math updates on arXiv.org

Mathematics (math) updates on the arXiv.org e-print archive



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<p>We study $4d$ $\mathcal{N}=1$ gauge theories engineered via D-branes at orientifolds of toric singularities, where gauge anomalies are cancelled without the introduction of non-compact flavor branes. Using dimer model techniques, we derive geometric criteria for establishing whether a given singularity can admit anomaly-free D-brane configurations purely based on its toric data and the type of orientifold projection. Our results therefore extend the dictionary between geometric properties of singularities and physical properties of the corresponding gauge theories. </p>
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<p>Resource theories provide a general framework for the characterization of properties of physical systems in quantum mechanics and beyond. Here, we introduce methods for the quantification of resources in general probabilistic theories (GPTs), focusing in particular on the technical issues associated with infinite-dimensional state spaces. We define a universal resource quantifier based on the robustness measure, and show it to admit a direct operational meaning: in any GPT, it quantifies the advantage that a given resource state enables in channel discrimination tasks over all resourceless states. We show that the robustness acts as a faithful and strongly monotonic measure in any resource theory described by a convex and closed set of free states, and can be computed through a convex conic optimization problem. </p> <p>Specializing to continuous-variable quantum mechanics, we obtain additional bounds and relations, allowing an efficient computation of the measure and comparison with other monotones. We demonstrate applications of the robustness to several resources of physical relevance: optical nonclassicality, entanglement, genuine non-Gaussianity, and coherence. In particular, we establish exact expressions for various classes of states, including Fock states and squeezed states in the resource theory of nonclassicality and general pure states in the resource theory of entanglement, as well as tight bounds applicable in general cases. </p>
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<p>The aim of this work is to further study the fractional bosonic string theory. In particular, we wrote the energy-momentum tensor in the fractional conformal gauge and study their symmetries. We introduced the Virasoro operators of all orders. In fact, we found the same $L_0 (\widetilde{L}_0)$ operator originally defined in the work of fractional bosonic string up to a shift transformation. Also, we compute the algebra of our Fractional Virasoro Operators, finding that the satifies the $Witt$ algebra. Lastly, we showed that in the boundary of our theory we recover the lost conservation law associated to $\tau$-diffeomorphism, proving that we have Poincar\'e invariance at the boundary. </p>
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<p>We propose exact count formulae for the 21 topologically distinct non-induced connected subgraphs on five nodes, in simple, unweighted and undirected graphs. We prove the main result using short and purely combinatorial arguments that can be adapted to derive count formulae for larger subgraphs. To illustrate, we give analytic results for some regular graphs, and present a short empirical application on real-world network data. We also discuss the well-known result that induced subgraph counts follow as linear combinations of non-induced counts. </p>
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<p>This thesis deals with the systematic treatment of quantum-mechanical systems in post-Newtonian gravitational fields. Starting from clearly spelled-out assumptions, employing a framework of geometric background structures defining the notion of a post-Newtonian expansion, our systematic approach allows to properly derive the post-Newtonian coupling of quantum-mechanical systems to gravity based on first principles. This sets it apart from more heuristic approaches that are commonly employed, for example, in the description of quantum-optical experiments under gravity. </p> <p>Regarding single particles, we compare simple canonical quantisation of a free particle in curved spacetime to formal expansions of the minimally coupled Klein-Gordon equation, which may be motivated from QFT in curved spacetimes. Specifically, we develop a general WKB-like post-Newtonian expansion of the KG equation to arbitrary order in $c^{-1}$. Furthermore, for stationary spacetimes, we show that the Hamiltonians arising from expansions of the KG equation and from canonical quantisation agree up to linear order in particle momentum, independent of any expansion in $c^{-1}$. </p> <p>Concerning composite systems, we perform a fully detailed systematic derivation of the first order post-Newtonian quantum Hamiltonian describing the dynamics of an electromagnetically bound two-particle system situated in external electromagnetic and gravitational fields, the latter being described by the Eddington-Robertson PPN metric. </p> <p>In the last, independent part of the thesis, we prove two uniqueness results characterising the Newton--Wigner position observable for Poincar\'e-invariant classical Hamiltonian systems: one is a direct classical analogue of the quantum Newton--Wigner theorem, and the other clarifies the geometric interpretation of the Newton--Wigner position as `centre of spin', as proposed by Fleming in 1965. </p>
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<p>A variant of the index coding problem (ICP), the embedded index coding problem (EICP) was introduced in [A. Porter and M. Wootters, "Embedded index coding," ITW, Sweden, 2019] which was motivated by its application in distributed computing where every user can act as sender for other users and an algorithm for code construction was reported. The constructions depends on the computation of minrank of a matrix, which is computationally intensive. In [A. Mahesh, N. Sageer Karat and B. S. Rajan, "Min-rank of Embedded Index Coding Problems," ISIT, 2020], for EICP, a notion of side-information matrix was introduced and it was proved that the length of an optimal scalar linear index code is equal to the min-rank of the side-information matrix. The authors have provided an explicit code construction for a class of EICP - \textit{Consecutive and Symmetric Embedded Index Coding Problem (CS-EICP)}. We introduce the idea of sub-packetization of the messages in index coding problems to provide a novel code construction for CS-EICP in contrast to the scalar linear solutions provided in the prior works. For CS-EICP, the normalized rate, which is defined as the number of bits transmitted by all the users together normalized by the total number of bits of all the messages, for our construction is lesser than the normalized rate achieved by Mahesh et al.,for scalar linear codes. </p>
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<p>We use boundary triples to find a parametrization of all self-adjoint extensions of the magnetic Schr\"odinger operator, in a quasi-convex domain~$\Omega$ with compact boundary, and magnetic potentials with components in $\textrm{W}^{1}_{\infty}(\overline{\Omega})$. This gives also a new characterization of all self-adjoint extensions of the Laplacian in nonregular domains. Then we discuss gauge transformations for such self-adjoint extensions and generalize a characterization of the gauge equivalence of the Dirichlet magnetic operator for the Dirichlet Laplacian; the relation to the Aharonov-Bohm effect, including irregular solenoids, is also discussed. In particular, in case of (bounded) quasi-convex domains it is shown that if some extension is unitarily equivalent (through the multiplication by a smooth unit function) to a realization with zero magnetic potential, then the same occurs for all self-adjoint realizations. </p>
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<p>This paper is dedicated to Mike Duff on the occasion of his 70th birthday. I discuss some issues of M-theory/string theory/supergravity closely related to Mike's interests. I describe a relation between STU black hole entropy, Cayley hyperdeterminant, Bhargava cube and a 3-qubit Alice, Bob, Charlie triality symmetry. I shortly describe my recent work with Gunaydin, Linde, Yamada on M-theory cosmology, inspired by the work of Duff with Ferrara and Borsten, Levay, Marrani et al. Here we have 7-qubits, a party including Alice, Bob, Charlie, Daisy, Emma, Fred, George. Octonions and Hamming error correcting codes are at the base of these models. They lead to 7 benchmark targets of future CMB missions looking for primordial gravitational wave from inflation. I also show puzzling relations between the fermion mass eigenvalues in these cosmological models, exceptional Jordan eigenvalue problem, and black hole entropy. The symmetry of our cosmological models is illustrated by beautiful pictures of a Coxeter projection of the root system of E7. </p>
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<p>In this work, we propose a multi-stage training strategy for the development of deep learning algorithms applied to problems with multiscale features. Each stage of the pro-posed strategy shares an (almost) identical network structure and predicts the same reduced order model of the multiscale problem. The output of the previous stage will be combined with an intermediate layer for the current stage. We numerically show that using different reduced order models as inputs of each stage can improve the training and we propose several ways of adding different information into the systems. These methods include mathematical multiscale model reductions and network approaches; but we found that the mathematical approach is a systematical way of decoupling information and gives the best result. We finally verified our training methodology on a time dependent nonlinear problem and a steady state model </p>
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<p>In this work we introduce a method for estimating entropy rate and entropy production rate from finite symbolic time series. From the point of view of statistics, estimating entropy from a finite series can be interpreted as a problem of estimating parameters of a distribution with a censored or truncated sample. We use this point of view to give estimations of entropy rate and entropy production rate assuming that this is a parameter of a (limiting) distribution. The last statement is actually a consequence of the fact that the distribution of estimators coming from recurrence-time statistics comply with the central limit theorem. We test our method in a Markov chain model where these quantities can be exactly computed. </p>
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<p>The present paper is devoted to clustering geometric graphs. While the standard spectral clustering is often not effective for geometric graphs, we present an effective generalization, which we call higher-order spectral clustering. It resembles in concept the classical spectral clustering method but uses for partitioning the eigenvector associated with a higher-order eigenvalue. We establish the weak consistency of this algorithm for a wide class of geometric graphs which we call Soft Geometric Block Model. A small adjustment of the algorithm provides strong consistency. We also show that our method is effective in numerical experiments even for graphs of modest size. </p>
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<p>We present an error analysis for the discontinuous Galerkin method applied to the discrete-ordinate discretization of the steady-state radiative transfer equation. Under some mild assumptions, we show that the DG method converges uniformly with respect to a scaling parameter $\varepsilon$ which characterizes the strength of scattering in the system. However, the rate is not optimal and can be polluted by the presence of boundary layers. In one-dimensional slab geometries, we demonstrate optimal convergence when boundary layers are not present and analyze a simple strategy for balance interior and boundary layer errors. Some numerical tests are also provided in this reduced setting. </p>
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<p>The theory of integral quadratic constraints (IQCs) allows the certification of exponential convergence of interconnected systems containing nonlinear or uncertain elements. In this work, we adapt the IQC theory to study first-order methods for smooth and strongly-monotone games and show how to design tailored quadratic constraints to get tight upper bounds of convergence rates. Using this framework, we recover the existing bound for the gradient method~(GD), derive sharper bounds for the proximal point method~(PPM) and optimistic gradient method~(OG), and provide \emph{for the first time} a global convergence rate for the negative momentum method~(NM) with an iteration complexity $\bigo(\kappa^{1.5})$, which matches its known lower bound. In addition, for time-varying systems, we prove that the gradient method with optimal step size achieves the fastest provable worst-case convergence rate with quadratic Lyapunov functions. Finally, we further extend our analysis to stochastic games and study the impact of multiplicative noise on different algorithms. We show that it is impossible for an algorithm with one step of memory to achieve acceleration if it only queries the gradient once per batch (in contrast with the stochastic strongly-convex optimization setting, where such acceleration has been demonstrated). However, we exhibit an algorithm which achieves acceleration with two gradient queries per batch. </p>
