos we provide a Julia software package that delivers the desired functionality: given a probability density function, PolyChaos offers several numerical routines to construct the respective orthogonal polynomials, and the quadrature rules together with tensorized scalar products. PolyChaos is the first PCE-related software written in Julia, a scientific programming language that combines the readability of scripted languages with the speed of compiled languages. We provide illustrating numerical examples that show both PCE and PolyChaos in action. </p>
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<p>A bootstrap procedure for constructing pointwise or simultaneous prediction intervals for a stationary functional time series is proposed. The procedure exploits a general vector autoregressive representation of the time-reversed series of Fourier coefficients appearing in the Karhunen-Lo\`{e}ve representation of the functional process. It generates backwards-in-time, functional replicates that adequately mimic the dependence structure of the underlying process and have the same conditionally fixed curves at the end of each functional pseudo-time series. The bootstrap prediction error distribution is then calculated as the difference between the model-free, bootstrap-generated future functional observations and the functional forecasts obtained from the model used for prediction. This allows the estimated prediction error distribution to account for not only the innovation and estimation errors associated with prediction but also the possible errors from model misspecification. We show the asymptotic validity of the bootstrap in estimating the prediction error distribution of interest. Furthermore, the bootstrap procedure allows for the construction of prediction bands that achieve (asymptotically) the desired coverage. These prediction bands are based on a consistent estimation of the distribution of the studentized prediction error process. Through a simulation study and the analysis of two data sets, we demonstrate the capabilities and the good finite-sample performance of the proposed method. </p>
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<p>The purpose of this article is to study the hydrodynamic limit of the symmetric exclusion process with long jumps and in contact with infinitely extended reservoirs for a particular critical regime. The jumps are given in terms of a transition probability that can have finite or infinite variance and the hydrodynamic equation is a diffusive equation, in the former case, or a fractional equation, in the latter case. In this work we treat the critical case, that is, when the variance is infinite but of logarithm order wrt the system size. This is the case in which there is a transition from diffusive to super-diffusive behavior. </p>
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<p>It is commonly known that the Fokker-Planck equation is exactly solvable only for some particular systems, usually with time-independent drift coefficients. To extend the class of solvable problems, we use the intertwining relations of SUSY Quantum Mechanics but in new - asymmetric - form. It turns out that this form is just useful for solution of Fokker-Planck equation. As usual, intertwining provides a partnership between two different systems both described by Fokker-Planck equation. Due to the use of an asymmetric kind of intertwining relations with a suitable ansatz, we managed to obtain a new class of analytically solvable models. What is important, this approach allows us to deal with the drift coefficients depending on both variables, $x,$ and $t.$ An illustrating example of the proposed construction is given explicitly. </p>
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<p>In this paper, we consider the filtering problem for partially observed diffusions, which are regularly observed at discrete times. We are concerned with the case when one must resort to time-discretization of the diffusion process if the transition density is not available in an appropriate form. In such cases, one must resort to advanced numerical algorithms such as particle filters to consistently estimate the filter. It is also well known that the particle filter can be enhanced by considering hierarchies of discretizations and the multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) method, in the sense of reducing the computational effort to achieve a given mean square error (MSE). A variety of multilevel particle filters (MLPF) have been suggested in the literature, e.g., in Jasra et al., SIAM J, Numer. Anal., 55, 3068--3096. Here we introduce a new alternative that involves a resampling step based on the optimal Wasserstein coupling. We prove a central limit theorem (CLT) for the new method. On considering the asymptotic variance, we establish that in some scenarios, there is a reduction, relative to the approach in the aforementioned paper by Jasra et al., in computational effort to achieve a given MSE. These findings are confirmed in numerical examples. We also consider filtering diffusions with unstable dynamics; we empirically show that in such cases a change of measure technique seems to be required to maintain our findings. </p>
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<p>In this paper, we investigate the unit groups, the $2$-class groups, the $2$-class field towers and the structures of the second $2$-class groups of some multiquadratic number fields of degree $8$ and $16$. </p>
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<p>We consider a construction of observables by using methods of supersymmetric field theories. In particular, we give an extension of AKSZ-type observables using the Batalin-Vilkovisky structure of AKSZ theories to a formal global version with methods of formal geometry. We will consider the case where the AKSZ theory is "split" which will give an explicit construction for formal vector fields on base and fiber within the formal global action. Moreover, we consider the example of formal global generalized Wilson surface observables whose expectation values are invariants of higher-dimensional knots by using $BF$ field theory. These constructions give rise to interesting global gauge conditions such as the differential Quantum Master Equation and further extensions. </p>
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<p>We propose learning discrete structured representations from unlabeled data by maximizing the mutual information between a structured latent variable and a target variable. Calculating mutual information is intractable in this setting. Our key technical contribution is an adversarial objective that can be used to tractably estimate mutual information assuming only the feasibility of cross entropy calculation. We develop a concrete realization of this general formulation with Markov distributions over binary encodings. We report critical and unexpected findings on practical aspects of the objective such as the choice of variational priors. We apply our model on document hashing and show that it outperforms current best baselines based on discrete and vector quantized variational autoencoders. It also yields highly compressed interpretable representations. </p>
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<p>We consider one-level additive Schwarz domain decomposition preconditioners for the Helmholtz equation with variable coefficients (modelling wave propagation in heterogeneous media), subject to boundary conditions that include wave scattering problems. Absorption is included as a parameter in the problem. This problem is discretised using $H^1$-conforming nodal finite elements of fixed local degree $p$ on meshes with diameter $h = h(k)$, chosen so that the error remains bounded with increasing $k$. The action of the one-level preconditioner consists of the parallel solution of problems on subdomains (which can be of general geometry), each equipped with an impedance boundary condition. We prove rigorous estimates on the norm and field of values of the left- or right-preconditioned matrix that show explicitly how the absorption, the heterogeneity in the coefficients and the dependence on the degree enter the estimates. These estimates prove rigorously that, with enough absorption and for $k$ large enough, GMRES is guaranteed to converge in a number of iterations that is independent of $k,p,$ and the coefficients. The theoretical threshold for $k$ to be large enough depends on $p$ and on the local variation of coefficients in subdomains (and not globally). Extensive numerical experiments are given for both the absorptive and the propagative cases; in the latter case we investigate examples both when the coefficients are nontrapping and when they are trapping. These experiments (i) support our theory in terms of dependence on polynomial degree and the coefficients; (ii) support the sharpness of our field of values estimates in terms of the level of absorption required. </p>
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<p>In this paper, firstly, we generalize the definition of the bifractional Brownian motion $B^{H,K}:=\Big(B^{H,K}\;;\;t\geq 0\Big)$, with parameters $H\in(0,1)$ and $K\in(0,1]$, to the case where $H$ is no longer a constant, but a function $H(.)$ of the time index $t$ of the process. We denote this new process by $B^{H(.),K}$. Secondly, we study its time regularities, the local asymptotic self-similarity and the long-range dependence properties. {\bf Key words:} {Gaussian process; Self similar process; Fractional Brownian motion; Bifractional Brownian motion; Multifractional Brownian motion; Local asymptotic self-similarity.} </p>
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<p>To motivate our discussion, we consider a 1+1 dimensional scalar field interacting with a static Coulomb-type background, so that the spectrum of quantum fluctuations is given by a second-order differential operator on a single coordinate r with a singular coefficient proportional to 1/r. We find that the spectral functions of this operator present an interesting behavior: the zeta function has multiple poles in the complex plane; accordingly, logarithms of the proper time appear in the heat-trace expansion. As a consequence, the zeta function does not provide a finite regularization of the effective action. This work extends similar results previously derived in the context of conical singularities. </p>
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<p>This paper presents a non-Hermitian PT-symmetric extension of the Nambu--Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model of quantum chromodynamics in 3+1 and 1+1 dimensions. In 3+1 dimensions, the SU(2)-symmetric NJL Hamiltonian $H_{\textrm{NJL}} = \bar\psi (-i \gamma^k \partial_k + m_0) \psi - G [ (\bar\psi \psi)^2 + (\bar\psi i \gamma_5 \vec{\tau} \psi)^2 ]$ is extended by the non-Hermitian, PT- and chiral-symmetric bilinear term $ig\bar\psi \gamma_5 B_{\mu} \gamma^{\mu} \psi$; in 1+1 dimensions, where $H_{\textrm{NJL}}$ is a form of the Gross-Neveu model, it is extended by the non-Hermitian PT-symmetric but chiral symmetry breaking term $g \bar\psi \gamma_5 \psi$. In each case, the gap equation is derived and the effects of the non-Hermitian terms on the generated mass are studied. We have several findings: in previous calculations for the free Dirac equation modified to include non-Hermitian bilinear terms, contrary to expectation, no real mass spectrum can be obtained in the chiral limit; in these cases a nonzero bare fermion mass is essential for the realization of PT symmetry in the unbroken regime. Here, in the NJL model, in which four-point interactions are present, we {\it do} find real values for the mass spectrum also in the limit of vanishing bare masses in both 3+1 and 1+1 dimensions, at least for certain specific values of the non-Hermitian couplings $g$. Thus, the four-point interaction overrides the effects leading to PT symmetry-breaking for these parameter values. Further, we find that in both cases, in 3+1 and in 1+1 dimensions, the inclusion of a non-Hermitian bilinear term can contribute to the generated mass. In both models, this contribution can be tuned to be small; we thus fix the fermion mass to its value when $m_0=0$ in the absence of the non-Hermitian term, and then determine the value of the coupling required so as to generate a bare fermion mass. </p>
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<p>Let $M = G/H$ be an $(n+1)$-dimensional homogeneous manifold and $J^k(n,M)=:J^k$ be the manifold of $k$-jets of hypersurfaces of $M$. The Lie group $G$ acts naturally on each $J^k$. A $G$-invariant PDE of order $k$ for hypersurfaces of $M$ (i.e., with $n$ independent variables and $1$ dependent one) is defined as a $G$-invariant hypersurface $\mathcal{E} \subset J^k$. We describe a general method for constructing such invariant PDEs for $k\geq 2$. The problem reduces to the description of hypersurfaces, in a certain vector space, which are invariant with respect to the linear action of the stability subgroup $H^{(k-1)}$ of the $(k-1)$-prolonged action of $G$. We apply this approach to describe invariant PDEs for hypersurfaces in the Euclidean space $\mathbb{E}^{n+1 }$ and in the conformal space $\mathbb{S}^{n+1}$. Our method works under some mild assumptions on the action of $G$, namely: </p> <p>A1) the group $G$ must have an open orbit in $J^{k-1}$, and </p> <p>A2) the stabilizer $H^{(k-1)}\subset G$ of the fibre $J^k\to J^{k-1}$ must factorize via the group of translations of the fibre itself. </p>
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<p>We consider Riesz transforms of any order associated to an Ornstein--Uhlenbeck operator $\mathcal L$, with covariance $Q$ given by a real, symmetric and positive definite matrix, and with drift $B$ given by a real matrix whose eigenvalues have negative real parts. In this general Gaussian context, we prove that a Riesz transform is of weak type $(1,1)$ with respect to the invariant measure if and only if its order is at most $2$. </p>
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<p>We introduce a "tremor" deformation on strata of translation surfaces. Using it, we give new examples of behaviors of horocycle flow orbits in strata of translation surfaces. In the genus two stratum with two singular points, we find orbits which are generic for a measure whose support is strictly contained in the orbit and find orbits which are not generic for any measure. We also describe a horocycle orbit-closure whose Hausdorff dimension is not an integer. </p>