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<p>The game of tic-tac-toe is well known. In particular, in its classic version it is famous for being unwinnable by either player. While classically it is played on a grid, it is natural to consider the effect of playing the game on richer structures, such as finite planes. Playing the game of tic-tac-toe on finite affine and projective planes has been studied previously. While the second player can usually force a draw, for small orders it is possible for the first player to win. In this regard, a computer proof that tic-tac-toe played on the affine plane of order 4 is a first player win has been claimed. In this note we use techniques from the theory of latin squares and transversal designs to give a human verifiable, explicit proof of this fact. </p>
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<p>We study the geodesic flow of a compact surface without conjugate points and genus greater than one and continuous Green bundles. Identifying each strip of bi-asymptotic geodesics induces an equivalence relation on the unit tangent bundle. Its quotient space is shown to carry the structure of a 3-dimensional compact manifold. This manifold carries a canonically defined continuous flow which is expansive, time-preserving semi-conjugate to the geodesic flow, and has a local product structure. An essential step towards the proof of these properties is to study regularity properties of the horospherical foliations and to show that they are indeed tangent to the Green subbundles. As an application it is shown that the geodesic flow has a unique measure of maximal entropy. </p>
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<p>We show how an affine connection on a Riemannian manifold occurs naturally as a cochain in the complex for Leibniz cohomology of vector fields with coefficients in the adjoint representation. The Leibniz coboundary of the Levi-Civita connection can be expressed as a sum of two terms, one the Laplace-Beltrami operator and the other a Ricci curvature term. As an example of the cohomology classed obtained, we compute the Leibniz cohomology with adjoint coefficients for a certain family of vector fields on Euclidean ${\bf{R}}^n$ corresponding to the affine orthogonal Lie algebra, $n \geq 3$. </p>
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<p>I give a brief, non-technical, historical perspective on numerical analysis and optimization. I also touch on emerging trends and future challenges. This content is based on the short presentation that I made at the opening ceremony of \emph{The International Conference on Numerical Analysis and Optimization}, which was held at Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, on January 6--9, 2020. Of course, the material covered here is necessarily incomplete and biased towards my own interests and comfort zones. My aim is to give a feel for how the area has developed over the past few decades and how it may continue. </p>
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<p>Non Commutative Geometry (NCG) is considered in the context of a charged particle moving in a uniform magnetic field. The classical and quantum mechanical treatments are revisited and a new marker of NCG is introduced. This marker is then used to investigate NCG in magnetic Quantum Walks. It is proven that these walks exhibit NCG at and near the continuum limit. For the purely discrete regime, two illustrative walks of different complexities are studied in full detail. The most complex walk does exhibit NCG but the simplest, most degenerate one does not. Thus, NCG can be simulated by QWs, not only in the continuum limit, but also in the purely discrete regime. </p>
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<p>Let $({\mathbf X},\|\cdot\|_{\mathbf X}), ({\mathbf Y},\|\cdot\|_{\mathbf Y})$ be normed spaces with ${\mathrm{dim}}({\mathbf X})=n$. Bourgain's almost extension theorem asserts that for any ${\varepsilon}&gt;0$, if ${\mathcal{N}}$ is an ${\varepsilon}$-net of the unit sphere of ${\mathbf X}$ and $f:{\mathcal{N}}\to {\mathbf Y}$ is $1$-Lipschitz, then there exists an $O(1)$-Lipschitz $F:{\mathbf X}\to {\mathbf Y}$ such that $\|F(a)-f(a)\|_{\mathbf Y}\lesssim n{\varepsilon}$ for all $a\in \mathcal{N}$. We prove that this is optimal up to lower order factors, i.e., sometimes $\max_{a\in {\mathcal{N}}} \|F(a)-f(a)\|_{\mathbf Y}\gtrsim n^{1-o(1)}{\varepsilon}$ for every $O(1)$-Lipschitz $F:{\mathbf X}\to {\mathbf Y}$. This improves Bourgain's lower bound of $\max_{a\in {\mathcal{N}}} \|F(a)-f(a)\|_{\mathbf Y}\gtrsim n^{c}{\varepsilon}$ for some $0&lt;c&lt;\frac12$. If ${\mathbf X}=\ell_2^n$, then the approximation in the almost extension theorem can be improved to $\max_{a\in {\mathcal{N}}} \|F(a)-f(a)\|_{\mathbf Y}\lesssim \sqrt{n}{\varepsilon}$. We prove that this is sharp, i.e., sometimes $\max_{a\in {\mathcal{N}}} \|F(a)-f(a)\|_{\mathbf Y}\gtrsim \sqrt{n}{\varepsilon}$ for every $O(1)$-Lipschitz $F:\ell_2^n\to {\mathbf Y}$. </p>
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<p>We consider the method-of-moments approach to solve the Boltzmann equation of rarefied gas dynamics, which results in the following moment-closure problem. Given a set of moments, find the underlying probability density function. The moment-closure problem has infinitely many solutions and requires an additional optimality criterion to single-out a unique solution. Motivated from a discontinuous Galerkin velocity discretization, we consider an optimality criterion based upon L2-minimization. To ensure a positive solution to the moment-closure problem, we enforce positivity constraints on L2-minimization. This results in a quadratic optimization problem with moments and positivity constraints. We show that a (Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy) CFL-type condition ensures both the feasibility of the optimization problem and the L2-stability of the moment approximation. Numerical experiments showcase the accuracy of our moment method. </p>
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<p>The fifteen supersingular primes, see https://oeis.org/A002267, appear in the theory of the moduli of abelian surfaces. This short expository note explains why. </p>
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<p>In the last decades, unsupervised deep learning based methods have caught researchers attention, since in many applications collecting a great amount of training examples is not always feasible. Moreover, the construction of a good training set is time consuming and hard because the selected data have to be enough representative for the task. In this paper, we mainly focus on the Deep Image Prior (DIP) framework powered by adding the Total Variation regularizer which promotes gradient-sparsity of the solution. Differently from other existing approaches, we solve the arising minimization problem by using the well known Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers (ADMM) framework, decoupling the contribution of the DIP $L_{2}$-norm and Total Variation terms. The promising performances of the proposed approach, in terms of PSNR and SSIM values, are addressed by means of experiments for different image restoration tasks on synthetic as well as on real data. </p>
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<p>It is known that the writhe calculated from any reduced alternating link diagram of the same (alternating) link has the same value. That is, it is a link invariant if we restrict ourselves to reduced alternating link diagrams. This is due to the fact that reduced alternating link diagrams of the same link are obtainable from each other via flypes and flypes do not change writhe. In this paper, we introduce several quantities that are derived from Seifert graphs of reduced alternating link diagrams. We prove that they are "writhe-like" invariants in the sense that they are also link invariants among reduced alternating link diagrams. The determination of these invariants are elementary and non-recursive so they are easy to calculate. We demonstrate that many different alternating links can be easily distinguished by these new invariants, sometimes even for knots that cannot be distinguished by the Jones polynomial. As an application, we also derive an if and only if condition for a strongly invertible rational link. </p>
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<p>We derive sufficient conditions for a nonholonomic system to preserve a smooth volume form; these conditions become necessary when the density is assumed to only depend on the configuration variables. Moreover, this result can be extended to geodesic flows for arbitrary metric connections and the sufficient condition manifests as integrability of the torsion. As a consequence, volume-preservation of a nonholonomic system is closely related to the torsion of the nonholonomic connection. This result is applied to the Suslov problem for left-invariant systems on Lie groups (where the underlying space is Poisson rather than symplectic). </p>
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<p>What really sparked my interest was how certain parameters worked better at executing and optimization algorithm convergence even though the objective formula had no significant differences. Thus the research question stated: 'Which parameters provides an upmost optimal convergence solution of an Objective formula using the on-the-fly method?' This research was done in an experimental concept in which five different algorithms were tested with different objective functions to discover which parameter would result well for the best convergence. To find the correct parameter a method called 'on-the-fly' was applied. I run the experiments with five different optimization algorithms. One of the test runs showed that each parameter has an increasing or decreasing convergence accuracy towards the subjective function depending on which specific optimization algorithm you choose. Each parameter has an increasing or decreasing convergence accuracy toward the subjective function. One of the results in which evolutionary algorithm was applied with only the recombination technique did well at finding the best optimization. As well that some results have an increasing accuracy visualization by combing mutation or several parameters in one test performance. In conclusion, each algorithm has its own set of the parameter that converge differently. Also depending on the target formula that is used. This confirms that the fly method a suitable approach at finding the best parameter. This means manipulations and observe the effects in process to find the right parameter works as long as the learning cost rate decreases over time. </p>
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<p>We determine the border ranks of tensors that could potentially advance the known upper bound for the exponent $\omega$ of matrix multiplication. The Kronecker square of the small $q=2$ Coppersmith-Winograd tensor equals the $3\times 3$ permanent, and could potentially be used to show $\omega=2$. We prove the negative result for complexity theory that its border rank is $16$, resolving a longstanding problem. Regarding its $q=4$ skew cousin in $ C^5\otimes C^5\otimes C^5$, which could potentially be used to prove $\omega\leq 2.11$, we show the border rank of its Kronecker square is at most $42$, a remarkable sub-multiplicativity result, as the square of its border rank is $64$. We also determine moduli spaces $\underline{VSP}$ for the small Coppersmith-Winograd tensors. </p>
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<p>Randomized SVD has become an extremely successful approach for efficiently computing a low-rank approximation of matrices. In particular the paper by Halko, Martinsson, and Tropp (SIREV 2011) contains extensive analysis, and has made it a very popular method. The typical complexity for a rank-$r$ approximation of $m\times n$ matrices is $O(mn\log n+(m+n)r^2)$ for dense matrices. The classical Nystr{\"o}m method is much faster, but applicable only to positive semidefinite matrices. This work studies a generalization of Nystr{\"o}m method applicable to general matrices, and shows that (i) it has near-optimal approximation quality comparable to competing methods, (ii) the computational cost is the near-optimal $O(mn\log n+r^3)$ for dense matrices, with small hidden constants, and (iii) crucially, it can be implemented in a numerically stable fashion despite the presence of an ill-conditioned pseudoinverse. Numerical experiments illustrate that generalized Nystr{\"o}m can significantly outperform state-of-the-art methods, especially when $r\gg 1$, achieving up to a 10-fold speedup. The method is also well suited to updating and downdating the matrix. </p>
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<p>We define Jacobi forms of indefinite lattice index, and show that they are isomorphic to vector-valued modular forms also in this setting. We also consider several operations of the two types of objects, and obtain an interesting bilinear map between vector-valued modular forms arising from the product operation. </p>
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<p>This is an expository article written for the Notices of the AMS in which we discuss the weak Lefschetz Principle in birational geometry. Our departing point is the influential work of Solomon Lefschetz started in 1924. Indeed, we look at the original formulation of the Lefschetz hyperplane theorem in algebraic topology and build up to recent developments of it in birational geometry. In doing so, the main theme of the article is the following: there are many scenarios in geometry in which analogous versions of the Lefschetz hyperplane theorem hold. These scenarios are somewhat unexpected and have had a profound impact in mathematics. </p>
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<p>We present an elementary mathematical method to find the minimax estimator of the Bernoulli proportion $\theta$ under the squared error loss when $\theta$ belongs to the restricted parameter space of the form $\Omega = [0, \eta]$ for some pre-specified constant $0 \leq \eta \leq 1$. This problem is inspired from the problem of estimating the rate of positive COVID-19 tests. The presented results and applications would be useful materials for both instructors and students when teaching point estimation in statistical or machine learning courses. </p>
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<p>This paper aims to build a new understanding of the nonstandard mathematical analysis. The main contribution of this paper is the construction of a new set of numbers, $\mathbb{R}^{\mathbb{Z}_&lt; }$, which includes infinities and infinitesimals. The construction of this new set is done na\"ively in the sense that it does not require any heavy mathematical machinery, and so it will be much less problematic in a long term. Despite its na\"ivety character, the set $\mathbb{R}^{\mathbb{Z}_&lt; }$ is still a robust and rewarding set to work in. We further develop some analysis and topological properties of it, where not only we recover most of the basic theories that we have classically, but we also introduce some new enthralling notions in them. The computability issue of this set is also explored. The works presented here can be seen as a contribution to bridge constructive analysis and nonstandard analysis, which has been extensively (and intensively) discussed in the past few years. </p>
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<p>In this paper we formulate a generalized stepping stone model with $\Xi$-resampling mechanism to describe the evolution of relative frequencies for different types of alleles in a population with migration between two colonies. For a $\Xi$-coalescent and a jump type mutation generator $A$, such a probability-measure-valued Markov process is dual to the $(\Xi, A)$-coalescent process with geographical labels and migration. The existence of the generalized stepping stone model is directly established from a moment duality by verifying a multidimensional Hausdorff moment problem, and its probability law is also uniquely determined by the moment duality. Further, we characterize the stationary distribution for this model and show that the model is not reversible when the mutation operator is of uniform type. </p>
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<p>We obtain strong upper bounds for the Betti numbers of compact complex-hyperbolic manifolds. We use the unitary holonomy to improve the results given by the most direct application of the techniques of [DS17]. We also provide effective upper bounds for Betti numbers of compact quaternionic- and Cayley-hyperbolic manifolds in most degrees. More importantly, we extend our techniques to complete finite volume real- and complex-hyperbolic manifolds. In this setting, we develop new monotonicity inequalities for strongly harmonic forms on hyperbolic cusps and employ a new peaking argument to estimate $L^2$-cohomology ranks. Finally, we provide bounds on the de Rham cohomology of such spaces, using a combination of our bounds on $L^2$-cohomology, bounds on the number of cusps in terms of the volume, and the topological interpretation of reduced $L^2$-cohomology on certain rank one locally symmetric spaces. </p>
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<p>We investigate the asymptotic behavior of minimal $N$-point Riesz $s$-energy on fractal sets of non-integer dimension, with algebraically dependent contraction ratios. For $s$ bigger than the dimension of the set $A$, we prove the asymptotic behavior of the minimal $N$-point Riesz $s$-energy of $A$ along explicit subsequences, but we show that the general asymptotic behavior does not exist. </p>
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<p>In this paper, we will study the asymptotic geometry of 4-dimensional steady gradient Ricci solitons under the condition that they dimension reduce to $3$-manifolds. We will show that such 4-dimensional steady gradient Ricci solitons either dimension reduce to a spherical space form $\mathbb{S}^3/\Gamma$ or weakly dimension reduce to the $3$-dimensional Bryant soliton. We also show that 4-dimensional steady gradient Ricci soliton singularity models with nonnegative Ricci curvature outside a compact set either are Ricci-flat ALE $4$-manifolds or dimension reduce to $3$-dimensional manifolds. As an application, we prove that any steady gradient K\"{a}hler-Ricci soliton singularity models on complex surfaces with nonnegative Ricci curvature outside a compact set must be hyperk\"{a}hler ALE Ricc-flat $4$-manifolds. </p>
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<p>The author introduces a conjecture about Makar-Limanov invariants of affine unique factorization domains over a field of characteristic zero. Then the author finds that the conjecture does not always hold when $\mathbbm{k}$ is not algebraically closed and gives some examples where the conjecture holds. </p>
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<p>Uncertain partially observable Markov decision processes (uPOMDPs) allow the probabilistic transition and observation functions of standard POMDPs to belong to a so-called uncertainty set. Such uncertainty sets capture uncountable sets of probability distributions. We develop an algorithm to compute finite-memory policies for uPOMDPs that robustly satisfy given specifications against any admissible distribution. In general, computing such policies is both theoretically and practically intractable. We provide an efficient solution to this problem in four steps. (1) We state the underlying problem as a nonconvex optimization problem with infinitely many constraints. (2) A dedicated dualization scheme yields a dual problem that is still nonconvex but has finitely many constraints. (3) We linearize this dual problem and (4) solve the resulting finite linear program to obtain locally optimal solutions to the original problem. The resulting problem formulation is exponentially smaller than those resulting from existing methods. We demonstrate the applicability of our algorithm using large instances of an aircraft collision-avoidance scenario and a novel spacecraft motion planning case study. </p>
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<p>We completely describe the signatures of the Ricci curvature of left-invariant Riemannian metrics on arbitrary real nilpotent Lie groups. The main idea in the proof is to exploit a link between the kernel of the Ricci endomorphism and closed orbits in a certain representation of the general linear group, which we prove using the `real GIT' framework for the Ricci curvature of nilmanifolds. </p>
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<p>Optimizing a high-dimensional non-convex function is, in general, computationally hard and many problems of this type are hard to solve even approximately. Complexity theory characterizes the optimal approximation ratios achievable in polynomial time in the worst case. On the other hand, when the objective function is random, worst case approximation ratios are overly pessimistic. Mean field spin glasses are canonical families of random energy functions over the discrete hypercube $\{-1,+1\}^N$. The near-optima of these energy landscapes are organized according to an ultrametric tree-like structure, which enjoys a high degree of universality. Recently, a precise connection has begun to emerge between this ultrametric structure and the optimal approximation ratio achievable in polynomial time in the typical case. A new approximate message passing (AMP) algorithm has been proposed that leverages this connection. The asymptotic behavior of this algorithm has been analyzed, conditional on the nature of the solution of a certain variational problem. </p> <p>In this paper we describe the first implementation of this algorithm and the first numerical solution of the associated variational problem. We test our approach on two prototypical mean-field spin glasses: the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick (SK) model, and the $3$-spin Ising spin glass. We observe that the algorithm works well already at moderate sizes ($N\gtrsim 1000$) and its behavior is consistent with theoretical expectations. For the SK model it asymptotically achieves arbitrarily good approximations of the global optimum. For the $3$-spin model, it achieves a constant approximation ratio that is predicted by the theory, and it appears to beat the `threshold energy' achieved by Glauber dynamics. Finally, we observe numerically that the intermediate states generated by the algorithm have the properties of ancestor states in the ultrametric tree. </p>
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<p>In the paper, it is given isomorphic classification of $F$-spaces of $log$-integrable measurable functions constructed using different measure spaces. At the same time, it is proved that such spaces are non-isometric. </p>
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<p>Liquid crystal droplets are of great interest from physics and applications. Rigorous mathematical analysis is challenging as the problem involves harmonic maps (and in general the Oseen-Frank model), free interfaces and topological defects which could be either inside the droplet or on its surface along with some intriguing boundary anchoring conditions for the orientation configurations. In this paper, through a study of the phase transition between the isotropic and nematic states of liquid crystal based on the Ericksen model, we can show, when the size of droplet is much larger in comparison with the ratio of the Frank constants to the surface tension, a $\Gamma$-convergence theorem for minimizers. This $\Gamma$-limit is in fact the sharp interface limit for the phase transition between the isotropic and nematic regions when the small parameter $\varepsilon$, corresponding to the transition layer width, goes to zero. This limiting process not only provides a geometric description of the shape of the droplet as one would expect, and surprisingly it also gives the anchoring conditions for the orientations of liquid crystals on the surface of the droplet depending on material constants. In particular, homeotropic, tangential, and even free boundary conditions as assumed in earlier phenomenological modelings arise naturally provided that the surface tension, Frank and Ericksen constants are in suitable ranges. </p>
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<p>Let $V_1,V_2,V_3$ be a triple of even dimensional vector spaces over a number field $F$ equipped with nondegenerate quadratic forms $\mathcal{Q}_1,\mathcal{Q}_2,\mathcal{Q}_3$, respectively. Let \begin{align*} Y \subset \prod_{i=1}V_i \end{align*} be the closed subscheme of $(v_1,v_2,v_3)$ such that $\mathcal{Q}_1(v_1)=\mathcal{Q}_2(v_2)=\mathcal{Q}_3(v_3)$. The first author and B. Liu previously proved a Poisson summation formula for this scheme under suitable assumptions on the functions involved. We weaken these assumptions in the current work. As an application, we prove that the Fourier transform on $Y$, previously defined as a correspondence, descends to an isomorphism of the Schwartz space of $Y$. </p>
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<p>This paper concerns with the existence of transonic shocks for steady Euler flows in a 3-D axisymmetric cylindrical nozzle, which are governed by the Euler equations with the slip boundary condition on the wall of the nozzle and a receiver pressure at the exit. Mathematically, it can be formulated as a free boundary problem with the shock front being the free boundary to be determined. In dealing with the free boundary problem, one of the key points is determining the position of the shock front. To this end, a free boundary problem for the linearized Euler system will be proposed, whose solution gives an initial approximating position of the shock front. Compared with 2-D case, new difficulties arise due to the additional 0-order terms and singularities along the symmetric axis. New observation and careful analysis will be done to overcome these difficulties. Once the initial approximation is obtained, a nonlinear iteration scheme can be carried out, which converges to a transonic shock solution to the problem. </p>
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<p>We completely determine all varieties of monoids on whose free objects all fully invariant congruences or all fully invariant congruences contained in the least semilattice congruence permute. Along the way, we find several new monoid varieties with the distributive subvariety lattice (only a few examples of varieties with such a property are known so far). </p>
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<p>Let $G$ be a finite group. For a $G$-ring $A,$ let ${\rm Pic}^{\it G}({\it A})$ denote the equivariant Picard group of $A.$ We show that if $A$ is a finite type algebra over a field $k$ then ${\rm Pic}^{\it G}({\it A})$ is contracted in the sense of Bass with contraction $H_{et}^{1}(G; Spec(A), \mathbb{Z}).$ This gives a natural decomposition of the group ${\rm Pic}^{\it G}({\it A[t, t^{-1}]}).$ </p>