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<p>A set-theoretic solution of the Pentagon Equation on a non-empty set $S$ is a map $s\colon S^2\to S^2$ such that $s_{23}s_{13}s_{12}=s_{12}s_{23}$, where $s_{12}=s\times{\id}$, $s_{23}={\id}\times s$ and $s_{13}=(\tau\times{\id})({\id}\times s)(\tau\times{\id})$ are mappings from $S^3$ to itself and $\tau\colon S^2\to S^2$ is the flip map, i.e., $\tau (x,y) =(y,x)$. We give a description of all involutive solutions, i.e., $s^2=\id$. It is shown that such solutions are determined by a factorization of $S$ as direct product $X\times A \times G$ and a map $\sigma\colon A\to\Sym(X)$, where $X$ is a non-empty set and $A,G$ are elementary abelian $2$-groups. Isomorphic solutions are determined by the cardinalities of $A$, $G$ and $X$, i.e., the map $\sigma$ is irrelevant. In particular, if $S$ is finite of cardinality $2^n(2m+1)$ for some $n,m\geq 0$ then, on $S$, there are precisely $\binom{n+2}{2}$ non-isomorphic solutions of the Pentagon Equation. </p>
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<p>A Lie group G has many left invariant metrics having drastically different curvature properties. If we regard G as a flat and globalizable absolute parallelism as in [O1], then G has a canonical metric. We study some surprising consequences of this shift in perspective. </p>
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<p>The energy and iota energy of signed digraphs are respectively defined as the sum of absolute values of real parts and sum of absolute values of imaginary parts of its eigenvalues. Recently, Yang and Wang (2018) find the energy and iota energy ordering of digraphs in D(n) and compute the maximal energy and iota energy, where D(n) denotes the set of vertex-disjoint bicyclic digraphs of a fixed order n. In this paper, we investigate the energy ordering of signed digraphs in D(n,s) and finds the maximal energy, where D(n,s) denotes the set of vertex-disjoint bicyclic sidigraphs of a fixed order n. </p>
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<p>We introduce a multidimensional walk with memory and random tendency. The asymptotic behaviour is characterized, proving a law of large numbers and showing a phase transition from diffusive to superdiffusive regimes. In first case, we obtain a functional limit theorem to Gaussian vectors. In superdiffusive, we obtain strong convergence to a non-Gaussian random vector and characterize its moments. </p>
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<p>We propose an ODE-based derivation for a generalized class of opinion formation models either for single and multiple species (followers, leaders, trolls). The approach is purely deterministic and the evolution of the single opinion is determined by the competition between two mechanisms: the opinion diffusion and the compromise process. Such deterministic approach allows to recover in the limit an aggregation/(nonlinear)diffusion system of PDEs for the macroscopic opinion densities. </p>
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<p>In the note we study the multipoint Seshadri constants of $\mathcal{O}_{\mathbb{P}^{2}_{\mathbb{C}}}(1)$ centered at singular loci of certain curve arrangements in the complex projective plane. Our first aim is to show that the values of Seshadri constants can be approximated with use of a combinatorial invariant which we call the configurational Seshadri constant. We study specific examples of point-curve configurations for which we provide actual values of the associated Seshadri constants. In particular, we provide an example based on Hesse point-conic configuration for which the associated Seshadri constant is computed by a line. This shows that multipoint Seshadri constants are not purely combinatorial. </p>
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<p>Using methods in the spirit of deterministic homogenisation theory we obtain convergence of the Steklov eigenvalues of a sequence of domains in a Riemannian manifold to weighted Laplace eigenvalues of that manifold. The domains are obtained by removing small geodesic balls that are asymptotically densely uniformly distributed as their radius tends to zero. We use this relationship to construct manifolds that have large Steklov eigenvalues. </p> <p>In dimension two, and with constant weight equal to 1, we prove that Kokarev's upper bound of $8\pi$ for the first nonzero normalised Steklov eigenvalue on orientable surfaces of genus 0 is saturated. For other topological types and eigenvalue indices, we also obtain lower bounds on the best upper bound for the eigenvalue in terms of Laplace maximisers. For the first two eigenvalues, these lower bounds become equalities. A surprising consequence is the existence of free boundary minimal surfaces immersed in the unit ball by first Steklov eigenfunctions and with area strictly larger than $2\pi$. This was previously thought to be impossible. We provide numerical evidence that some of the already known examples of free boundary minimal surfaces have these properties and also exhibit simulations of new free boundary minimal surfaces of genus 0 in the unit ball with even larger area. The first nonzero Steklov eigenvalue of all these examples is equal to 1, as a consequence of their symmetries and topology, so that they verify a general conjecture by Fraser and Li. </p> <p>In dimension three and larger, we prove that the isoperimetric inequality of Colbois--El Soufi--Girouard is sharp and implies an upper bound for weighted Laplace eigenvalues. We also show that in any manifold with a fixed metric, one can construct by varying the weight a domain with connected boundary whose first nonzero normalised Steklov eigenvalue is arbitrarily large. </p>
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<p>The aim of this paper is to build dependent stochastic processes using the notion of self-decomposability in order to model dependence across different markets and extend some recently proposed multivariate L\'evy models based on subordination. Consequently, we study the properties of such processes, derive closed form expressions for characteristic function and linear correlation coefficient and develop Monte Carlo schemes for their simulation. These results are instrumental to calibrate the models on power and gas energy European markets and to price spread options written on different underlying assets using Monte Carlo and Fourier techniques. </p>
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<p>We construct divide knots with arbitrary smooth four-genus but topological four-genus equal to one. In particular, for strongly quasipositive fibred knots, the ratio between the topological and the smooth four-genus can be arbitrarily close to zero. </p>
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<p>The focus in this paper is interior-point methods for bound-constrained nonlinear optimization where the system of nonlinear equations that arise are solved with Newton's method. There is a trade-off between solving Newton systems directly, which give high quality solutions, and solving many approximate Newton systems which are computationally less expensive but give lower quality solutions. We propose partial and full approximate solutions to the Newton systems, which in general involves solving a reduced system of linear equations. The specific approximate solution and the size of the reduced system that needs to be solved at each iteration are determined by estimates of the active and inactive constraints at the solution. These sets are at each iteration estimated by a simple heuristic. In addition, we motivate and suggest two modified-Newton approaches which are based on an intermediate step that consists of the partial approximate solutions. The theoretical setting is introduced and asymptotic error bounds are given along with numerical results for bound-constrained convex quadratic optimization problems, both random and from the CUTEst test collection. </p>
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<p>A subspace H of a Leibniz algebra L is called a quasi-ideal if [H;K] + [K;H] \subseteq H + K for every subspace K of L. They include ideals and subalgebras of codimension one in L. Quasi-ideals of Lie algebras were classified in two remarkable papers of Amayo. The objective here is to extend those results to the larger class of Leibniz algebras, and to classify those Leibniz algebras in which every subalgebra is a quasi-ideal. </p>
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<p>We develop a novel Multilevel Asymptotic-Preserving Monte Carlo (ML-APMC) method for simulating the kinetic Boltzmann transport equation with Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) collision operator. This equation occurs, for instance, in mathematical models of the neutral particles in the plasma edge of nuclear fusion reactors. The main features of our method are a new and improved recipe for correlating particle trajectories with different time step sizes, and a new and more general level selection strategy. We illustrate the efficiency of our ML-APMC method by applying it to a one-dimensional fusion test case with nonhomogeneous and anisotropic plasma background. Our method yields significant speedups, both in the low and high collisional regime. In the high-collisional case, our ML-APMC outperforms the single-level APMC method by several orders of magnitude. </p>
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<p>Expectiles define a least squares analogue of quantiles. They have lately received substantial attention in actuarial and financial risk management contexts. Unlike quantiles, expectiles define coherent risk measures and are determined by tail expectations rather than tail probabilities; unlike the popular Expected Shortfall, they define elicitable risk measures. This has motivated the study of the behaviour and estimation of extreme expectiles in some of the recent statistical literature. The case of stationary but weakly dependent observations has, however, been left largely untouched, even though correctly accounting for the uncertainty present in typical financial applications requires the consideration of dependent data. We investigate here the theoretical and practical behaviour of two classes of extreme expectile estimators in a strictly stationary $\beta-$mixing context, containing the classes of ARMA, ARCH and GARCH models with heavy-tailed innovations that are of interest in financial applications. We put a particular emphasis on the construction of asymptotic confidence intervals adapted to the dependence framework, whose performance we contrast with that of the naive intervals obtained from the theory of independent and identically distributed data. The methods are showcased in a numerical simulation study and on real financial data. </p>
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<p>Given a surface $M$ and a fixed conformal class $c$ one defines $\Lambda_k(M,c)$ to be the supremum of the $k$-th nontrivial Laplacian eigenvalue over all metrics $g\in c$ of unit volume. It has been observed by Nadirashvili that the metrics achieving $\Lambda_k(M,c)$ are closely related to harmonic maps to spheres. In the present paper, we identify $\Lambda_1(M,c)$ and $\Lambda_2(M,c)$ with min-max quantities associated to the energy functional for sphere-valued maps. As an application, we obtain several new eigenvalue bounds, including a sharp isoperimetric inequality for the first two Steklov eigenvalues. This characterization also yields an alternative proof of the existence of maximal metrics realizing $\Lambda_1(M,c)$, $\Lambda_2(M,c)$ and, moreover, allows us to obtain a regularity theorem for maximal Radon measures satisfying a natural compactness condition. </p>
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<p>For a Dirichlet series g, we study the Volterra operator Tg of symbol g, acting on a class of weighted Hilbert spaces of Dirichlet series. We obtain sufficient / necessary conditions for Tg to be bounded (resp. compact), involving BMO and Bloch type spaces on some half-plane. We also investigate the membership of Tg in Schatten classes. We also relate the boundedness of Tg to the boundedness of a multiplicative Hankel form of symbol g. </p>
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<p>We define a new type of Golomb ruler, which we term a resolvable Golomb ruler. These are Golomb rulers that satisfy an additional "resolvability" condition that allows them to generate resolvable symmetric configurations. The resulting configurations give rise to progressive dinner parties. In this paper, we investigate existence results for resolvable Golomb rulers and their application to the construction of resolvable symmetric configurations and progressive dinner parties. In particular, we determine the existence or nonexistence of all possible resolvable symmetric configurations and progressive dinner parties having block size at most 13, with 11 possible exceptions. For arbitrary block size k, we prove that these designs exist if the number of points is divisible by k and at least k^3. </p>
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<p>A vector bundle $E$ over a projective variety $M$ is called finite if it satisfies a nontrivial polynomial equation with nonnegative integral coefficients. Introducing finite bundles, Nori proved that $E$ is finite if and only if the pullback of $E$ to some finite \'etale covering of $M$ is trivializable \cite{No1}. The definition of finite bundles extends naturally to holomorphic vector bundles over compact complex manifolds. We prove that a holomorphic vector bundle over a compact complex manifold $M$ is finite if and only if the pullback of $E$ to some finite \'etale covering of $M$ is holomorphically trivializable. Therefore, $E$ is finite if and only if it admits a flat holomorphic connection with finite monodromy. </p>
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<p>Sarason Toeplitz product problem asks when the operator TuTv is bounded on various Hilbert spaces of analytic functions, where u and v are analytic. The problem is highly nontrivial for Toeplitz operators on the Hardy space and the Bergman space (even in the case of the unit disk). In this paper, we provide a complete solution to the problem for a class of Fock spaces on the complex plane. In particular, this generalizes an earlier result of Cho, Park, and Zhu. </p>
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<p>This paper introduces topological data analysis. Starting from notions of a metric space and some elementary graph theory, we take example sets of data and demonstrate some of their topological properties. We discuss simplicial complexes and how they relate to something called the Nerve Theorem. For this we introduce notions from the field of topology such as open covers, homeomorphism and homotopy equivalences. This leads us into discussing filtering data and deriving topologically invariant simplicial complexes from the underlying data set. There is then a small introduction to persistent homology and Betti numbers as these are useful analytical tools for TDA. An accompanying online appendix for the code producing the bulk of the figures in this paper is available at bit.ly/TDA_2020. </p>
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<p>We study the homogenization problem of the Poisson and Stokes equations in $\mathbb{R}^3$ perforated by $m$ spherical holes, identically and independently distributed. In the critical regime when the radii of the holes are of order $m^{-1}$, we consider the fluctuations of the solutions $u_m$ around the homogenization limit $u$. In the central limit scaling, we show that these fluctuations converge to a Gaussian field, locally in $L^2(\mathbb{R}^3)$, with an explicit covariance. </p>
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<p>We continue studying the connection between Jacobi matrices defined on a tree and multiple orthogonal polynomials (MOPs) that was discovered previously by the authors. In this paper, we consider Angelesco systems formed by two analytic weights and obtain asymptotics of the recurrence coefficients and strong asymptotics of MOPs along all directions (including the marginal ones). These results are then applied to show that the essential spectrum of the related Jacobi matrix is the union of intervals of orthogonality. </p>
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<p>Applying the gradient discretisation method (GDM), the paper develops a comprehensive numerical analysis for the reaction diffusion model. Using only three properties, this analysis provides convergence results for several conforming and non-conforming numerical schemes that align with the GDM. As an application of this analysis, the hybrid mimetic mixed (HMM) method for the reaction diffusion model is designed and its convergence established. Numerical experiments using the HMM method are presented to facilitate study of the creation of spiral waves in the Barkley model and the ways in which the waves behave when interacting with the boundaries of their generating medium </p>
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<p>We give alternative computations of the Schur multiplier of $Sp(2g,\mathbb Z/D\mathbb Z)$, when $D$ is divisible by 4 and $g\geq 4$: using K-theory arguments based on the work of Barge and Lannes and a second one based on the Weil representations of symplectic groups arising in abelian Chern-Simons theory. We can also retrieve this way Deligne's non-residual finiteness of the universal central extension $\widetilde{Sp(2g,\mathbb Z)}$. We prove then that the image of the second homology into finite quotients of symplectic groups over a Dedekind domain of arithmetic type are torsion groups of uniformly bounded size. In contrast, quantum representations produce for every prime $p$, finite quotients of the mapping class group of genus $g\geq 3$ whose second homology image has $p$-torsion. We further derive that all central extensions of the mapping class group are residually finite and deduce that mapping class groups have Serre's property $A_2$ for trivial modules, contrary to symplectic groups. Eventually we compute the module of coinvariants $H_2(\mathfrak{sp}_{2g}(2))_{Sp(2g,\mathbb Z/2^k\mathbb Z)}=\mathbb Z/2\mathbb Z$. </p>
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<p>In this article, we investigate a multispecies generalization of the single-species asymmetric simple exclusion process defined on an open one-dimensional lattice. We devise an exact projection scheme to find the phase diagram in terms of densities and currents of all species. In most of the phases, one or more species are absent in the system due to dynamical expulsion. We observe shocks as well in some regions of the phase diagram. We explain the density profiles using a generalized shock structure that is substantiated by numerical simulations. </p>
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<p>We consider a quasilinear Schr\"odinger equation on $\R$ for which the dispersive effects degenerate when the solution vanishes. We first prove local well-posedness for sufficiently smooth, spatially localized, degenerate initial data. As a corollary in the focusing case we obtain a short time stability result for the energy-minimizing compact breather. </p>
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<p>In this paper we study the automorphism group of the procongruence mapping class group through its action on the associated procongruence curve and pants complexes. Our main result is a rigidity theorem for the procongruence completion of pants complex. As a consequence we prove an anabelian theorem pertaining to the moduli stacks of curves. </p>
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<p>We consider the classical point vortex model in the mean-field scaling regime, in which the velocity field experienced by a single point vortex is proportional to the average of the velocity fields generated by the remaining point vortices. We show that if at some time, the associated sequence of empirical measures converges in a suitable sense to a probability measure with density $\omega^0\in L^\infty(\mathbb{R}^2)$ and having finite energy, as the number of point vortices $N\rightarrow\infty$, then the sequence converges in the weak-* topology for measures to the unique solution $\omega$ of the 2D incompressible Euler equation with initial datum $\omega^0$, locally uniformly in time. In contrast to previous results, our theorem requires no regularity assumptions on the limiting vorticity $\omega$, is at the level of conservation laws for the 2D Euler equation, and provides a quantitative rate of convergence. Our proof is based on a combination of the modulated-energy method of Serfaty and a novel mollification argument. We contend that our result is a mean-field convergence analogue of the famous theorem of Yudovich for global well-posedness of 2D Euler in $L^1(\mathbb{R}^2)\cap L^\infty(\mathbb{R}^2)$. </p>
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<p>We study property A for metric spaces $X$ with bounded geometry introduced by Guoliang Yu. Property A is an amenability-type condition, which is less restrictive than amenability for groups. The property has a connection with finite-dimensional approximation properties in the theory of operator algebras. It has been already known that property A of a metric space $X$ with bounded geometry is equivalent to nuclearity of the uniform Roe algebra C$^*_u(X)$. We prove that exactness and local reflexivity of C$^*_u(X)$ also characterize property A of $X$. </p>
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<p>We give a criterion for extending a generically semisimple (not necessarily conformal) Frobenius manifold locally near a smooth point of the discriminant to a cohomological field theory. </p> <p>As an application, we show that a large set of tautological relations related to the Givental--Teleman classification for any generically semisimple cohomological field theories follow from Pixton's generalized Faber--Zagier relations. </p>
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<p>The Brownian map is a random sphere-homeomorphic metric measure space obtained by "gluing together" the continuum trees described by the $x$ and $y$ coordinates of the Brownian snake. We present an alternative "breadth-first" construction of the Brownian map, which produces a surface from a certain decorated branching process. It is closely related to the peeling process, the hull process, and the Brownian cactus. </p> <p>Using these ideas, we prove that the Brownian map is the only random sphere-homeomorphic metric measure space with certain properties: namely, scale invariance and the conditional independence of the inside and outside of certain "slices" bounded by geodesics. We also formulate a characterization in terms of the so-called L\'evy net produced by a metric exploration from one measure-typical point to another. This characterization is part of a program for proving the equivalence of the Brownian map and Liouville quantum gravity with parameter $\gamma= \sqrt{8/3}$. </p>
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<p>We construct a tower of fields from the rings $R_n$ which parametrize pairs $(X,\lambda)$, where $X$ is a deformation of a fixed one-dimensional formal group $\mathbb{X}$ of finite height $h$, together with a Drinfeld level-$n$ structure $\lambda$. We choose principal prime ideals $\mathfrak{p}_n \mid (p)$ in each ring $R_n$ in a compatible way and consider the field $K'_n$ obtained by localizing $R_n$ at $\mathfrak{p}_n$, completing, and passing to the fraction field. By taking the compositum $K_n = K'_n K_0$ of each field with the completion $K_0$ of a certain unramified extension of $K'_0$, we obtain a tower of fields $(K_n)_n$ which we prove to be strictly deeply ramified in the sense of Anthony Scholl. When $h=2$ we also investigate the question of whether this is a Kummer tower. </p>
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<p>We obtain asymptotic formulas for the $2k$th moments of partially smoothed divisor sums of the M\"obius function. When $2k$ is small compared with $A$, the level of smoothing, then the main contribution to the moments come from integers with only large prime factors, as one would hope for in sieve weights. However if $2k$ is any larger, compared with $A$, then the main contribution to the moments come from integers with quite a few prime factors, which is not the intention when designing sieve weights. The threshold for "small" occurs when $A=\frac 1{2k} \binom{2k}{k}-1$. </p> <p>One can ask analogous questions for polynomials over finite fields and for permutations, and in these cases the moments behave rather differently, with even less cancellation in the divisor sums. We give, we hope, a plausible explanation for this phenomenon, by studying the analogous sums for Dirichlet characters, and obtaining each type of behaviour depending on whether or not the character is "exceptional". </p>
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<p>We define a new type of "shatter function" for set systems that satisfies a Sauer-Shelah type dichotomy, but whose polynomial-growth case is governed by Shelah's 2-rank instead of VC dimension. We identify the rate of growth of this shatter function, the quantity analogous to VC density, with Shelah's $\omega$-rank. </p>
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<p>We say that a differentiable flow or vector field $X$ is star on a compact invariant set $\Lambda$ of the Riemannian manifold M if there exist neighborhoods $\mathcal{U} \in \mathfrak{X}^1(M)$ of $X$ and $U \subset M$ of $\Lambda$ for which every closed orbit in $U$ of every vector field $Y$ in $\mathcal{U}$ is hyperbolic. In this work, it is presented a characterization of star condition for flows based on Lyapunov functions. It is obtained conditions to strong homogeneity for singular sets for a $C^1$ flow by using the notion of infinitesimal Lyapunov functions. As an application we obtain some results related to singular hyperbolic sets for flows. </p>
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<p>We consider normalized Laplacians and their perturbations by periodic potentials (Schr\"odinger operators) on periodic discrete graphs. The spectrum of the operators consists of an absolutely continuous part (a union of a finite number of non-degenerate bands) and a finite number of flat bands, i.e., eigenvalues of infinite multiplicity. We obtain estimates of the Lebesgue measure of the spectrum in terms of geometric parameters of the graphs and show that they become identities for some class of graphs. We determine two-sided estimates on the length of the first spectral band and on the effective mass at the bottom of the spectrum of the Laplace and Schr\"odinger operators. In particular, these estimates yield that the first spectral band of Schr\"odinger operators is non-degenerate. </p>
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<p>We investigate the Ramsey numbers $r(I_m, L_n)$ which is the minimal natural number $k$ such that every oriented graph on $k$ vertices contains either an independent set of size $m$ or a transitive tournament on $n$ vertices. Apart from the finitary combinatorial interest, these Ramsey numbers are of interest to set theorists since it is known that $r(\omega m, n) = \omega r(I_m, L_n)$, where $\omega$ is the lowest transfinite ordinal number, and $r(\kappa m, n) = \kappa r(I_m, L_n)$ for all initial ordinals $\kappa$. Continuing the research by Bermond from 1974 who did show $r(I_3, L_3) = 9$, we prove $r(I_4, L_3) = 15$ and $r(I_5, L_3) = 23$. The upper bounds for both the estimates above are obtained by improving the upper bound of $m^2$ on $r(I_m, L_3)$ due to Larson and Mitchell (1997) to $m^2 - m + 3$. Additionally, we provide asymptotic upper bounds on $r(I_m, L_n)$ for all $n \geq 3$. In particular, we show that $r(I_m, L_3) \in \Theta(m^2 / \log m)$. </p>
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<p>The space of all probability measures having positive density function on a connected compact smooth manifold $M$, denoted by $\mathcal{P}(M)$, carries the Fisher information metric $G$. We define the geometric mean of probability measures by the aid of which we investigate information geometry of $\mathcal{P}(M)$, equipped with $G$. We show that a geodesic segment joining arbitrary probability measures $\mu_1$ and $\mu_2$ is expressed by using the normalized geometric mean of its endpoints. As an application, we show that any two points of $\mathcal{P}(M)$ can be joined by a unique geodesic. Moreover, we prove that the function $\ell$ defined by $\ell(\mu_1, \mu_2):=2\arccos\int_M \sqrt{p_1\,p_2}\,d\lambda$, $\mu_i=p_i\,\lambda$, $i=1,2$ gives the Riemannian distance function on $\mathcal{P}(M)$. It is shown that geodesics are all minimal. </p>
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<p>Answering a question of Benjamini, we present an isometry-invariant random partition of the Euclidean space $\mathbb{R}^d$, $d\geq 3$, into infinite connected indistinguishable pieces, such that the adjacency graph defined on the pieces is the 3-regular infinite tree. Along the way, it is proved that any finitely generated one-ended amenable Cayley graph can be represented in $\mathbb{R}^d$ as an isometry-invariant random partition of $\mathbb{R}^d$ to bounded polyhedra, and also as an isometry-invariant random partition of $\mathbb{R}^d$ to indistinguishable pieces. A new technique is developed to prove indistinguishability for certain constructions, connecting this notion to factor of iid's. </p>
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<p>The article is devoted to the developement of the method of expansion and mean-square approximation of iterated Ito stochastic integrals based on generalized multiple Fourier series converging in the sense of norm in the space $L_2([t, T]^k)$ ($k$ is the multiplicity of the iterated Ito stochastic integral). We obtain the exact and approximate expressions for the mean-square error of approximation of iterated Ito stochastic integrals of multiplicity $k$ ($k\in\mathbb{N}$) from the stochastic Taylor-Ito expansion in the framework of the mentioned method. As a result, we do not need to use redundant terms of expansions of iterated Ito stochastic integrals, that complicate the numerical methods for Ito stochastic differential equations. Moreover, we proved the convergence with propability 1 of the method of expansion of iterated Ito stochastic integrals based on generalized multiple Fourier series for the cases of multiple Fourier-Legendre series and multiple trigonometric Fourier series. The results of the article can be applied to the high-order strong numerical methods for Ito stochastic differential equations as well as non-commutative semilinear stochastic partial differential equations with multiplicative trace class noise (in accordance with the mean-square criterion of convergence). </p>