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<p>Model discovery based on existing data has been one of the major focuses of mathematical modelers for decades. Despite tremendous achievements of model identification from adequate data, how to unravel the models from limited data is less resolved. In this paper, we focus on the model discovery problem when the data is not efficiently sampled in time. This is common due to limited experimental accessibility and labor/resource constraints. Specifically, we introduce a recursive deep neural network (RDNN) for data-driven model discovery. This recursive approach can retrieve the governing equation in a simple and efficient manner, and it can significantly improve the approximation accuracy by increasing the recursive stages. In particular, our proposed approach shows superior power when the existing data are sampled with a large time lag, from which the traditional approach might not be able to recover the model well. Several widely used examples of dynamical systems are used to benchmark this newly proposed recursive approach. Numerical comparisons confirm the effectiveness of this recursive neural network for model discovery. </p>
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<p>Three-dimensional configurations are called angle-rigid if they cannot be deformed without changing distances between first neighbors or angles formed by pairs of first neighbors. This notion is connected with the local minimality of collections of points with respect to configurational energies featuring two- and three-body interactions. </p> <p>We investigate angle-rigidity for finite configurations in $\mathbb{Z}^2$, seen as planar three-dimensional point sets. A sufficient condition preventing angle-rigidity is presented. This condition is also proved to be necessary when restricted to specific subclasses of configurations. </p>
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<p>This article represents the second installment of a series of papers concerned with low regularity solutions for the water wave equations in two space dimensions. Our focus here is on global solutions for small and localized data. Such solutions have been proved to exist earlier in [15, 7, 10, 12] in much higher regularity. Our goal in this paper is to improve these results and prove global well-posedness under minimal regularity and decay assumptions for the initial data. One key ingredient here is represented by the balanced cubic estimates in our first paper. Another is the nonlinear vector field Sobolev inequalities, an idea first introduced by the last two authors in the context of the Benjamin-Ono equations [14]. </p>
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<p>We develop an efficient algorithm for sampling the eigenvalues of random matrices distributed according to the Haar measure over the orthogonal or unitary group. Our technique samples directly a factorization of the Hessenberg form of such matrices, and then computes their eigenvalues with a tailored core-chasing algorithm. This approach requires a number of floating-point operations that is quadratic in the order of the matrix being sampled, and can be adapted to other matrix groups. In particular, we explain how it can be used to sample the Haar measure over the special orthogonal and unitary groups and the conditional probability distribution obtained by requiring the determinant of the sampled matrix be a given complex number on the complex unit circle. </p>
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<p>Let $1 \to K \longrightarrow G \stackrel{\pi}\longrightarrow Q$ be an exact sequence of hyperbolic groups. Let $Q_1 &lt; Q$ be a quasiconvex subgroup and let $G_1=\pi^{-1}(Q_1)$. Under relatively mild conditions (e.g. if $K$ is a closed surface group or a free group and $Q$ is convex cocompact), we show that infinite index quasiconvex subgroups of $G_1$ are quasiconvex in $G$. Related results are proven for metric bundles, developable complexes of groups, and graphs of groups. </p>
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<p>Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are considered as one of the promising technologies for the next-generation wireless communication networks. Their mobility and their ability to establish a line of sight (LOS) links with the users made them key solutions for many potential applications. In the same vein, artificial intelligence is growing rapidly nowadays and has been very successful, particularly due to the massive amount of the available data. As a result, a significant part of the research community has started to integrate intelligence at the core of UAVs networks by applying machine learning (ML) algorithms in solving several problems in relation to drones. In this article, we provide a comprehensive overview of some potential applications of ML in UAV-Based networks. We will also highlight the limits of the existing works and outline some potential future applications of ML for UAVs networks. </p>
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<p>It is rather well-known that hyperbolic operators have the shadowing property. In the setting of finite dimensional Banach spaces, having the shadowing property is equivalent to being hyperbolic. In 2018, Bernardes et al. constructed an operator with the shadowing property which is not hyperbolic, settling an open question. In the process, they introduced a class of operators which has come to be known as generalized hyperbolic operators. This class of operators seems to be an important bridge between hyperbolicity and the shadowing property. In this article, we show that for a large natural class of operators on $L^p(X)$ the notion of generalized hyperbolicity and the shadowing property coincide. We do this by giving sufficient and necessary conditions for a certain class of operators to have the shadowing property. We also introduce computational tools which allow construction of operators with and without the shadowing property. Utilizing these tools, we show how some natural probability distributions, such as the Laplace distribution and the Cauchy distribution, lead to operators with and without the shadowing property on $L^p(X)$. </p>
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<p>Fix a finite undirected graph $G$ and a vertex $v$ of $G$. Let $E$ be the set of edges of $G$; assume that $E\neq\varnothing$. We call a subset $F$ of $E$ \textit{pandemic} if each edge of $G$ has at least one endpoint that can be connected to $v$ by an $F$-path (i.e., a path using edges from $F$ only). In 1984, Elser showed that the sum of $\left( -1\right)^{\left\vert F\right\vert }$ over all pandemic subsets $F$ of $E$ is $0$. We give a simpler proof and discuss variants and generalizations. </p>
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<p>We investigate the structure of ultrafilters on Boolean algebras in the framework of Tukey reducibility. In particular, this paper provides several techniques to construct ultrafilters which are not Tukey maximal. Furthermore, we connect this analysis with a cardinal invariant of Boolean algebras, the ultrafilter number, and prove consistency results concerning its possible values on Cohen and random algebras. </p>
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<p>We study local regularity properties of linear, non-uniformly parabolic finite-difference operators in divergence form related to the random conductance model on $\mathbb Z^d$. In particular, we provide an oscillation decay assuming only certain summability properties of the conductances and their inverse, thus improving recent results in that direction. As an application, we provide a local limit theorem for the random walk in a random degenerate and unbounded environment. </p>
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<p>A linearized polynomial $f(x)\in\mathbb F_{q^n}[x]$ is called scattered if for any $y,z\in\mathbb F_{q^n}$, the condition $zf(y)-yf(z)=0$ implies that $y$ and $z$ are $\mathbb F_{q}$-linearly dependent. In this paper two generalizations of the notion of a scattered linearized polynomial are defined and investigated. Let $t$ be a nontrivial positive divisor of $n$. By weakening the property defining a scattered linearized polynomial, L-$q^t$-partially scattered and R-$q^t$-partially scattered linearized polynomials are introduced in such a way that the scattered linearized polynomials are precisely those which are both L-$q^t$- and R-$q^t$-partially scattered. They determine linear sets and maximum rank distance codes whose properties are described in this paper. </p>
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<p>This paper revisits the modal truncation from an optimisation point of view. In particular, the concept of dominant poles is formulated with respect to different systems norms as the solution of the associated optimal modal truncation problem. The latter is reformulated as an equivalent convex integer or mixed-integer program. Numerical examples highlight the concept and optimisation approach. </p>
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<p>The motivation of our research is to establish a Laplace-domain theory that provides principles and methodology to analyze and synthesize systems with nonlinear dynamics. A semigroup of composition operators defined for nonlinear autonomous dynamical systems---the Koopman semigroup and its associated Koopman generator---plays a central role in this study. We introduce the resolvent of the Koopman generator, which we call the Koopman resolvent, and provide its spectral characterization for three types of nonlinear dynamics: ergodic evolution on an attractor, convergence to a stable equilibrium point, and convergence to a (quasi-)stable limit cycle. This shows that the Koopman resolvent provides the Laplace-domain representation of such nonlinear autonomous dynamics. A computational aspect of the Laplace-domain representation is also discussed with emphasis on non-stationary Koopman modes. </p>
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<p>We consider the joint constellation design problem for the noncoherent multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) multiple-access channel. By analyzing the noncoherent maximum-likelihood (ML) detection error, we propose novel design criteria so as to minimize the error probability. Our first criterion is the minimum expected pairwise log-likelihood ratio over the joint constellation. From an analysis of this metric at high signal-to-noise ratio, we obtain further simplified metrics. For any given set of constellation sizes, the proposed metrics can be optimized over the set of signal matrices. Using these criteria, we evaluate two simple constructions: partitioning a single-user constellation, which is effective for relatively small constellations, and precoding individual constellations of lower dimension. For a fixed joint constellation, the design metrics can be further optimized over the per-user transmit power, especially when the users transmit at different rates. Considering unitary space-time modulation, we investigate the option of building each individual constellation as a set of truncated unitary matrices scaled by the respective transmit power. Numerical results show that our proposed metrics are meaningful, and can be used as objectives to generate constellations through numerical optimization that perform better, for the same transmission rate and power constraint, than a common pilot-based scheme and the constellations optimized with existing metrics. </p>
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<p>The high-SNR capacity of the noncoherent MIMO channel has been derived for the case of independent and identically distributed (IID) Rayleigh block fading by exploiting the Gaussianity of the channel matrix. This implies the optimal degrees of freedom (DoF), i.e., the capacity pre-log factor. Nevertheless, as far as the optimal DoF is concerned, IID Rayleigh fading is apparently a sufficient but not necessary condition. In this paper, we show that the optimal DoF for the IID Rayleigh block fading channel is also the optimal DoF for a more general class of generic block fading channels, in which the random channel matrix has finite power and finite differential entropy. Our main contribution is a novel converse proof based on the duality approach. </p>
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<p>Let $F$ be a field which is, either local non archimedean, or finite, of residual charcateristic $p$ but of characteristic different from $2$. Let $W$ be a symplectic space of finite dimension over $F$. Suppose $R$ is a field of characteristic $\ell \neq p$ so that there exists a non trivial smooth additive character $\psi : F \to R^\times$. Then the Stone-von Neumann theorem of the Heisenberg group $H(W)$ is still valid for representations with coefficients in $R$. It leads to a projective representation of the group $\text{Sp}(W)$ which lifts to a genuine smooth representation of a central extension of $\text{Sp}(W)$ by $R^\times$: this is the modular Weil representation of the metaplectic group. For any dual pair $(H_1,H_2)$, their lifts to the metaplectic group may splitor not according to the different cases at stake. Eventually, computing the biggest isotypic quotient of the modular Weil representation allows to define the $\Theta$-lift. Some new lines of investigation are thus available with these new tools such as studying scalar extension and reduction modulo $\ell$. </p>