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<p>We initiate a parametric study of holomorphic families of polynomial skew products, i.e., polynomial endomorphisms of $\mathbb{C}^2$ of the form $F(z,w)= (p(z), q(z,w))$ that extend to holomorphic endomorphisms of $\mathbb{P}^2(\mathbb{C})$. We prove that dynamical stability in the sense of <a href="/abs/1403.7603">arXiv:1403.7603</a> preserves hyperbolicity within such families, and give a complete classification of the hyperbolic components that are the analogue, in this setting, of the complement of the Mandelbrot set for the family $z^2 +c$. We also precisely describe the geometry of the bifurcation locus and current near the boundary of the parameter space. One of our tools is an asymptotic equidistribution property for the bifurcation current. This is established in the general setting of families of endomorphisms of $\mathbb{P}^k$ and is the first equidistribution result of this kind for holomorphic dynamical systems in dimension larger than one. </p>
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<p>Building on Bosca's method, we extend to tame ray class groups the results on capitulation of ideals of a number field by composition with abelian extensions of a subfield first studied by Gras. More precisely, for every extension of number fields K/k, where at least one infinite place splits completely, and every squarefree divisor m of K, we prove that there exist infinitely many abelian extensions F/k such that the ray class group mod m of K capitulates in KF. As a consequence we generalize to tame ray class groups the results of Kurihara on triviality of class groups for maximal abelian pro-extensions of totally real number fields. </p>
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<p>This paper presents a approach of summation of infinite series of hyperbolic functions. The approach is based on simple contour integral representions and residue computations with the help of some well known results of Eisenstein series given by Ramanujan and Berndt et al. Several series involving quadratic hyperbolic functions are evaluated, which can be expressed in terms of $z={}_2F_1(1/2,1/2;1;x)$ and $z'=dz/dx$. When a certain parameter in these series equal to $\pi$ the series are summable in terms of $\Gamma$ functions. Moreover, some interesting new consequences and illustrative examples are considered. </p>
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<p>Infinite time Turing machine models with tape length $\alpha$, denoted $T_\alpha$, strengthen the machines of Hamkins and Kidder [HL00] with tape length $\omega$. A new phenomenon is that for some countable ordinals $\alpha$, some cells cannot be halting positions of $T_\alpha$ given trivial input. The main open question in [Rin14] asks about the size of the least such ordinal $\delta$. </p> <p>We answer this by providing various characterizations. For instance, $\delta$ is the least ordinal with any of the following properties: (a) For some $\xi&lt;\alpha$, there is a $T_\xi$-writable but not $T_\alpha$-writable subset of $\omega$. (b) There is a gap in the $T_\alpha$-writable ordinals. (c) $\alpha$ is uncountable in $L_{\lambda_\alpha}$. Here $\lambda_\alpha$ denotes the supremum of $T_\alpha$-writable ordinals, i.e. those with a $T_\alpha$-writable code of length $\alpha$. </p> <p>We further use the above characterizations, and an analogue to Welch's submodel characterization of the ordinals $\lambda$, $\zeta$ and $\Sigma$, to show that $\delta$ is large in the sense that it is a closure point of the function $\alpha \mapsto \Sigma_\alpha$, where $\Sigma_\alpha$ denotes the supremum of the $T_\alpha$-accidentally writable ordinals. </p>
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<p>Miura-ori is well-known for its capability of flatly folding a sheet of paper through a tessellated crease pattern made of repeating parallelograms. Many potential applications have been based on the Miura-ori and its primary variations. Here we are considering how to generalize the Miura-ori: what is the collection of rigid-foldable creased papers with a similar quadrilateral crease pattern as the Miura-ori? This paper reports some progress. We find some new variations of Miura-ori with less symmetry than the known rigid-foldable quadrilateral meshes. They are not necessarily developable or flat-foldable, and still only have single degree of freedom in their rigid folding motion. This article presents a classification of the new variations we discovered and explains the methods in detail. </p>
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<p>We investigate the validity, as well as the failure, of Sobolev-type inequalities on Cartan-Hadamard manifolds under suitable bounds on the sectional and the Ricci curvatures. We prove that if the sectional curvatures are bounded from above by a negative power of the distance from a fixed pole (times a negative constant), then all the $ L^p $ inequalities that interpolate between Poincar\'e and Sobolev hold for radial functions provided the power lies in the interval $ (-2,0) $. The Poincar\'e inequality was established by H.P. McKean under a constant negative bound from above on the sectional curvatures. If the power is equal to the critical value $ -2 $ we show that $ p $ must necessarily be bounded away from $ 2 $. Upon assuming that the Ricci curvature vanishes at infinity, the nonradial version of such inequalities turns out to fail, except in the Sobolev case. Finally, we discuss applications of the here-established Sobolev-type inequalities to optimal smoothing effects for radial porous medium equations. </p>
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<p>We propose an explicit formula for the GW/PT descendent correspondence in the stationary case for nonsingular projective 3-folds. The formula, written in terms of vertex operators, is found by studying the 1-leg geometry. We prove the proposal for all nonsingular projective toric 3-folds. An application to the Virasoro constraints for the stationary descendent theory of stable pairs will appear in a sequel. </p>
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<p>If a 2-knot group other than $\mathrm{Z}[\frac12]\rtimes\mathbb{Z}$ is almost coherent and has a torsion-free abelian normal subgroup $A$ of rank 1 which is not finitely generated then $A$ meets nontrivially every subgroup which is not locally free, and $A/A\cap\pi''$ is finite cyclic, of odd order. </p>
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<p>We develop an approach that allows to construct semiorthogonal decompositions of derived categories of surfaces with cyclic quotient singularities whose components are equivalent to derived categories of local finite dimensional algebras. We first explain how to induce a semiorthogonal decomposition of a surface $X$ with rational singularities from a semiorthogonal decomposition of its resolution. In the case when $X$ has cyclic quotient singularities, we introduce the condition of adherence for the components of the semiorthogonal decomposition of the resolution that allows to identify the components of the induced decomposition with derived categories of local finite dimensional algebras. Further, we present an obstruction in the Brauer group of $X$ to the existence of such semiorthogonal decomposition, and show that in the presence of the obstruction a suitable modification of the adherence condition gives a semiorthogonal decomposition of the twisted derived category of $X$. We illustrate the theory by exhibiting a semiorthogonal decomposition for the untwisted or twisted derived category of any normal projective toric surface depending on whether its Weil divisor class group is torsion-free or not. For weighted projective planes we compute the generators of the components explicitly and relate our results to the results of Kawamata based on iterated extensions of reflexive sheaves of rank 1. </p>
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<p>We consider dynamical systems $T: X \to X$ that are extensions of a factor $S: Y \to Y$ through a projection $\pi: X \to Y$ with shrinking fibers, i.e. such that $T$ is uniformly continuous along fibers $\pi^{-1}(y)$ and the diameter of iterate images of fibers $T^n(\pi^{-1}(y))$ uniformly go to zero as $n \to \infty$.We prove that every $S$-invariant measure has a unique $T$-invariant lift, and prove that many properties of the original measure lift: ergodicity, weak and strong mixing, decay of correlations and statistical properties (possibly with weakening in the rates).The basic tool is a variation of the Wasserstein distance, obtained by constraining the optimal transportation paradigm to displacements along the fibers. We extend to a general setting classical arguments, enabling to translate potentials and observables back and forth between $X$ and $Y$. </p>
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<p>We study the problem of the embedding degree of an abelian variety over a finite field which is vital in pairing-based cryptography. In particular, we show that for a prescribed CM field $L$ of degree $\geq 4$, prescribed integers $m$, $n$ and any prime $l\equiv 1 \pmod{mn}$, there exists an ordinary abelian variety over a finite field with endomorphism algebra $L$, embedding degree $n$ with respect to $l$ and the field extension generated by the $l$-torsion points of degree $mn$ over the field of definition. We also study a class of absolutely simple higher dimensional abelian varieties whose endomorphism algebras are central over imaginary quadratic fields. </p>
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<p>On the space of positive definite matrices we consider distance functions of the form $d(A,B)=\left[\tr\mathcal{A}(A,B)-\tr\mathcal{G}(A,B)\right]^{1/2},$ where $\mathcal{A}(A,B)$ is the arithmetic mean and $\mathcal{G}(A,B)$ is one of the different versions of the geometric mean. When $\mathcal{G}(A,B)=A^{1/2}B^{1/2}$ this distance is $\|A^{1/2}-B^{1/2}\|_2,$ and when $\mathcal{G}(A,B)=(A^{1/2}BA^{1/2})^{1/2}$ it is the Bures-Wasserstein metric. We study two other cases: $\mathcal{G}(A,B)=A^{1/2}(A^{-1/2}BA^{-1/2})^{1/2}A^{1/2},$ the Pusz-Woronowicz geometric mean, and $\mathcal{G}(A,B)=\exp\big(\frac{\log A+\log B}{2}\big),$ the log Euclidean mean. With these choices $d(A,B)$ is no longer a metric, but it turns out that $d^2(A,B)$ is a divergence. We establish some (strict) convexity properties of these divergences. We obtain characterisations of barycentres of $m$ positive definite matrices with respect to these distance measures. </p>
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<p>A time-space fractional reaction-diffusion equation in a bounded domain is considered. Under some conditions on the initial data, we show that solutions may experience blow-up in a finite time. However, for realistic initial conditions, solutions are global in time. Moreover, the asymptotic behavior of bounded solutions is analysed. </p>
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<p>A functional limit theorem is established for the partial-sum process of a class of stationary sequences which exhibit both heavy tails and long-range dependence. The stationary sequence is constructed using multiple stochastic integrals with heavy-tailed marginal distribution. Furthermore, the multiple stochastic integrals are built upon a large family of dynamical systems that are ergodic and conservative, leading to the long-range dependence phenomenon of the model. The limits constitute a new class of self-similar processes with stationary increments. They are represented by multiple stable integrals, where the integrands involve the local times of intersections of independent stationary stable regenerative sets. The joint moments of the local times are computed, which play the key in the proof and are also of independent interest. </p>
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<p>A widely investigated subject in combinatorial geometry, originated from Erd\H{o}s, is the following. Given a point set $P$ of cardinality $n$ in the plane, how can we describe the distribution of the determined distances? This has been generalized in many directions. In this paper we propose the following variants. Consider planar arrangements of $n$ lines. Determine the maximum number of triangles of unit area, maximum area or minimum area, determined by these lines. Determine the minimum size of a subset of these $n$ lines so that all triples determine distinct area triangles. </p> <p>We prove that the order of magnitude for the maximum occurrence of unit areas lies between $\Omega(n^2)$ and $O(n^{9/4})$. This result is strongly connected to both additive combinatorial results and Szemer\'edi--Trotter type incidence theorems. Next we show a tight bound for the maximum number of minimum area triangles. Finally we present lower and upper bounds for the maximum area and distinct area problems by combining algebraic, geometric and combinatorial techniques. </p>
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<p>We show that the moduli space of metrics of nonnegative sectional curvature on every homotopy ${\mathbb {R}} P^5$ has infinitely many path components. We also show that in each dimension $4k+1$ there are at least $2^{2k}$ homotopy ${\mathbb {R}} P^{4k+1}$s of pairwise distinct oriented diffeomorphism type for which the moduli space of metrics of positive Ricci curvature has infinitely many path components. Examples of closed manifolds with finite fundamental group with these properties were known before only in dimensions $4k+3\geq 7$. </p>
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<p>Given a positive weight function and an isometry map on a Hilbert spaces $\mathcal{H}$, we study a class of linear maps which is a $g$-frame, $g$-Riesz basis and a $g$-orthonormal basis for $\mathcal{H}$ with respect to $\mathbb{C}$ in terms of the weight function. We apply our results to study the frame for shift-invariant subspaces on the Heisenberg group. </p>
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<p>We refine and prove the central conjecture of our first paper for annuli with at least two marked intervals on each boundary component by computing the derived Hall algebras of their Fukaya categories. </p>
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<p>Most existing work focuses on the generalization of KKT for nonsmooth convex optimization problems, but this paper explores a generalized form of Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT) conditions for real continuous optimization problems. </p>