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<p>Let $\underline{x} = x_1,\ldots,x_k$ denote an ordered sequence of elements of a commutative ring $R$. Let $M$ be an $R$-module. We recall the two notions that $\underline{x}$ is $M$-proregular given by Greenlees and May (see \cite{[5]}) and Lipman (see \cite{[1]}) and show that both notions are equivalent. As a main result we prove a cohomological characterization for $\underline{x}$ to be $M$-proregular in terms of \v{C}ech homology. This implies also that $\underline{x}$ is $M$-weakly proregular if it is $M$-proregular. A local-global principle for proregularity and weakly proregularity is proved. This is used for a result about prisms as introduced by Bhatt and Scholze (see \cite{[3]}). </p>
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<p>The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in more than 14.5 million infections and 6,04,917 deaths in 212 countries over the last few months. Different drug intervention acting at multiple stages of pathogenesis of COVID-19 can substantially reduce the infection induced,thereby decreasing the mortality. Also population level control strategies can reduce the spread of the COVID-19 substantially. Motivated by these observations, in this work we propose and study a multi scale model linking both within-host and between-host dynamics of COVID-19. Initially the natural history dealing with the disease dynamics is studied. Later, comparative effectiveness is performed to understand the efficacy of both the within-host and population level interventions. Findings of this study suggest that a combined strategy involving treatment with drugs such as Arbidol, remdesivir, Lopinavir/Ritonavir that inhibits viral replication and immunotherapies like monoclonal antibodies, along with environmental hygiene and generalized social distancing proved to be the best and optimal in reducing the basic reproduction number and environmental spread of the virus at the population level. </p>
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<p>An additive map $T$ acting between spaces of vector-valued functions is said to be biseparating if $T$ is a bijection so that $f$ and $g$ are disjoint if and only if $Tf$ and $Tg$ are disjoint. Note that an additive bijection retains $\mathbb{Q}$-linearity. For a general nonlinear map $T$, the definition of biseparating given above turns out to be too weak to determine the structure of $T$. In this paper, we propose a revised definition of biseparating maps for general nonlinear operators acting between spaces of vector-valued functions, which coincides with the previous definition for additive maps. Under some mild assumptions on the function spaces involved, it turns out that a map is biseparating if and only if it is locally determined. We then delve deeply into some specific function spaces -- spaces of continuous functions, uniformly continuous functions and Lipschitz functions -- and characterize the biseparating maps acting on them. As a by-product, certain forms of automatic continuity are obtained. We also prove some finer properties of biseparating maps in the cases of uniformly continuous and Lipschitz functions. </p>
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<p>The aim of the present paper is to introduce a new numerical method for solving nonlinear Volterra integro-differential equations involving delay. We apply trapezium rule to the integral involved in the equation. Further, Daftardar-Gejji and Jafari method (DGJ) is employed to solve the implicit equation. Existence-uniqueness theorem is derived for solutions of such equations and the error and convergence analysis of the proposed method is presented. We illustrate efficacy of the newly proposed method by constructing examples. </p>
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<p>The question we propose to answer throughout this paper is the following: Given an isogeny class of Drinfeld modules over a finite field, what are the orders of the corresponding endomorphism algebra (which is an isogeny invariant) that occur as endomorphism ring of a Drinfeld module in that isogeny class? It is worth mentioning that this question is different from the ones investigated by the authors Kuhn, Pink in [6] and Garai, Papikian in [3]. The former authors rather provided an answer to the question, given a Drinfeld module {\phi}, how does one efficiently compute the endomorphism ring of {\phi}? The importance of our question resides in the fact that it might be very helpful to better understand isogeny graphs of Drinfeld modules of higher rank (r &gt; 2) and may be reopen the debate concerning the application to isogeny-based cryptography. We answer that question for the case whereby the endomorphism algebra is a field by providing a necessary and sufficient condition for a given order to be the endomorphism ring of a Drinfeld module. We apply our result to rank r = 3 Drinfeld modules and explicitly compute those orders occurring as endomorphism rings of rank 3 Drinfeld modules over a finite field. </p>
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<p>This paper investigates the homology of the Brauer algebras, interpreted as appropriate Tor-groups, and shows that it is closely related to the homology of the symmetric group. Our main results show that when the defining parameter of the Brauer algebra is invertible, then the homology of the Brauer algebra is isomorphic to the homology of the symmetric group, and that when the parameter is not invertible, this isomorphism still holds in a range of degrees that increases with n. </p>
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<p>In this article, for a fourth-order parabolic equation which is closely related for example to the Cahn-Hilliard equation, we study an inverse source problem by interior data and the continuation of solution from lateral Cauchy data. Our method relies on a Carleman estimate and proves conditional stability for both problems. </p>
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<p>We prove a zero-one law for the stationary measure for algebraic sets generalizing the results of Furstenberg [13] and Guivarc'h and Le Page [20]. As an application, we establish a local limit theorem for the coefficients of random walks on the general linear group. </p>
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<p>We introduce a family of two-dimensional reflected random walks in the positive quadrant and study their Martin boundary. While the minimal boundary is systematically equal to a union of two points, the full Martin boundary exhibits an instability phenomenon, in the following sense: if some parameter associated to the model is rational (resp. non-rational), then the Martin boundary is discrete, homeomorphic to $\mathbb Z$ (resp. continuous, homeomorphic to $\mathbb R$). Such instability phenomena are very rare in the literature. Along the way of proving this result, we obtain several precise estimates for the Green functions of reflected random walks with escape probabilities along the boundary axes and an arbitrarily large number of inhomogeneity domains. Our methods mix probabilistic techniques and an analytic approach for random walks with large jumps in dimension two. </p>
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<p>We study the norm derivatives in the context of Birkhoff-James orthogonality in real Banach spaces. As an application of this, we obtain a complete characterization of the left-symmetric points and the right-symmetric points in a real Banach space in terms of the norm derivatives. We obtain a complete characterization of strong Birkhoff-James orthogonality in $\ell_1^n$ and $\ell_\infty^n$ spaces. We also obtain a complete characterization of the orthogonality relation defined by the norm derivatives in terms of some newly introduced variation of Birkhoff-James orthogonality. We further study Birkhoff-James orthogonality, approximate Birkhoff-James orthogonality, smoothness and norm attainment of bounded bilinear operators between Banach spaces. </p>
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<p>In phylogenetics it is of interest for rate matrix sets to satisfy closure under matrix multiplication as this makes finding the set of corresponding transition matrices possible without having to compute matrix exponentials. It is also advantageous to have a small number of free parameters as this, in applications, will result in a reduction of computation time. We explore a method of building a rate matrix set from a rooted tree structure by assigning rates to internal tree nodes and states to the leaves, then defining the rate of change between two states as the rate assigned to the most recent common ancestor of those two states. We investigate the properties of these matrix sets from both a linear algebra and a graph theory perspective and show that any rate matrix set generated this way is closed under matrix multiplication. The consequences of setting two rates assigned to internal tree nodes to be equal are then considered. This methodology could be used to develop parameterised models of amino acid substitution which have a small number of parameters but convey biological meaning. </p>
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<p>For a given Riemannian metric $g$ of positive scalar curvature on a compact $n$-manifold, we define two constants $\Ein([g])$ and $\ein([g])$ of the conformal class of $g$. Roughly speaking, the constant $\Ein([g])\in (0,n]$ measures how far away is the class $[g]$ from containing an Einstein metric of positive scalar curvature. The constant $\ein([g])\in (-\infty,0)$ measures how far away is the class $[g]$ to possess a metric of nonnegative Ricci curvature and positive scalar curvature. We prove a vanishing theorem of the Betti numbers of a conformally flat manifold by assuming a lower bound on the first constant or an upper bound on the second one. As a consequence we were able to determine these constants for reducible conformally flat manifolds. In four dimensions we prove that if a manifold admits a positive conformally flat class then it admits a conformally flat class $[g]$ with $\Ein([g])\geq 3$ and $\ein([g])=-\infty$. We prove similar results for non-conformally flat classes but with an additional conformal condition. </p>
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<p>The minimal excludant, or "mex" function, on a set $S$ of positive integers is the least positive integer not in $S$. In a recent paper, Andrews and Newman extended the mex-function to integer partitions and found numerous surprising partition identities connected with these functions. Very recently, da Silva and Sellers present parity considerations of one of the families of functions Andrews and Newman studied, namely $p_{t,t}(n)$, and provide complete parity characterizations of $p_{1,1}(n)$ and $p_{3,3}(n)$. In this article, we study the parity of $p_{t,t}(n)$ when $t=2^{\alpha}, 3\cdot 2^{\alpha}$ for all $\alpha\geq 1$. We prove that $p_{2^{\alpha},2^{\alpha}}(n)$ and $p_{3\cdot2^{\alpha}, 3\cdot2^{\alpha}}(n)$ are almost always even for all $\alpha\geq 1$. Using a result of Ono and Taguchi on nilpotency of Hecke operators, we also find infinite families of congruences modulo $2$ satisfied by $p_{2^{\alpha},2^{\alpha}}(n)$ and $p_{3\cdot2^{\alpha}, 3\cdot2^{\alpha}}(n)$ for all $\alpha\geq 1$. </p>
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<p>In a recent paper, Andrews and Newman introduced certain families of partition functions using the minimal excludant or "mex" function. In this article, we study two of the families of functions Andrews and Newman introduced, namely $p_{t,t}(n)$ and $p_{2t,t}(n)$. We establish identities connecting the ordinary partition function $p(n)$ to $p_{t,t}(n)$ and $p_{2t,t}(n)$ for all $t\geq 1$. Using these identities, we prove that the Ramanujan's famous congruences for $p(n)$ are also satisfied by $p_{t,t}(n)$ and $p_{2t,t}(n)$ for infinitely many values of $t$. Very recently, da Silva and Sellers provide complete parity characterizations of $p_{1,1}(n)$ and $p_{3,3}(n)$. We prove that $p_{t,t}(n)\equiv \overline{C}_{4t,t}(n) \pmod{2}$ for all $n\geq 0$ and $t\geq 1$, where $\overline{C}_{4t,t}(n)$ is the Andrews' singular overpartition function. Using this congruence, the parity characterization of $p_{1,1}(n)$ given by da Silva and Sellers follows from that of $\overline{C}_{4,1}(n)$. We also give elementary proofs of certain congruences already proved by da Silva and Sellers. </p>
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<p>In this article, we introduce and study the concept of the exponent of a cyclic code over a finite field $\mathbb{F}_q.$ We give a relation between the exponent of a cyclic code and its dual code. Finally, we introduce and determine the exponent distribution of the cyclic code. </p>
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<p>In this paper, we use Breadth-first search algorithm to determine the distance matrix of the dimension-regular generalized recursive circulant graph (commonly known as multiplicative circulant graph) of order power of two and three. As a consequence, the diameter of the graphs were determined. We also give their distance spectral radii, average distances, as well as the exact values of vertex-forwarding indices. Finally, using some known relationships between the distance spectral radii and forwarding indices of a graph, we give some bounds for their edge-forwarding indices. </p>
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<p>In this study, we obtain a spinorial Gauss formula for a lightlike hypersurface in Lorentzian manifold with 4-dimension. Then, we take into account the changes caused by degenerate metric on hypersurface and investigate Dirac operator for lightlike hypersurface. Later, we establish the relation between Dirac operators and Riemannian curvatures of manifold and hypersurface. </p>