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<p>This note considered an online distributed optimization problem, with a group of agents whose local objective functions vary with time. Moreover, the value of the objective function is revealed to the corresponding agent after the decision is executed per time-step. Thus, each agent can only update the decision variable based on the revealed value and information collected from the neighbors, without the knowledge on the explicit expression of the objective function. To solve this problem, an online gradient-free distributed projected gradient descent (DPGD) algorithm is presented, where each agent locally approximates the gradient based on two point values. With some standard assumptions on the communication graph and the objective functions, we first derive an upper bound on the dynamic regret due to each agent, as a product of a sublinear function of the time duration $T$ and the deviation of the minimizer sequence. Then, with an appropriate selection of the step-size sequence, we are able to establish a regret bound of $\mathcal{O}(1/\sqrt{T})$ when the variation of the minimizer sequence is sublinear. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is illustrated through numerical simulations. </p>
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<p>Let $M$ be a closed, oriented, and connected Riemannian $n$-manifold, for $n\ge 2$, which is not a rational homology sphere. We show that, for a non-constant and non-injective uniformly quasiregular self-map $f\colon M\to M$, the topological entropy $h(f)$ is $\log \mathrm{deg}( f )$. This proves Shub's entropy conjecture in this case. </p>
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<p>This essay gives a short introduction to the multi-agent gradient descent method with a protocol. Compared with most existing literature on gradient-based methods, this essay explores a new way to do global optimization, i.e., multiple agents with certain communication protocol will be used in the descent process. </p>
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<p>In this paper, we will give more information about the support of Dunkl translations. Then we will define Riesz transforms for Dunkl transform on $L^\infty$ in a weak sense and Dunkl-type $BMO$ space, and prove the boundedness of Riesz transforms from $L^\infty$ to Dunkl-type $BMO$ space under the uniform boundedness assumption of Dunkl translations. </p>
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<p>Kinetically constrained models (KCM) are reversible interacting particle systems on $\mathbb{Z}^d$ with continuous-time constrained Glauber dynamics. They are a natural non-monotone stochastic version of the family of cellular automata with random initial state known as $\mathcal{U}$-bootstrap percolation. KCM have an interest in their own right, owing to their use for modelling the liquid-glass transition in condensed matter physics. </p> <p>In two dimensions there are three classes of models with qualitatively different scaling of the infection time of the origin as the density of infected sites vanishes. Here we study in full generality the class termed `critical'. Together with the companion paper by Martinelli and two of the authors we establish the universality classes of critical KCM and determine within each class the critical exponent of the infection time as well as of the spectral gap. In this work we prove that for critical models with an infinite number of stable directions this exponent is twice the one of their bootstrap percolation counterpart. This is due to the occurrence of `energy barriers', which determine the dominant behaviour for these KCM but which do not matter for the monotone bootstrap dynamics. Our result confirms the conjecture of Martinelli, Morris and the last author, who proved a matching upper bound. </p>
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<p>We consider the group of pure welded braids (also known as loop braids) up to (link-)homotopy. The pure welded braid group classically identifies, via the Artin action, with the group of basis-conjugating automorphisms of the free group, also known as the McCool group P $\Sigma$ n. It has been shown recently that its quotient by the homotopy relation identifies with the group hP $\Sigma$ n of basis-conjugating automorphisms of the reduced free group. In the present paper, we describe a decomposition of this quotient as an iterated semi-direct product which allows us to solve the Andreadakis problem for this group, and to give a presentation by generators and relations. The Andreadakis equality can be understood, in this context, as a statement about Milnor invariants; a discussion of this question for classical braids up to homotopy is also included. </p>
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<p>In this paper we study algebraic and combinatorial properties of Grothendieck polynomials and their dual polynomials by means of the Boson-Fermion correspondence. We show that these symmetric functions can be expressed as a vacuum expectation value of some operator that is written in terms of free-fermions. By using the free-fermionic expressions, we obtain alternative proofs of determinantal formulas and Pieri type formulas. </p>
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<p>Gradient-based distributed learning in Parameter Server (PS) computing architectures is subject to random delays due to straggling worker nodes, as well as to possible communication bottlenecks between PS and workers. Solutions have been recently proposed to separately address these impairments based on the ideas of gradient coding, worker grouping, and adaptive worker selection. This paper provides a unified analysis of these techniques in terms of wall-clock time, communication, and computation complexity measures. Furthermore, in order to combine the benefits of gradient coding and grouping in terms of robustness to stragglers with the communication and computation load gains of adaptive selection, novel strategies, named Lazily Aggregated Gradient Coding (LAGC) and Grouped-LAG (G-LAG), are introduced. Analysis and results show that G-LAG provides the best wall-clock time and communication performance, while maintaining a low computational cost, for two representative distributions of the computing times of the worker nodes. </p>
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<p>We prove bounds on the generalization error of convolutional networks. The bounds are in terms of the training loss, the number of parameters, the Lipschitz constant of the loss and the distance from the weights to the initial weights. They are independent of the number of pixels in the input, and the height and width of hidden feature maps. We present experiments using CIFAR-10 with varying hyperparameters of a deep convolutional network, comparing our bounds with practical generalization gaps. </p>
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<p>We revisit the scattering problems for the 2D mass super-critical Schr\"{o}dinger and Klein-Gordon equations with radial data below the ground state in the energy space. We give an alternative proof of energy scattering for both defocusing and focusing cases using the ideas of Dodson-Murphy \citep{dodson2017new-radial}. Our results also include the exponential type nonlinearities which seems to be new for the focusing exponential NLS. </p>
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<p>We study the scattering problems for the quadratic Klein-Gordon equations with radial initial data in the energy space. For 3D, we prove small data scattering, and for 4D, we prove large data scattering with mass below the ground state. </p>
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<p>Given a Lagrangian submanifold $L$ of the affine symplectic $2n$-space, one can canonically and uniquely define a center-chord and a special improper affine sphere of dimension $2n$, both of whose sets of singularities contain $L$. Although these improper affine spheres (IAS) always present other singularities away from $L$ (the off-shell singularities studied in our previous paper), they may also present singularities other than $L$ which are arbitrarily close to $L$, the so called singularities "on shell". These on-shell singularities possess a hidden $\mathbb Z_2$ symmetry that is absent from the off-shell singularities. In this paper, we study these canonical IAS obtained from $L$ and their on-shell singularities, in arbitrary even dimensions, and classify all stable Lagrangian/Legendrian singularities on shell that may occur for these IAS when $L$ is a curve or a Lagrangian surface. </p>
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<p>We study a constrained shortest path problem in group-labeled graphs with nonnegative edge length, called the shortest non-zero path problem. Depending on the group in question, this problem includes two types of tractable variants in undirected graphs: one is the parity-constrained shortest path/cycle problem, and the other is computing a shortest noncontractible cycle in surface-embedded graphs. </p> <p>For the shortest non-zero path problem with respect to finite abelian groups, Kobayashi and Toyooka (2017) proposed a randomized, pseudopolynomial-time algorithm via permanent computation. For a slightly more general class of groups, Yamaguchi (2016) showed a reduction of the problem to the weighted linear matroid parity problem. In particular, some cases are solved in strongly polynomial time via the reduction with the aid of a deterministic, polynomial-time algorithm for the weighted linear matroid parity problem developed by Iwata and Kobayashi (2017), which generalizes a well-known fact that the parity-constrained shortest path problem is solved via weighted matching. </p> <p>In this paper, as the first general solution independent of the group, we present a rather simple, deterministic, and strongly polynomial-time algorithm for the shortest non-zero path problem. The algorithm is based on Dijkstra's algorithm for the unconstrained shortest path problem and Edmonds' blossom shrinking technique in matching algorithms, and clarifies a common tractable feature behind the parity and topological constraints in the shortest path/cycle problem. Furthermore, we demonstrate a faster algorithm without explicit blossom shrinking together with a dual linear programming formulation of the equivalent problem like potential maximization for the unconstrained shortest path problem. </p>
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<p>A group is $\textit{finitely axiomatizable}$ (FA) in a class $\mathcal{C}$ if it can be determined up to isomorphism within $\mathcal{C}$ by a sentence in the first-order language of group theory. We show that profinite groups of various kinds are FA in the class of profinite groups. Reasons why certain groups cannot be FA are also discussed. </p>
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<p>We consider the constant Q-curvature metric problem in the given conformal class on conic 4-manifolds and study related differential equations. </p>
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<p>Let $d\geq 1$ be an integer, and let $\mathcal{P}$ be the convex hull in $\mathbb{R}^s$ of all integral points $\mathbf{e}_{i_1}+\cdots+\mathbf{e}_{i_d}$ such that $1\leq i_1&lt;\cdots&lt; i_d\leq s$, where $\mathbf{e}_i$ is the $i$-th unit vector in $\mathbb{R}^s$. Given a finite field $\mathbb{F}_q$, we determine the minimum distance of the projective toric code of $\mathcal{P}$. Then, we show a formula, in terms of the degree and a fixed monomial order, to compute the $r$-th generalized Hamming weights of an affine Reed--Muller-type code, and give a lower bound for this number which is easier to compute. We determine the minimum distance and the 2nd generalized Hamming weight of a squarefree evaluation code over an affine torus. </p>
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<p>We regard the Cauchy problem for a particular Whitham-Boussinesq system modelling surface waves of an inviscid incompressible fluid layer. The system can be seen as a weak nonlocal dispersive perturbation of the shallow water system. The proof of well-posedness relies on energy estimates. However, due to the symmetry lack of the nonlinear part, in order to close the a priori estimates one has to modify the traditional energy norm in use. Hamiltonian conservation provides with global well-posedness at least for small initial data in the one dimensional settings. </p>
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<p>Dynamic Mode Decomposition (DMD) is a data-driven technique to identify a low dimensional linear time invariant dynamics underlying high-dimensional data. For systems in which such underlying low-dimensional dynamics is time-varying, a time-invariant approximation of such dynamics computed through standard DMD techniques may not be appropriate. We focus on DMD techniques for such time-varying systems and develop incremental algorithms for systems without and with exogenous control inputs. We build upon the work in [35] to scenarios in which high dimensional data are governed by low dimensional time-varying dynamics. We consider two classes of algorithms that rely on (i) a discount factor on previous observations, and (ii) a sliding window of observations. Our algorithms leverage existing techniques for incremental singular value decomposition and allow us to determine an appropriately reduced model at each time and are applicable even if data matrix is singular. We apply the developed algorithms for autonomous systems to Electroencephalographic (EEG) data and demonstrate their effectiveness in terms of reconstruction and prediction. Our algorithms for non-autonomous systems are illustrated using randomly generated linear time-varying systems. </p>
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<p>For a set $L$ of positive integers, a set system $\mathcal{F} \subseteq 2^{[n]}$ is said to be $L$-close Sperner, if for any pair $F,G$ of distinct sets in $\mathcal{F}$ the skew distance $sd(F,G)=\min\{|F\setminus G|,|G\setminus F|\}$ belongs to $L$. We reprove an extremal result of Boros, Gurvich, and Milani\v c on the maximum size of $L$-close Sperner set systems for $L=\{1\}$ and generalize to $|L|=1$ and obtain slightly weaker bounds for arbitrary $L$. We also consider the problem when $L$ might include 0 and reprove a theorem of Frankl, F\"uredi, and Pach on the size of largest set systems with all skew distances belonging to $L=\{0,1\}$. </p>
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<p>We show that the consistency strength of $\kappa$ being $2^\kappa$-square compact is at least weak compact and strictly less than indescribable. This is the first known improvement to the upper bound of strong compactness obtained in 1973 by Hajnal and Juh{\' a}sz. </p>
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<p>We introduce the concept of fuzzy sheaf as a natural generalisation of a sheaf over a topological space in the context of fuzzy topologies. Then we prove a representation for a class of MV-algebras in which the representing object is an MV-sheaf of lattice-ordered Abelian groups, namely, a fuzzy sheaf in which the base (fuzzy) topological space is an MV-topological space and the stalks are Abelian $\ell$-groups. </p>
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<p>A carpet is a metric space which is homeomorphic to the standard Sierpi\'nski carpet in $\mathbb{R}^2$, or equivalently, in $S^2$. A carpet is called thin if its Hausdorff dimension is $&lt;2$. A metric space is called Q-Loewner if its $Q$-dimensional Hausdorff measure is Q-Ahlfors regular and if it satisfies a $(1,Q)$-Poincar\'e inequality. As we will show, $Q$-Loewner planar metric spaces are always carpets, and admit quasisymmetric embeddings into the plane. In this paper, for every pair $(Q,Q')$, with $1&lt;Q&lt;Q'&lt; 2$ we construct infinitely many pairwise quasi-symmetrically distinct $Q$-Loewner carpets $X$ which admit explicit snowflake embeddings, $f: X\to S^2$, for which the image, $f(X)$, admits an explicit description and is $Q'$-Ahlfors regular. In particular, these $f$ are quasisymmetric embeddings. By a result of Tyson, the Hausdorff dimension of a Loewner space cannot be lowered by a quasisymmetric homeomorphism. By definition, this means that the carpets $X$ and $f(X)$ realize their conformal dimension. Each of images $f(X)$ can be further uniformized via post composition with a quasisymmetric homeomorphism of $S^2$, so as to yield a circle carpet and also a square carpet. Our Loewner carpets $X$ are constructed via what we call an admissable quotiented inverse system. This mechanism extends the inverse limit construction for PI spaces given in \cite{cheegerkleinerinverse}, which however, does not yield carpets. Loewner spaces are a particular subclass of PI spaces. They have strong rigidity properties which which do not hold for PI spaces in general. </p>
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<p>Resource theory is a general, model-independent approach aiming to understand the qualitative notion of resource quantitatively. In a given resource theory, free operations are physical processes that do not create the resource and are considered zero-cost. This brings the following natural question: For a given free operation, what is its ability to preserve a resource? We axiomatically formulate this ability as the resource preservability, which is constructed as a channel resource theory induced by a state resource theory. We provide two general classes of resource preservability monotones: One is based on state resource monotones, and another is based on channel distance measures. Specifically, the latter gives the robustness monotone, which has been recently found to have an operational interpretation. As examples, we show that athermality preservability of a Gibbs-preserving channel can be related to the smallest bath size needed to thermalize all its outputs, and it also bounds the capacity of a classical communication scenario under certain thermodynamic constraints. We further apply our theory to the study of entanglement preserving local thermalization (EPLT) and provide a new family of EPLT which admits arbitrarily small nonzero entanglement preservability and free entanglement preservation at the same time. Our results give the first systematic and general formulation of the resource preservation character of free operations. </p>
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<p>For classical Bernoulli convolutions, the Rajchman property, i.e. the convergence to zero at infinity of the Fourier transform, was characterized by successive works of Erd{\"o}s [2] and Salem [12]. We prove weak forms of their results for general self-similar measures associated to affine contractions of the real line. </p>
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<p>An $m \times n$ matrix $A$ with real entries is said to be semipositive if there exists a $x &gt; 0$ such that $Ax &gt; 0$, where the inequalities are understood componentwise. This set is denoted by $S(\mathbb{R}^n_+,\mathbb{R}^m_+)$. The aim of this manuscript is to resolve a conjecture on the structure of into linear preservers of $S(\mathbb{R}^n_+,\mathbb{R}^m_+)$. </p>
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<p>In this paper, using the subvariant functional method due to Favard \cite{Favard}, we prove the existence of aunique compact almost automorphic solution for a class of semilinear evolution equations in Banach spaces. More specifically, we improve the assumptions in \cite{CieuEzz}, we show that the almost automorphy of the coefficients in a weaker sense (Stepanov almost automorphy of order $1\leq p &lt;\infty$) is enough to obtain solutions that are almost automorphic in a strong sense (Bochner almost automorphy). We distinguish two cases, $ p=1 $ and $ p&gt;1$. Moreover, we propose to study a class of reaction-diffusion problems. </p>
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<p>In this paper, we consider state and control paths-dependent stochastic zero-sum differential games, where the dynamics and the running cost include both the state and control paths of the players. Using the notion of nonanticipative strategies, we define lower and upper value functionals, which are functions of the initial state and control paths of the players. We prove that the value functionals satisfy the dynamic programming principle. The associated lower and upper Hamilton-Jacobi-Isaacs (HJI) equations from the dynamic programming principle are state and control paths-dependent nonlinear second-order partial differential equations. We apply the functional It\^o calculus to prove that the lower and upper value functionals are viscosity solutions of (lower and upper) state and control paths-dependent HJI equations, where the notion of viscosity solutions is defined on a compact subset of an $\kappa$-H\"older space introduced in \cite{Tang_DCD_2015}. For the state path-dependent case, the uniqueness of viscosity solutions and the Isaacs condition imply the existence of the game value, and under additional assumptions we prove the uniqueness of classical solutions for the state path-dependent HJI equations. </p>
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<p>The strong-field limit for the 2-form potential on an M5-brane yields a conformal chiral 2-form electrodynamics in six dimensions, with gauge-invariant self-interactions but no adjustable coupling constant; the stress tensor is that of a null fluid. Lorentz invariance can be made manifest via an interpretation as a tensionless `space-filling M5-brane', or as a truncation of the infra-red dynamics of an M5-brane in AdS7 x S4. </p>
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<p>We consider separatrix solutions of the differential equations for inflaton models with a single scalar field in a zero-curvature Friedmann-Lema\^{\i}tre-Robertson-Walker universe. The existence and properties of separatrices are investigated in the framework of the Hamilton-Jacobi formalism, where the main quantity is the Hubble parameter considered as a function of the inflaton field. A wide class of inflaton models that have separatrix solutions (and include many of the most physically relevant potentials) is introduced, and the properties of the corresponding separatrices are investigated, in particular, asymptotic inflationary stages, leading approximations to the separatrices, and full asymptotic expansions thereof. We also prove an optimal growth criterion for potentials that do not have separatrices. </p>
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<p>Inspired by the concept of evolutoids of planar curves, we present the concept of evolutoids for regular surfaces as an envelope of a two-parameter family of lines in Euclidean 3-space. We give an explicit parametrization for such evolutoids. Besides, we used the theory of singularities to study the local behavior of regular points of this object and presented some relations between the geometry of the regular surface and its evolutoid. </p>
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<p>Geometric and functional Brunn-Minkowski type inequalities for the lattice point enumerator $\mathrm{G}_n(\cdot)$ are provided. In particular, we show that $$\mathrm{G}_n((1-\lambda)K + \lambda L + (-1,1)^n)^{1/n}\geq (1-\lambda)\mathrm{G}_n(K)^{1/n}+\lambda\mathrm{G}_n(L)^{1/n}$$ for any non-empty bounded sets $K, L\subset\mathbb{R}^n$ and all $\lambda\in(0,1)$. </p> <p>We also show that these new discrete versions imply the classical results, and discuss some links with other related inequalities. </p>
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<p>We construct a class of metric spaces whose transfinite asymptotic dimension and complementary-finite asymptotic dimension are both {\omega} + k for any k {\in} N, where {\omega} is the smallest infinite ordinal number and a metric space whose transfinite asymptotic dimension and complementary-finite asymptotic dimension 2{\omega}. Moreover, we prove that the dimension growth and transfinite asymptotic dimension are not parallel. </p>
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<p>We show that $1+3/\sqrt{2}$ is a point of the Lagrange spectrum $L$ which is accumulated by a sequence of elements of the complement $M\setminus L$ of the Lagrange spectrum in the Markov spectrum $M$. In particular, $M\setminus L$ is not a closed subset of $\mathbb{R}$, so that a question by T. Bousch has a negative answer. </p>
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<p>The goal of this paper is to design a simplex algorithm for linear programs on lattice polytopes that traces `short' simplex paths from any given vertex to an optimal one. We consider a lattice polytope $P$ contained in $[0,k]^n$ and defined via $m$ linear inequalities. Our first contribution is a simplex algorithm that reaches an optimal vertex by tracing a path along the edges of $P$ of length in $O(n^4 k\log(nk)$. The length of this path is independent from $m$ and it is the best possible up to a polynomial function. In fact, it is only polynomially far from the worst-case diameter, which roughly grows as a linear function in $n$ and $k$. </p> <p>Motivated by the fact that most known lattice polytopes are defined via $0,\pm 1$ constraint matrices, our second contribution is an iterative algorithm which exploits the largest absolute value $\alpha$ of the entries in the constraint matrix. We show that the length of the simplex path generated by the iterative algorithm is in $O(n^2k \log(nk\alpha))$. In particular, if $\alpha$ is bounded by a polynomial in $n, k$, then the length of the simplex path is in $O(n^2k \log(nk))$. </p> <p>For both algorithms, the number of arithmetic operations needed to compute the next vertex in the path is polynomial in $n$, $m$ and $\log k$. If $k$ is polynomially bounded by $n$ and $m$, the algorithm runs in strongly polynomial time. </p>
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<p>Which combinatorial sequences correspond to moments of probability measures on the real line? We present a generating function, in the form of a continued fraction, for a fourteen-parameter family of such sequences and interpret these in terms of combinatorial statistics on the symmetric groups. Special cases include several classical and noncommutative probability laws, along with a substantial subset of the orthogonalizing measures in the Askey-Wilson scheme, now given a new combinatorial interpretation in terms of elementary permutation statistics. This framework further captures a variety of interesting combinatorial sequences including, notably, the moment sequences associated to distributions of the numbers of occurrences of (classical and vincular) permutation patterns of length three. This connection between pattern avoidance and broader ideas in classical and noncommutative probability is among several intriguing new corollaries, which generalize and unify results previously appearing in the literature, while opening up new lines of inquiry. </p> <p>The fourteen combinatorial statistics further generalize to signed and colored permutations, and, as an infinite family of statistics, to the k-arrangements: permutations with $k$-colored fixed points, introduced here along with several related results and conjectures. </p>
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<p>The ergodicity and the output-controllability of stochastic reaction networks have been shown to be essential properties to fulfill to enable their control using, for instance, antithetic integral control. We propose here to extend those properties to the case of uncertain networks. To this aim, the notions of interval, robust, sign, and structural ergodicity/output-controllability are introduced. The obtained results lie in the same spirit as those obtained in [Briat, Gupta &amp; Khammash, Cell Systems, 2016] where those properties are characterized in terms of control theoretic concepts, linear algebraic conditions, linear programs, and graph-theoretic/algebraic conditions. An important conclusion is that all those properties can be characterized by linear programs. Two examples are given for illustration. </p>
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<p>An adaptive joint source-channel coding (JSCC) scheme is presented for transmitting correlated sources over discrete-memoryless two-way channels subject to distortion constraints. The proposed JSCC scheme makes use of the previously transmitted and received channel signals as well as the sources' correlation to facilitate coordination between terminals. It is shown that the adaptive scheme strictly subsumes prior lossy coding methods for two-way simultaneous transmission and yields a new adaptive separate source-channel coding result. Two examples are given to show the scheme's advantages. </p>
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<p>We investigate polyharmonic functions associated to Brownian motion and random walks in cones. These are functions which cancel some power of the usual Laplacian in the continuous setting and of the discrete Laplacian in the discrete setting. We show that polyharmonic functions naturally appear while considering asymptotic expansions of the heat kernel in the Brownian case and in lattice walk enumeration problems. We provide a method to construct general polyharmonic functions through Laplace transforms and generating functions in the continuous and discrete cases, respectively. This is done by using a functional equation approach. </p>
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<p>For appropriate domains $\Omega_{1}, \Omega_{2}$ we consider mappings $\Phi_{\mathbf A}:\Omega_{1}\to\Omega_{2}$ of monomial type. We obtain an orthogonal decomposition of the Bergman space $\mathcal A^{2}(\Omega_{1})$ into finitely many closed subspaces indexed by characters of a finite Abelian group associated to the mapping $\Phi_{\mathbf A}$. We then show that each subspace is isomorphic to a weighted Bergman space on $\Omega_{2}$. This leads to a formula for the Bergman kernel on $\Omega_{1}$ as a sum of weighted Bergman kernels on $\Omega_{2}$ </p>