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<p>We consider the parabolic Anderson model (PAM) $\partial_t u = \frac12 \Delta u + \xi u$ in $\mathbb R^2$ with a Gaussian (space) white-noise potential $\xi$. We prove that the almost-sure large-time asymptotic behaviour of the total mass at time $t$, written $U(t)$, is given by $\log U(t)\sim \chi t \log t$, with the deterministic constant $\chi$ identified in terms of a variational formula. In earlier work of one of the authors this constant was used to describe the asymptotic behaviour principal Dirichlet of the eigenvalue $\boldsymbol \lambda_1(Q_t)$ of the Anderson operator on the box $Q_t= [-\frac{t}{2},\frac{t}{2}]^2$ by $\boldsymbol \lambda_1(Q_t)\sim\chi\log t$. </p>
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<p>This paper studies averaging algebras, say, associative algebras endowed with averaging operators. We develop a cohomology theory for averaging algebras and justify it by interpreting lower degree cohomology groups as formal deformations and abelian extensions of averaging algebras. We make explicit the $L_\infty$-algebra structure over the cochain complex defining cohomology groups and introduce the notion of homotopy averaging algebras as Maurer-Cartan elements of this $L_\infty$-algebra. </p>
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<p>We show that the stable module $\infty$-category of a finite group $G$ decomposes in three different ways as a limit of the stable module $\infty$-categories of certain subgroups of $G$. Analogously to Dwyer's terminology for homology decompositions, we call these the centraliser, normaliser, and subgroup decompositions. We construct centraliser and normaliser decompositions and extend the subgroup decomposition (constructed by Mathew) to more collections of subgroups. The key step in the proof is extending the stable module $\infty$-category to be defined for any $G$-space, then showing that this extension only depends on the $S$-equivariant homotopy type of a $G$-space. The methods used are not specific to the stable module $\infty$-category, so may also be applicable in other settings where an $\infty$-category depends functorially on $G$. </p>
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<p>We study the set of star operations on local Noetherian domains $D$ of dimension $1$ such that the conductor $(D:T)$ (where $T$ is the integral closure of $D$) is equal to the maximal ideal of $D$. We reduce this problem to the study of a class of closure operations (more precisely, multiplicative operations) in a finite extension $k\subseteq B$, where $k$ is a field, and then we study how the cardinality of this set of closures vary as the size of $k$ varies while the structure of $B$ remains fixed. </p>
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<p>The aim of this work is to study homogeneous stable solutions to the thin (or fractional) one-phase free boundary problem. </p> <p>The problem of classifying stable (or minimal) homogeneous solutions in dimensions $n\geq3$ is completely open. In this context, axially symmetric solutions are expected to play the same role as Simons' cone in the classical theory of minimal surfaces, but even in this simpler case the problem is open. </p> <p>The goal of this paper is twofold. On the one hand, our first main contribution is to find, for the first time, the stability condition for the thin one-phase problem. Quite surprisingly, this requires the use of "large solutions" for the fractional Laplacian, which blow up on the free boundary. </p> <p>On the other hand, using our new stability condition, we show that any axially symmetric homogeneous stable solution in dimensions $n\le 5$ is one-dimensional, independently of the parameter $s\in (0,1)$. </p>
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<p>We define the notion of near geodesic between points where no geodesic exists, and use this to define geodesic complexity for non-geodesic spaces. We determine explicit near geodesics and geodesic complexity in a variety of cases, including one in which the geodesic complexity exceeds the topological complexity. </p>
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<p>In this article, we investigate the existence, uniqueness, nonexistence, and regularity of weak solutions to the nonlinear fractional elliptic problem of type $(P)$ (see below) involving singular nonlinearity and singular weights in smooth bounded domain. We prove the existence of weak solution in $W_{loc}^{s,p}(\Omega)$ via approximation method. Establishing a new comparison principle of independent interest, we prove the uniqueness of weak solution for $0 \leq \delta&lt; 1+s- \frac{1}{p}$ and furthermore the nonexistence of weak solution for $\delta \geq sp.$ Moreover, by virtue of barrier arguments we study the behavior of minimal weak solution in terms of distance function. Consequently, we prove H\"older regularity up to the boundary and optimal Sobolev regularity for minimal weak solutions. </p>
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<p>This PhD thesis lays out algebraic and topological structures relevant for the study of probabilistic graphical models. </p> <p>Marginal estimation algorithms are introduced as diffusion equations of the form $\dot u = \delta \varphi$. They generalise the traditional belief propagation (BP) algorithm, and provide an alternative for contrastive divergence (CD) or Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithms, typically involved in estimating a free energy functional and its gradient w.r.t. model parameters. </p> <p>We propose a new homological picture where parameters are a collections of local interaction potentials $(u_\alpha) \in A_0$, for $\alpha$ running over the factor nodes of a given region graph. The boundary operator $\delta$ mapping heat fluxes $(\varphi_{\alpha\beta}) \in A_1$ to a subspace $\delta A_1 \subseteq A_0$ is the discrete analog of a divergence. The total energy $H = \sum_\alpha u_\alpha$ defining the global probability $p = e^{-H} / Z$ is in one-to-one correspondence with a homology class $[u] = u + \delta A_1$ of interaction potentials, so that total energy remains constant when $u$ evolves up to a boundary term $\delta \varphi$. </p> <p>Stationary states of diffusion are shown to lie at the intersection of a homology class of potentials with a non-linear constraint surface enforcing consistency of the local marginals estimates. This picture allows us to precise and complete a proof on the correspondence between stationary states of BP and critical points of a local free energy functional (obtained by Bethe-Kikuchi approximations) and to extend the uniqueness result for acyclic graphs (i.e. trees) to a wider class of hypergraphs. In general, bifurcations of equilibria are related to the spectral singularities of a local diffusion operator, yielding new explicit examples of the degeneracy phenomenon. </p> <p>Work supervised by Pr. Daniel Bennequin </p>
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<p>This note is about a $16$-dimensional family of surfaces of general type with $p_g=2$ and $q=0$ and $K^2=1$, called "special Horikawa surfaces". These surfaces, studied by Pearlstein-Zhang and by Garbagnati, are related to K3 surfaces. We show that special Horikawa surfaces have a multiplicative Chow-K\"unneth decomposition, in the sense of Shen-Vial. As a consequence, the Chow ring of special Horikawa surfaces displays K3-like behaviour. </p>
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<p>Garbagnati has constructed certain surfaces of general type that are bidouble planes as well as double covers of K3 surfaces. In this note, we study the Chow groups (and Chow motive) of these surfaces. </p>
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<p>We consider the plasma-vacuum interface problem in a horizontally periodic slab impressed by a uniform non-horizontal magnetic field. The lower plasma region is governed by the incompressible inviscid and resistive MHD, the upper vacuum region is governed by the pre-Maxwell equations, and the effect of surface tension is taken into account on the free interface. The global well-posedness of the problem, supplemented with physical boundary conditions, around the equilibrium is established, and the solution is shown to decay to the equilibrium almost exponentially. Our results reveal the strong stabilizing effect of the magnetic field as the global well-posedness of the free-boundary incompressible Euler equations, without the irrotational assumption, around the equilibrium is unknown. One of the key observations here is an induced damping structure for the fluid vorticity due to the resistivity and transversal magnetic field. A similar global well-posedness for the plasma-plasma interface problem is obtained, where the vacuum is replaced by another plasma. </p>
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<p>Knot polynomials colored with symmetric representations of $SL_q(N)$ satisfy difference equations as functions of representation parameter, which look like quantization of classical ${\cal A}$-polynomials. However, they are quite difficult to derive and investigate. Much simpler should be the equations for coefficients of differential expansion nicknamed quantum ${\cal C}$-polynomials. It turns out that, for each knot, one can actually derive two difference equations of a finite order for these coefficients, those with shifts in spin $n$ of the representation and in $A=q^N$. Thus, the ${\cal C}$-polynomials are much richer and form an entire ring. We demonstrate this with the examples of various defect zero knots, mostly discussing the entire twist family. </p>
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<p>We consider the problem of estimating a meta-model of an unknown regression model with non-Gaussian and non-bounded error. The meta-model belongs to a reproducing kernel Hilbert space constructed as a direct sum of Hilbert spaces leading to an additive decomposition including the variables and interactions between them. The estimator of this meta-model is calculated by minimizing an empirical least-squares criterion penalized by the sum of the Hilbert norm and the empirical $L^2$-norm. In this context, the upper bounds of the empirical $L^2$ risk and the $L^2$ risk of the estimator are established. </p>
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<p>Let $\Omega$ be homogeneous of degree zero and have mean value zero on the unit sphere ${S}^{d-1}$, $T_{\Omega}$ be the homogeneous singular integral operator with kernel $\frac{\Omega(x)}{|x|^d}$ and $T_{\Omega,\,b}$ be the commutator of $T_{\Omega}$ with symbol $b$. In this paper, we prove that if $\Omega\in L(\log L)^2(S^{d-1})$, then for $b\in {\rm BMO}(\mathbb{R}^d)$, $T_{\Omega,\,b}$ satisfies an endpoint estimate of $L\log L$ type. </p>
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<p>In this paper we present a Hamiltonian perturbation of any completely integrable Hamiltonian system with 2n degrees of freedom ($n\geq 2$). The perturbation is $C^\infty$ small but the resulting flow has positive metric entropy and it satisfies KAM non-degeneracy conditions. The key point is that positive entropy can be generated in an arbitrarily small tubular neighborhood of one trajectory. </p>
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<p>In previous work, we have considered Hamiltonians associated with 3 dimensional conformally flat spaces, possessing 2, 3 and 4 dimensional isometry algebras. Previously our Hamiltonians have represented free motion, but here we consider the problem of adding potential functions in the presence of symmetry. </p> <p>Separable potentials in the 3 dimensional space reduce to 3 or 4 parameter potentials for Darboux-Koenigs Hamiltonians. Other 3D coordinate systems reveal connections between Darboux-Koenigs and other well known super-integrable Hamiltonians, such as the Kepler problem and isotropic oscillator. </p>
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<p>In this paper a fully coupled system of transient $Navier$-$Stokes$ ($NS$) fluid flow model and variable coefficient unsteady Advection-Diffusion-Reaction ($VADR$) transport model has been studied through subgrid multiscale stabilized finite element method. In particular algebraic approach of approximating the subscales has been considered to arrive at stabilized variational formulation of the coupled system. This system is strongly coupled since viscosity of the fluid depends upon the concentration, whose transportation is modelled by $VADR$ equation. Fully implicit schemes have been considered for time discretisation. Further more elaborated derivations of both $apriori$ and $aposteriori$ error estimates for stabilized finite element scheme have been carried out. Credibility of the stabilized method is also established well through various numerical experiments, presented before concluding. </p>
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<p>In [Cou15] a multiplier technique, going back to Leray and G{\aa}rding for scalar hyperbolic partial differential equations, has been extended to the context of finite difference schemes for evolutionary problems. The key point of the analysis in [Cou15] was to obtain a discrete energy-dissipation balance law when the initial difference operator is multiplied by a suitable quantity. The construction of the energy and dissipation functionals was achieved in [Cou15] under the assumption that all modes were separated. We relax this assumption here and construct, for the same multiplier as in [Cou15], the energy and dissipation functionals when some modes cross. Semigroup estimates for fully discrete hy-perbolic initial boundary value problems are deduced in this broader context by following the arguments of [Cou15]. </p>