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<p>We introduce the post-processing preorder and equivalence relations for general measurements on a possibly infinite-dimensional general probabilistic theory described by an order unit Banach space $E$ with a Banach predual. We define the measurement space $\mathfrak{M}(E)$ as the set of post-processing equivalence classes of continuous measurements on $E .$ We define the weak topology on $\mathfrak{M} (E)$ as the weakest topology in which the state discrimination probabilities for any finite-label ensembles are continuous and show that $\mathfrak{M}(E)$ equipped with the convex operation corresponding to the probabilistic mixture of measurements can be regarded as a compact convex set regularly embedded in a locally convex Hausdorff space. We also prove that the measurement space $\mathfrak{M}(E) $ is infinite-dimensional except when the system is $1$-dimensional and give a characterization of the post-processing monotone affine functional. We apply these general results to the problems of simulability and incompatibility of measurements. We show that the robustness measures of unsimulability and incompatibility coincide with the optimal ratio of the state discrimination probability of measurement(s) relative to that of simulable or compatible measurements, respectively. The latter result for incompatible measurements generalizes the recent result for finite-dimensional quantum measurements. Throughout the paper, the fact that any weakly$\ast$ continuous measurement can be arbitrarily approximated in the weak topology by a post-processing increasing net of finite-outcome measurements is systematically used to reduce the discussions to finite-outcome cases. </p>
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<p>Let $\big(\mathcal{S}_n^{\alpha,\kappa,\mathfrak{r}}(z)\big)_{n=1}^\infty$ be a sequence of the largest possible integer intervals, such that $z\in\mathcal{S}_n^{\alpha,\kappa,\mathfrak{r}}(z)\subset\overline{\mathcal{M}}_n^{\alpha,\kappa,\mathfrak{r}}=\bigcup_{i=1}^n [\mathfrak{r}_i]_{\mathfrak{p}_i}$ or $\mathcal{S}_n^{\alpha,\kappa,\mathfrak{r}}(z)=\emptyset$, where $\mathfrak{p}_i=p_{\alpha+\left\lceil i/\kappa\right\rceil-1}$ and $z\in\mathbb{Z}$. We prove that $\big(\#\mathcal{S}_n^{\alpha,\kappa,\mathfrak{r}}(z)\big)_{n=1}^\infty$ oscillates infinitely many times around $\beta_n\!=\!o\left(n^2\right)$ for any fixed $\alpha\in\mathbb{Z}^+$, $\kappa\in\mathbb{Z}\cap[1,p_\alpha)$, and $\mathfrak{r}_i\in\mathbb{Z}$. Let $T=(a_1,a_2,\ldots,a_k)$ be an admissible $k$-tuple and let $\mathcal{X}_n^{T,k,\rho,\eta}=\left\{x\in[\rho]_\eta\,:\,\{x\!+\!a_1,x\!+\!a_2,\ldots,x\!+\!a_k\}\cap\mathcal{M}_{n+\alpha-1}\neq\emptyset\right\}$ for each $n\in\mathbb{Z}^+$, where $\mathcal{M}_g=\bigcup_{i=1}^g [0]_{p_i}$. We prove that for any $T$ and for some fixed $\alpha$, $\kappa$, $\rho$, $\eta$, $z$, and $\mathfrak{r}$, there exists a linear bijection between $\overline{\mathcal{M}}_{\kappa n}^{\alpha,\kappa,\mathfrak{r}}$ and $\mathcal{X}_n^{T,k,\rho,\eta}$ for each $n\in\mathbb{Z}^+$. It implies that the length of any expanding integer interval on which all occurrences of $T$ are sieved out by $\mathcal{M}_{n+\alpha-1}$ oscillates infinitely many times around $\widetilde{\beta}_n=o\left(n^2\right)$. The concept of the sieve of Eratosthenes asserts $\mathcal{E}_n=[2,p^2_{n+\alpha})\cap\left(\mathbb{Z}\setminus\mathcal{M}_{n+\alpha-1}\right)\subset\mathbb{P}$. Therefore, having $p^2_{n+\alpha}=\omega\left(n^2\right)$, we obtain that $\mathcal{E}_n$ includes a subset matched to $T$ for infinitely many values of $n$ and, consequently, $T$ matches infinitely many positions in the sequence of primes. </p>
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<p>\textsc{J. Hadamard} studied the geometric properties of geodesic flows on surfaces of negative curvature, thus initiating "Symbolic Dynamics". </p> <p>In this article, we follow the same geometric approach to study the geodesic trajectories of billiards in "rational polygons" on the hyperbolic plane. We particularly show that the billiard dynamics resulting thus are just 'Subshifts of Finite Type' or their dense subsets. We further show that 'Subshifts of Finite Type' play a central role in subshift dynamics and while discussing the topological structure of the space of all subshifts, we demonstrate that they approximate any shift dynamics. </p>
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<p>Since the late 1950's when quasi-Newton methods first appeared, they have become one of the most widely used and efficient algorithmic paradigms for unconstrained optimization. Despite their immense practical success, there is little theory that shows why these methods are so efficient. We provide a semi-local rate of convergence for the randomized BFGS method which can be significantly better than that of gradient descent, finally giving theoretical evidence supporting the superior empirical performance of the method. </p>
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<p>The Burger-Sarnak method shows that the restriction of an automorphic representation of a reductive group to a reductive subgroup has automorphic support. Clozel has conjectured a qualitative refinement of this result, which were first verified and quantified in the $GL_n$ case by Venkatesh. We give a proof of this conjecture in the classical group cases. </p>
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<p>The alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) is a widely used method for solving many convex minimization models arising in signal and image processing. In this paper, we propose an inertial ADMM for solving a two-block separable convex minimization problem with linear equality constraints. This algorithm is obtained by making use of the inertial Douglas-Rachford splitting algorithm to the corresponding dual of the primal problem. We study the convergence analysis of the proposed algorithm in infinite-dimensional Hilbert spaces. Furthermore, we apply the proposed algorithm on the robust principal component pursuit problem and also compare it with other state-of-the-art algorithms. Numerical results demonstrate the advantage of the proposed algorithm. </p>
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<p>The paper is concerned with the maximization of Laplace eigenvalues on surfaces of given volume with a Riemannian metric in a fixed conformal class. A significant progress on this problem has been recently achieved by Nadirashvili-Sire and Petrides using related, though different methods. In particular, it was shown that for a given $k$, the maximum of the $k$-th Laplace eigenvalue in a conformal class on a surface is either attained on a metric which is smooth except possibly at a finite number of conical singularities, or it is attained in the limit while a "bubble tree" is formed on a surface. Geometrically, the bubble tree appearing in this setting can be viewed as a union of touching identical round spheres. We present another proof of this statement, developing the approach proposed by the second author and Y. Sire. </p>
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<p>This paper provides a tutorial introduction to disk margins. These are robust stability measures that account for simultaneous gain and phase perturbations in a feedback system. The paper first reviews the classical (gain-only and phase-only) margins and their limitations. This motivates the use of disk margins which are defined using a set of perturbations that have simultaneous gain and phase variations. A necessary and sufficient condition is provided to compute the disk margin for a single-input, single-output feedback system. Frequency-dependent disk margins can also be computed yielding additional insight. The paper concludes with a discussion of stability margins for multiple-input, multiple output (MIMO) feedback systems. A typical approach is to assess robust stability "loop-at-a-time" with a perturbation introduced into a single channel and all other channels held at their nominal values. MIMO disk margins provide a useful extension to consider simultaneous variations in multiple channels. This multiple-loop analysis can provide a more accurate robustness assessment as compared to the loop-at-a-time approach. </p>
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<p>Coherent structures are spatially varying regions which disperse minimally over time and organise motion in non-autonomous systems. This work develops and implements algorithms providing multilayered descriptions of time-dependent systems which are not only useful for locating coherent structures, but also for detecting time windows within which these structures undergo fundamental structural changes, such as merging and splitting events. These algorithms rely on singular value decompositions associated to Ulam type discretisations of transfer operators induced by dynamical systems, and build on recent developments in multiplicative ergodic theory. Furthermore, they allow us to investigate various connections between the evolution of relevant singular value decompositions and dynamical features of the system. The approach is tested on models of periodically and quasi-periodically driven systems, as well as on a geophysical dataset corresponding to the splitting of the Southern Polar Vortex. </p>
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<p>The switch chain is a well-studied Markov chain which can be used to sample approximately uniformly from the set $\Omega(\boldsymbol{d})$ of all graphs with a given degree sequence $\boldsymbol{d}$. Polynomial mixing time (rapid mixing) has been established for the switch chain under various conditions on the degree sequences. Amanatidis and Kleer introduced the notion of strongly stable families of degree sequences, and proved that the switch chain is rapidly mixing for any degree sequence from a strongly stable family. Using a different approach, Erd\H{o}s et al. recently extended this result to the (possibly larger) class of P-stable degree sequences, introduced by Jerrum and Sinclair in 1990. We define a new notion of stability for a given degree sequence, namely $k$-\emph{stability}, and prove that if a degree sequence $\boldsymbol{d}$ is 8-stable then the switch chain on $\Omega(\boldsymbol{d})$ is rapidly mixing. We also provide necessary conditions for P-stability, strong stability and 8-stability. Using these necessary conditions, we give the first proof of P-stability for various families of heavy-tailed degree sequences, including power-law degree sequences, and show that the switch chain is rapidly mixing for these families. </p> <p>We further extend these notions and results to directed degree sequences. </p>
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<p>We show that the first twisted cohomology group associated to closed 1-forms on compact manifolds is related to certain 2-dimensional representations of the fundamental group. In particular, we construct examples of nowhere-vanishing 1-forms with non-trivial twisted cohomology. </p>
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<p>Famous Redheffer's inequality is generalized to a class of anti-periodic functions. We apply the novel inequality to the generalized trigonometric functions and establish several Redheffer-type inequalities for these functions. </p>
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<p>In this paper, we provide an order theoretic characterization of strictly convex spaces among normed linear spaces. This leads to a new example of absolute order unit spaces which we desrcibe as tracial absolute order unit spaces. Further, we obtain their functional representation and also study unital absolute value preserving maps on these spaces. </p>
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<p>The usual product $m\cdot n$ on $\mathbb{Z}$ can be viewed as the sum of $n$ terms of an arithmetic progression whose first term is $a_{1}=m-n+1$ and whose difference is $d=2$. Generalizing this idea, we define new similar product applications, and we consider new arithmetics that enable us to extend Furstenberg's theorem of the infinitude of primes. We also review the classic conjectures in the new arithmetics. Finally, we make important extensions of the main idea. We see that given any integer sequence, the approach generates an arithmetic on integers. </p>
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<p>Let $G$ be a graph with $n$ vertices and $m$ edges. One of several hierarchies towards the stability number of $G$ is the exact subgraph hierarchy (ESH). On the first level it computes the Lov\'{a}sz theta function $\vartheta(G)$ as semidefinite program (SDP) with a matrix variable of order $n+1$ and $n+m+1$ constraints. On the $k$-th level it adds all exact subgraph constraints (ESC) for subgraphs of order $k$ to the SDP. An ESC ensures that the submatrix of the matrix variable corresponding to the subgraph is in the correct polytope. By including only some ESCs into the SDP the ESH can be exploited computationally. </p> <p>In this paper we introduce a variant of the ESH that computes $\vartheta(G)$ through an SDP with a matrix variable of order $n$ and $m+1$ constraints. We show that it makes sense to include the ESCs into this SDP and introduce the compressed ESH (CESH) analogously to the ESH. Computationally the CESH seems favorable as the SDP is smaller. However, we prove that the bounds based on the ESH are always at least as good as those of the CESH. In computations sometimes they are significantly better. </p> <p>We also introduce scaled ESCs (SESCs), which are a more natural way to include exactness constraints into the smaller SDP and we prove that including an SESC is equivalent to including an ESC for every subgraph. </p>
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<p>We show split property of gapped ground states for Fermion systems on a one-dimensional lattice and clarify mathematical meaning of string order of fermions. </p>
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<p>Let $N$ be a positive number. We give an asymptotic formula for the sum of $\tau(\gcd(a,b))$ for all $a$ and $b$ with $ab \le N$. </p>
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<p>We extend the arguments of Tosatti-Zhang to reduce a well-known conjecture concerning the structure of the Gromov-Hausdorff limit in both the setting of degenerating Calabi-Yau manifolds and the K\"ahler-Ricci flow to a certain partial second-order estimate. </p>