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<p>We study this zero-flux attraction-repulsion chemotaxis model, with linear and superlinear production $g$ for the chemorepellent and sublinear rate $f$ for the chemoattractant: \begin{equation}\label{problem_abstract} \tag{$\Diamond$} \begin{cases} u_t= \Delta u - \chi \nabla \cdot (u \nabla v)+\xi \nabla \cdot (u \nabla w) &amp; \text{ in } \Omega \times (0,T_{max}),\\ v_t=\Delta v-f(u)v &amp; \text{ in } \Omega \times (0,T_{max}),\\ 0= \Delta w - \delta w + g(u)&amp; \text{ in } \Omega \times (0,T_{max}). %u(x,0)=u_0(x), \; v(x,0)=v_0(x) &amp; x \in \bar\Omega. \end{cases} \end{equation} In this problem, $\Omega$ is a bounded and smooth domain of $\R^n$, for $n\geq 1$, $\chi,\xi,\delta&gt;0$, $f(u)$ and $g(u)$ reasonably regular functions generalizing the prototypes $f(u)=K u^\alpha$ and $g(u)=\gamma u^l$, with $K,\gamma&gt;0$ and proper $ \alpha, l&gt;0$. Once it is indicated that any sufficiently smooth $u(x,0)=u_0(x)\geq 0$ and $v(x,0)=v_0(x)\geq 0$ produce a unique classical and nonnegative solution $(u,v,w)$ to \eqref{problem_abstract}, which is defined in $\Omega \times (0,T_{max})$, we establish that for any such $(u_0,v_0)$, the life span $\TM=\infty$ and $u, v$ and $w$ are uniformly bounded in $\Omega\times (0,\infty)$, (i) for $l=1$, $n\in \{1,2\}$, $\alpha\in (0,\frac{1}{2}+\frac{1}{n})\cap (0,1)$ and any $\xi&gt;0$, (ii) for $l=1$, $n\geq 3$, $\alpha\in (0,\frac{1}{2}+\frac{1}{n})$ and $\xi$ larger than a quantity depending on $\chi \lVert v_0 \rVert_{L^\infty(\Omega)}$, (iii) for $l&gt;1$ any $\xi&gt;0$, and in any dimensional settings. Finally, an indicative analysis about the effect by logistic and repulsive actions on chemotactic phenomena is proposed by comparing the results herein derived for the linear production case with those in \cite{LankeitWangConsumptLogistic}. </p>
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<p>It is a sequel to (Wu in <a href="/abs/2003.05187">arXiv:2003.05187</a>). In that paper, we introduce a notion called modified ideal sheaf in order to make an asymptotic estimate for the order of the cohomology group. Here we continue to a general discussion about this notion. As an application, we study the direct images associated with a pseudo-effective line bundle. </p>
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<p>Consider a system of homogeneous interacting diffusive particles labeled by the nodes of a unimodular Galton-Watson tree, where the state of each node evolves infinitesimally like a d-dimensional diffusion whose drift coefficient depends on its own state and the states of neighboring nodes, and whose diffusion coefficient depends only on its own state. Under suitable assumptions, an autonomous characterization is obtained for the marginal distribution of the dynamics of the neighborhood of a typical node in terms of a novel stochastic differential equation we call the local equation.This equation describes a finite-dimensional non-Markovian stochastic process whose infinitesimal evolution at any time depends not only on the structure and current state of the neighborhood, but also on the conditional law of the current state given the past of the neighborhood process until that time. Such marginal distributions are of interest because they arise as weak limits of both marginal distributions and empirical measures of interacting diffusions on many sequences of sparse random graphs, including the configuration model and Erdos-Renyi graphs whose average degrees converge to a finite non-zero limit. The results obtained complement classical results in the mean-field regime, which characterize the limiting dynamics of homogeneous interacting diffusions on complete graphs, as the number of nodes goes to infinity, in terms of a corresponding nonlinear Markov process. However, in the sparse graph setting, the topology of the graph matters, and the analysis requires a completely different approach. Important ingredients of the proofs include conditional independence and symmetry properties for particle trajectories on unimodular Galton-Watson trees, a stochastic analytic result on projections of Ito processes, and a recursive construction for establishing well-posedness of the local equation. </p>
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<p>Although the solutions of Painlev\'e equations are transcendental in the sense that they cannot be expressed in terms of known elementary functions, there do exist rational solutions for specialized values of the equation parameters. A very successful approach in the study of rational solutions to Painlev\'e equations involves the reformulation of these scalar equations into a symmetric system of coupled, Riccati-like equations known as dressing chains. Periodic dressing chains are known to be equivalent to the $A_N$-Painlev\'e system, first described by Noumi and Yamada. The Noumi-Yamada system, in turn, can be linearized as using bilinear equations and $\tau$-functions; the corresponding rational solutions can then be given as specializations of rational solutions of the KP hierarchy. </p> <p>The classification of rational solutions to Painlev\'e equations and systems may now be reduced to an analysis of combinatorial objects known as Maya diagrams. The upshot of this analysis is a an explicit determinental representation for rational solutions in terms of classical orthogonal polynomials. In this paper we illustrate this approach by describing Hermite-type rational solutions of Painlev\'e of the Noumi-Yamada system in terms of cyclic Maya diagrams. By way of example we explicitly construct Hermite-type solutions for the PIV, PV equations and the $A_4$ Painlev\'e system. </p>
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<p>In this short note we present a generating function computing the compactly supported Euler characteristic $\chi_c(F(X, n), K^{\boxtimes n})$ of the configuration spaces on a topologically stratified space $X$, with $K$ a constructible complex of sheaves on $X$, and we obtain as a special case a generating function for the Euler characteristic $\chi(F(X, n))$. We also recall how to use existing results to turn our computation of the Euler characteristic into a computation of the equivariant Euler characteristic. </p>
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<p>We consider initial boundary value problems for one-dimensional diffusion equation with time-fractional derivative of order $\alpha \in (0,1)$ which are subject to non-zero Neumann boundary conditions. We prove the uniqueness for an inverse coefficient problem of determining a spatially varying potential and the order of the time-fractional derivative by Dirichlet data at one end point of the spatial interval. The imposed Neumann conditions are required to be within the correct Sobolev space of order $\alpha$. Our proof is based on a representation formula of solution to an initial boundary value problem with non-zero boundary data. Moreover, we apply such a formula and prove the uniqueness in the determination of boundary value at another end point by Cauchy data at one end point. </p>
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<p>We consider the bipartite boolean quadric polytope (BQP) with multiple-choice constraints and analyse its combinatorial properties. The well-studied BQP is defined as the convex hull of all quadric incidence vectors over a bipartite graph. In this work, we study the case where there is a partition on one of the two bipartite node sets such that at most one node per subset of the partition can be chosen. This polytope arises, for instance, in pooling problems with fixed proportions of the inputs at each pool. We show that it inherits many characteristics from BQP, among them a wide range of facet classes and operations which are facet preserving. Moreover, we characterize various cases in which the polytope is completely described via the relaxation-linearization inequalities. The special structure induced by the additional multiple-choice constraints also allows for new facet-preserving symmetries as well as lifting operations. Furthermore, it leads to several novel facet classes as well as extensions of these via lifting. We additionally give computationally tractable exact separation algorithms, most of which run in polynomial time. Finally, we demonstrate the strength of both the inherited and the new facet classes in computational experiments on random as well as real-world problem instances. It turns out that in many cases we can close the optimality gap almost completely via cutting planes alone, and, consequently, solution times can be reduced significantly. </p>
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<p>This paper studies the first passage percolation (FPP) model: each edge in the cubic lattice is assigned a random passage time, and consideration is given to the behavior of the percolation region $B(t)$, which consists of the vertices that can be reached from the origin within a time $t &gt; 0$. Cox and Durrett showed the shape theorem for the percolation region, saying that the normalized region $B(t)/t$ converges to some limit shape $\mathcal{B}$. This paper generalizes the FPP model formulated on a crystal lattice and gives a general version of the shape theorem. This paper also shows the monotonicity of the limit shapes under covering maps, thereby providing insight into the limit shape of the cubic FPP model. </p>
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<p>We consider a class of trigonometric solutions of WDVV equations determined by collections of vectors with multiplicities. We show that such solutions can be restricted to special subspaces to produce new solutions of the same type. We find new solutions given by restrictions of root systems, as well as examples which are not of this form. Further, we consider a closely related notion of a trigonometric $\vee$-system and we show that their subsystems are also trigonometric $\vee$-systems. Finally, while reviewing the root system case we determine a version of (generalised) Coxeter number for the exterior square of the reflection representation of a Weyl group. </p>
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<p>We consider a fractional Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process involving a stochastic forcing term in the drift, as a solution of a linear stochastic differential equation driven by a fractional Brownian motion. For such process we specify mean and covariance functions, concentrating on their asymptotic behavior. This gives us a sort of short- or long-range dependence, under specified hypotheses on the covariance of the forcing process. Applications of this process in neuronal modeling are discussed, providing an example of a stochastic forcing term as a linear combination of Heaviside functions with random center. Simulation algorithms for the sample path of this process are finally given. </p>
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<p>The Poisson-Boltzmann equation is a widely used model to study the electrostatics in molecular solvation. Its numerical solution using a boundary integral formulation requires a mesh on the molecular surface only, yielding accurate representations of the solute, which is usually a complicated geometry. Here, we utilize adjoint-based analyses to form two goal-oriented error estimates that allows us to determine the contribution of each discretization element (panel) to the numerical error in the solvation free energy. This information is useful to identify high-error panels to then refine them adaptively to find optimal surface meshes. We present results for spheres and real molecular geometries, and see that elements with large error tend to be in regions where there is a high electrostatic potential. We also find that even though both estimates predict different total errors, they have similar performance as part of an adaptive mesh refinement scheme. Our test cases suggest that the adaptive mesh refinement scheme is very effective, as we are able to reduce the error one order of magnitude by increasing the mesh size less than 20\%. This result sets the basis towards efficient automatic mesh refinement schemes that produce optimal meshes for solvation energy calculations. </p>
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<p>The finite element method, finite difference method, finite volume method and spectral method have achieved great success in solving partial differential equations. However, the high accuracy of traditional numerical methods is at the cost of high efficiency. Especially in the face of high-dimensional problems, the traditional numerical methods are often not feasible in the subdivision of high-dimensional meshes and the differentiability and integrability of high-order terms. In deep learning, neural network can deal with high-dimensional problems by adding the number of layers or expanding the number of neurons. Compared with traditional numerical methods, it has great advantages. In this article, we consider the Deep Galerkin Method (DGM) for solving the general Stokes equations by using deep neural network without generating mesh grid. The DGM can reduce the computational complexity and achieve the competitive results. Here, depending on the L2 error we construct the objective function to control the performance of the approximation solution. Then, we prove the convergence of the objective function and the convergence of the neural network to the exact solution. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed framework is demonstrated through some numerical experiments. </p>