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<p>In this work we analyse the growth of the cumulative number of confirmed infected cases by the COVID-19 until March 27th, 2020, from countries of Asia, Europe, North and South America. Our results show (i) that power-law growth is observed for all countries; (ii) by using the distance correlation, that the power-law curves between countries are statistically highly correlated, suggesting the universality of such curves around the World; and (iii) that soft quarantine strategies are inefficient to flatten the growth curves. Furthermore, we present a model and strategies which allow the government to reach the flattening of the power-law curves. We found that, besides the social distance of individuals, of well known relevance, the strategy of identifying and isolating infected individuals in a large daily rate can help to flatten the power-laws. These are essentially the strategies used in the Republic of Korea. The high correlation between the power-law curves of different countries strongly indicate that the government containment measures can be applied with success around the whole World. These measures must be scathing and applied as soon as possible. </p>
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<p>The Riemann-Siegel theta function $\vartheta(t)$ is examined for $t\to+\infty$. Use of the refined asymptotic expansion for $\log\,\g(z)$ shows that the expansion of $\vartheta(t)$ contains an infinite sequence of increasingly subdominant exponential terms, each multiplied by an asymptotic series involving inverse powers of $\pi t$. Numerical examples are given to detect and confirm the presence of the first three of these exponentials. </p>
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<p>Polynomial, C-finite, Holonomic are the most common ansatz to describe the pattern of the sequences. We propose a new ansatz called X-recursive that generalize those we mentioned. We also discuss its closure properties and compare this ansatz to another new similar ansatz from another paper. </p>
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<p>We consider elliptic equations with operators $L=a^{ij}D_{ij}+b^{i}D_{i}-c$ with $a$ being almost in VMO, $b\in L_{d}$ and $c\in L_{q}$, $c\geq0$, $d&gt;q\geq d/2$. We prove the solvability of $Lu=f\in L_{p}$ in bounded $C^{1,1}$-domains, $1&lt;p\leq q$, and of $\lambda u-Lu=f$ in the whole space for any $\lambda&gt;0$. Weak uniqueness of the martingale problem associated with such operators is also obtained. </p>
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<p>We study the interior of a Reissner-Nordstr\"om Black-Hole (RNBH) using Relativistic Quantum Geometry, wich was introduced in some previous works. We found discrete energy levels for a scalar field from a polynomial condition for Heun Confluent functions expanded around the effective causal radius $r_*$. From the solutions it is obtained that the uncertainty principle is valid for each energy level of space-time, in the form: $E_n\, r_{*,n}=\hbar/2$. </p>
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<p>In this paper we prove a natural generalization of Gerzon's bound. Our bound improves the Delsarte, Goethals and Seidel's upper bound in a special case. Our proof is a simple application of the linear algebra bound method. </p>
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<p>This paper investigates asymptotic properties of a class of algorithms that can be viewed as robust analogues of the classical empirical risk minimization. These strategies are based on replacing the usual empirical average by a robust proxy of the mean, such as the median-of-means estimator. It is well known by now that the excess risk of resulting estimators often converges to 0 at the optimal rates under much weaker assumptions than those required by their "classical" counterparts. However, much less is known about asymptotic properties of the estimators themselves, for instance, whether robust analogues of the maximum likelihood estimators are asymptotically efficient. We make a step towards answering these questions and show that for a wide class of parametric problems, minimizers of the appropriately defined robust proxy of the risk converge to the minimizers of the true risk at the same rate, and often have the same asymptotic variance, as the estimators obtained by minimizing the usual empirical risk. Moreover, our results show that robust algorithms based on the so-called "min-max" type procedures in many cases provably outperform, is the asymptotic sense, algorithms based on direct risk minimization. </p>
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<p>In this work we derive Noether Theorems for energies of the form \begin{equation*} E(u)=\int_\Omega L\left(x,u(x),(-\Delta)^\frac{1}{4}u(x)\right)dx \end{equation*} for Lagrangians exhibiting invariance under a group of transformations acting either on the target or on the domain of the admissible functions $u$, in terms of fractional gradients and fractional divergences. Here $\Omega$ stays either for an Euclidean space $\mathbb{R}^n$ or for the circle $\mathbb{S}^1$. We then discuss some applications of these results and related techniques to the study of nonlocal geometric equations and to the study of stationary points of the half Dirichlet energy on $\mathbb{S}^1$. In particular we introduce the $\frac{1}{2}$-fractional Hopf differential as a simple tool to characterize stationary point of the half Dirichlet energy in $H^\frac{1}{2}(\mathbb{S}^1,\mathbb{R}^m)$ and study their properties. Finally we show how the invariance properties of the half Dirichlet energy on $\mathbb{R}$ can be used to obtain Pohozaev identities. </p>
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<p>We present large deviations estimates in the supremum norm for a system of independent random walks superposed with a birth-and-death dynamics evolving on the discrete torus with $N$ sites. The scaling limit considered is the so-called \textit{high density limit} (see the survey \cite{franco} on the subject), where space, time and initial quantity of particles are rescaled. The associated rate functional here obtained is a semi-linearised version of the rate function of \cite{JonaLandimVares}, which dealt with large deviations of exclusion processes superposed with birth-and-death dynamics. An ingredient in the proof of large deviations consists in providing a limit of a suitable class of perturbations of the original process. This is precisely one of the main contributions of this work: a strategy to extend the original high density approach (as in \cite{Arnold,blount2,blount,francogroisman,Kote2,KoteHigh1988}) to weakly asymmetric systems. Two cases are considered with respect to the initial quantity of particles, the power law and the (at least) exponential growth. In the first case, we present the lower bound only on a certain subset of smooth profiles, while in the second case, additionally assuming concavity of the birth and the death functions, we provide a full large deviations principle. </p>
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<p>For a finite group $G$ and $U: = U(\mathbb{Z}G)$, the group of units of the integral group ring of $G$, we study the implications of the structure of $G$ on the abelianization $U/U'$ of $U$. We pose questions on the connections between the exponent of $G/G'$ and the exponent of $U/U'$ as well as between the ranks of the torsion-free parts of $Z(U)$, the center of $U$, and $U/U'$. We show that the units originating from known generic constructions of units in $\mathbb{Z}G$ are well-behaved under the projection from $U$ to $U/U'$ and that our questions have a positive answer for many examples. We then exhibit an explicit example which shows that the general statement on the torsion-free part does not hold, which also answers questions from [BJJ$^+$18]. </p>
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<p>We fully describe the doubly stochastic orbit of a self-adjoint element in the noncommutative $L_1$-space affiliated with a semifinite von Neumann algebra, which answers a problem posed by Alberti and Uhlmann in the 1980s, extending several results in the literature. It follows further from our methods that, for any $\sigma$-finite von Neumann algebra $\mathcal{M}$ equipped a semifinite infinite faithful normal trace $\tau$, there exists a self-adjoint operator $y\in L_1(\mathcal{M},\tau)$ such that the doubly stochastic orbit of $y$ does not coincide with the orbit of $y$ in the sense of Hardy--Littlewood--P\'{o}lya, which confirms a conjecture by Hiai. However, we show that Hiai's conjecture fails for non-$\sigma$-finite von Neumann algebras. The main result of the present paper also answers the (noncommutative) infinite counterparts of problems due to Luxemburg and Ryff in the 1960s. </p>
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<p>We consider the one-dimensional nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation with double power focusing-defocusing nonlinearity </p> <p>\begin{equation*} </p> <p>\partial_{t}^{2}u-\partial_{x}^{2}u+u-|u|^{p-1}u+|u|^{q-1}u=0,\quad \mbox{on}\ \mathbb{R}\times \mathbb{R}, </p> <p>\end{equation*} </p> <p>with $1&lt;q&lt;p&lt;\infty$. The main result concerns the stability of the sum of several solitary waves with different speeds in the energy space $H^{1}(\mathbb{R})\times L^{2}(\mathbb{R})$, up to the natural instabilities. The proof involves techniques developed by Martel-Merle-Tsai for the generalized KdV and NLS equations. In particular, we rely on an energy method and virial type estimates. </p>
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<p>We derive upper bounds for the eigenvalues of the Kirchhoff Laplacian on a compact metric graph depending on the graph's genus g. These bounds can be further improved if $g = 0$, i.e. if the metric graph is planar. Our results are based on a spectral correspondence between the Kirchhoff Laplacian and a particular a certain combinatorial weighted Laplacian. In order to take advantage of this correspondence, we also prove new estimates for the eigenvalues of the weighted combinatorial Laplacians that were previously known only in the weighted case. </p>
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<p>We classify rank two vector bundles on a given del Pezzo threefold of degree four whose projectivizations are weak Fano into seven cases. We also give an example for each of these seven cases. </p>
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<p>We study the cohomological rigidity problem of two families of manifolds with torus actions: the so-called moment-angle manifolds, whose study is linked with combinatorial geometry and combinatorial commutative algebra; and topological toric manifolds, which can be seen as topological generalizations of toric varieties. These two families are related by the fact that a topological toric manifold is the quotient of a moment-angle manifold by a subtorus action. </p> <p>In this paper, we prove that when a simplicial sphere satisfies some combinatorial condition, the corresponding moment-angle manifold and topological toric manifolds are cohomological rigid, i.e. their homeomorphism classes in their own families are determined by their cohomology rings. Our main strategy is to show that the combinatorial types of these simplicial spheres (or more generally, the Gorenstein$^*$ complexes in this class) are determined by the $\mathrm{Tor}$-algebras of their face rings. This is a solution to a classical problem (sometimes know as the $B$-rigidity problem) in combinatorial commutative algebra for a class of Gorenstein$^*$ complexes in all dimensions $\geqslant 2$. </p>
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<p>We show a sufficient condition for Fujiki-Oka resolutions of Gorenstein abelian quotient singularities to be crepant in all dimensions by using Ashikaga's continuous fractions. Moreover, we prove that all three dimensional Gorenstein abelian quotient singularities possess a crepant resolution as a corollary. This alternative proof of existence is really reasonable comparing with the results ever known. </p>
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<p>Let $(\mathbb{P}^{s,x})\_{(s,x)\in[0,T]\times E}$ be a family of probability measures, where $E$ is a Polish space,defined on the canonical probability space ${\mathbb D}([0,T],E)$ of $E$-valued cadlag functions. We suppose that a martingale problem with respect to a time-inhomogeneous generator $a$ is well-posed. We consider also an associated semilinear {\it Pseudo-PDE} with generator $a$ for which we introduce a notion of so called {\it decoupled mild} solution and study the equivalence with the notion of martingale solution introduced in a companion paper. We also investigate well-posedness for decoupled mild solutions and their relations with a special class of BSDEs without driving martingale. The notion of decoupled mild solution is a good candidate to replace the notion of viscosity solution which is not always suitable when the map $a$ is not a PDE operator. </p>
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<p>Graph burning runs on discrete time steps. The aim of the graph burning problem is to burn all the vertices in a given graph in the least amount of time steps. The least number of required time steps is known to be the burning number of the graph. The spread of social influence, an alarm, or a social contagion can be modeled using graph burning. The less the burning number, the quick the spread. </p> <p>Computationally, graph burning is hard. It has already been proved that burning of path forests, spider graphs, and trees with maximum degree three are NP-Complete. In this work we study graph burning on geometric graphs and show NP-completeness results on several sub classes. More precisely, we show burning problem to be NP-complete on interval graph, permutation graph and disk graph. </p>
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<p>Let $X$ be a normal crossing compact complex surface with triple points. We prove that there exists a family of smoothings of $X$ when $X$ satisfies suitable conditions. Since our differential geometric proof also includes the case where $X$ is neither K\"ahlerian nor $H^1(X, \mathcal O_X)=0$, this generalizes Friedman's result on degenerations of $K3$ surfaces in algebraic geometry. </p>
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<p>Let $R_j$ denote the $j^{\text{th}}$ Riesz transform on $\mathbb{R}^n$. We prove that there exists an absolute constant $C&gt;0$ such that \begin{align*} </p> <p>|\{|R_jf|&gt;\lambda\}|\leq C\left(\frac{1}{\lambda}\|f\|_{L^1(\mathbb{R}^n)}+\sup_{\nu} |\{|R_j\nu|&gt;\lambda\}|\right) \end{align*} for any $\lambda&gt;0$ and $f \in L^1(\mathbb{R}^n)$, where the above supremum is taken over measures of the form $\nu=\sum_{k=1}^Na_k\delta_{c_k}$ for $N \in \mathbb{N}$, $c_k \in \mathbb{R}^n$, and $a_k \in \mathbb{R}^+$ with $\sum_{k=1}^N a_k \leq 16\|f\|_{L^1(\mathbb{R}^n)}$. This shows that to establish dimensional estimates for the weak-type $(1,1)$ inequality for the Riesz tranforms it suffices to study the corresponding weak-type inequality for Riesz transforms applied to a finite linear combination of Dirac masses. We use this fact to give a new proof of the best known dimensional upper bound, while our reduction result also applies to a more general class of Calder\'on-Zygmund operators. </p>