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<p>We show that certain weighted Fibonacci and Lucas series can always be expressed as linear combinations of polylogarithms. In some special cases we evaluate the series in terms of Bernoulli polynomials, making use of the connection between these polynomials and the polylogarithm. </p>
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<p>In this paper, we study the alternating Euler $T$-sums and $\S$-sums, which are infinite series involving (alternating) odd harmonic numbers, and have similar forms and close relations to the Dirichlet beta functions. By using the method of residue computations, we establish the explicit formulas for the (alternating) linear and quadratic Euler $T$-sums and $\S$-sums, from which, the parity theorems of Hoffman's double and triple $t$-values and Kaneko-Tsumura's double and triple $T$-values are further obtained. As supplements, we also show that the linear $T$-sums and $\S$-sums are expressible in terms of colored multiple zeta values. Some interesting consequences and illustrative examples are presented. </p>
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<p>For a polynomial ring over a commutative ring of positive characteristic, we define on the associated de Rham-Witt complex a set of functions, and show that they are pseudovaluations in the sense of Davis, Langer and Zink. To achieve it, we explicitly compute products of basic elements on the complex. We also prove that the overconvergent de Rham-Witt complex can be recovered using these pseudovaluations. </p>
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<p>For symmetric groups we show that the p-canonical basis can be extended to a cell datum for the Iwahori-Hecke algebra H and that the two-sided p-cell preorder coincides with the Kazhdan-Lusztig two-sided cell preorder. Moreover, we show that left (or right) p-cells inside the same two-sided p-cell for Hecke algebras of finite crystallographic Coxeter systems are incomparable (Property A). </p>
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<p>We construct map $\xi$. It exhibits dense orbits for all $x\in\overline{0,1}^\omega$. We give elementary proofs for all statements. </p>
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<p>In this note, we prove that there is no number with the Lehmer property in the sequences of Jaconsthsl or Jacobsthal-Lucas numbers. </p>
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<p>The analysis and visualization of tensor fields is a very challenging task. Besides the cases of zeroth- and first-order tensors, most techniques focus on symmetric second-order tensors. Only a few works concern totally symmetric tensors of higher-order. Work on other tensors of higher-order than two is exceptionally rare. We believe that one major reason for this gap is the lack of knowledge about suitable tensor decompositions for the general higher-order tensors. We focus here on three dimensions as most applications are concerned with three-dimensional space. A lot of work on symmetric second-order tensors uses the spectral decomposition. The work on totally symmetric higher-order tensors deals frequently with a decomposition based on spherical harmonics. These decompositions do not directly apply to general tensors of higher-order in three dimensions. However, another option available is the deviatoric decomposition for such tensors, splitting them into deviators. Together with the multipole representation of deviators, it allows to describe any tensor in three dimensions uniquely by a set of directions and non-negative scalars. The specific appeal of this methodology is its general applicability, opening up a potentially general route to tensor interpretation. The underlying concepts, however, are not broadly understood in the engineering community. In this article, we therefore gather information about this decomposition from a range of literature sources. The goal is to collect and prepare the material for further analysis and give other researchers the chance to work in this direction. This article wants to stimulate the use of this decomposition and the search for interpretation of this unique algebraic property. A first step in this direction is given by a detailed analysis of the multipole representation of symmetric second-order three-dimensional tensors. </p>
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<p>Upon starting a collective endeavour, it is important to understand your partners' preferences and how strongly they commit to a common goal. Establishing a prior commitment or agreement in terms of posterior benefits and consequences from those engaging in it provides an important mechanism for securing cooperation in both pairwise and multiparty cooperation dilemmas. Resorting to methods from Evolutionary Game Theory (EGT), here we analyse how prior commitments can also be adopted as a tool for enhancing coordination when its outcomes exhibit an asymmetric payoff structure, in both pairwise and multiparty interactions. Arguably, coordination is more complex to achieve than cooperation since there might be several desirable collective outcomes in a coordination problem (compared to mutual cooperation, the only desirable collective outcome in cooperation dilemmas), especially when these outcomes entail asymmetric benefits for those involved. Our analysis, both analytically and via numerical simulations, shows that whether prior commitment would be a viable evolutionary mechanism for enhancing coordination and the overall population social welfare strongly depends on the collective benefit and severity of competition, and more importantly, how asymmetric benefits are resolved in a commitment deal. Moreover, in multiparty interactions, prior commitments prove to be crucial when a high level of group diversity is required for optimal coordination. Our results are shown to be robust for different selection intensities. We frame our model within the context of the technology adoption decision making, but the obtained results are applicable to other coordination problems. </p>
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<p>We introduce the notion of a random mean generated by a random variable and give a construction of its expected value. We derive some sufficient conditions under which strong law of large numbers and some limit theorems hold for random means generated by the elements of a sequence of independent and identically distributed random variables. </p>
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<p>It was proved by Ozawa and Monod that a wreath products of a group containing an infinite abelian subroup and a non-amenable group is non-unitarizable. We show that a wreath product of a non-trivial group and a non-amenable group is non-unitarizable. </p>
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<p>This work aims to advance computational methods for projection-based reduced order models (ROMs) of linear time-invariant (LTI) dynamical systems. For such systems, current practice relies on ROM formulations expressing the state as a rank-1 tensor (i.e., a vector), leading to computational kernels that are memory bandwidth bound and, therefore, ill-suited for scalable performance on modern many-core and hybrid computing nodes. This weakness can be particularly limiting when tackling many-query studies, where one needs to run a large number of simulations. This work introduces a reformulation, called rank-2 Galerkin, of the Galerkin ROM for LTI dynamical systems which converts the nature of the ROM problem from memory bandwidth to compute bound. We present the details of the formulation and its implementation, and demonstrate its utility through numerical experiments using, as a test case, the simulation of elastic seismic shear waves in an axisymmetric domain. We quantify and analyze performance and scaling results for varying numbers of threads and problem sizes. Finally, we present an end-to-end demonstration of using the rank-2 Galerkin ROM for a Monte Carlo sampling study. We show that the rank-2 Galerkin ROM is one order of magnitude more efficient than the rank-1 Galerkin ROM (the current practice) and about 970X more efficient than the full order model, while maintaining excellent accuracy in both the mean and statistics of the field. </p>
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<p>We introduce families of one-dimensional Lindblad equations describing open many-particle quantum systems that are exactly solvable in the following sense: $(i)$ the space of operators splits into exponentially many (in system size) subspaces that are left invariant under the dissipative evolution; $(ii)$ the time evolution of the density matrix on each invariant subspace is described by an integrable Hamiltonian. The prototypical example is the quantum version of the asymmetric simple exclusion process (ASEP) which we analyze in some detail. We show that in each invariant subspace the dynamics is described in terms of an integrable spin-1/2 XXZ Heisenberg chain with either open or twisted boundary conditions. We further demonstrate that Lindbladians featuring integrable operator-space fragmentation can be found in spin chains with arbitrary local physical dimension. </p>
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<p>Given a surface $S$ in a 3D contact sub-Riemannian manifold $M$, we investigate the metric structure induced on $S$ by $M$, in the sense of length spaces. First, we define a coefficient $\widehat K$ at characteristic points that determines locally the characteristic foliation of $S$. Next, we identify some global conditions for the induced distance to be finite. In particular, we prove that the induced distance is finite for surfaces with the topology of a sphere embedded in a tight coorientable distribution, with isolated characteristic points. </p>
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<p>The modular invariant of rank 1 Drinfeld modules is introduced and used to formulate and prove an exact analog of the Weber-Fueter theorem for global function fields. The main ingredient in the proof is a version of Shimura's Main Theorem of Complex Multiplication for global function fields, which is also proved here. </p>
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<p>Conflict-avoiding codes (CACs) were introduced by Levenshtein as a single-channel transmission scheme for a multiple-access collision channel without feedback. When the number of simultaneously active source nodes is less than or equal to the weight of a CAC, it is able to provide a hard guarantee that each active source node transmits at least one packet successfully within a fixed time duration, no matter what the relative time offsets between the source nodes are. In this paper, we extend CACs to multichannel CACs for providing such a hard guarantee over multiple orthogonal channels. Upper bounds on the number of codewords for multichannel CACs of weights three and four are derived, and constructions that are optimal with respect to these bounds are presented. </p>
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<p>We give characterizations for the parabolicity of regular trees. </p>
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<p>We prove an incidence result counting the $k$-rich $\delta$-tubes induced by a well-spaced set of $\delta$-atoms. Our result coincides with the bound that would be heuristically predicted by the Szemer\'edi--Trotter Theorem and holds in all dimensions $d \geq 2$. </p>
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<p>We establish some qualitative properties of minimizers in the fractional Hardy--Sobolev inequalities of arbitrary order. </p>
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<p>The Half-Plane Half-Comb walk is a random walk on the plane, when we have a square lattice on the upper half-plane and a comb structure on the lower half-plane, i.e. horizontal lines below the x-axis are removed. We study the local time of this walk. </p>
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<p>We define universal Gushel-Mukai fourfolds over certain $\textit{Noether-Lefschetz}$ loci in the moduli stack of Gushel-Mukai fourfolds $\mathcal{M}^4_{GM}$. Using the relation between these fourfolds and K3 surfaces, we relate moduli of K3 surfaces to universal Gushel-Mukai varieties, and their birational geometry. This allows us to prove the unirationality or rationality of some of these universal families. </p>
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<p>This paper is devoted to the problem of classification of ${\rm AT4}(p,p+2,r)$-graphs. There is a unique ${\rm AT4}(p,p+2,r)$-graph with $p=2$, namely, the distance-transitive Soicher graph with intersection array $\{56, 45, 16, 1;1, 8, 45, 56\}$, whose local graphs are isomorphic to the Gewirtz graph. It is still unknown whether an ${\rm AT4}(p,p+2,r)$-graph with $p&gt;2$ exists. The local graphs of each ${\rm AT4}(p,p+2,r)$-graph are strongly regular with parameters $((p+2)(p^2+4p+2),p(p+3),p-2,p)$. In the present paper, we find an upper bound for the prime spectrum of an automorphism group of a strongly regular graph with such parameters, and we also obtain some restrictions for the prime spectrum and the structure of an automorphism group of an ${\rm AT4}(p,p+2,r)$-graph in case when $p$ is a prime power. As a corollary, we show that there are no arc-transitive ${\rm AT4}(p,p+2,r)$-graphs with $p\in \{11,17,27\}$. </p>
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<p>Given a group word $w$ and a group $G$, the set of $w$-values in $G$ is denoted by $G_w$ and the verbal subgroup $w(G)$ is the one generated by $G_w$. In the present paper we consider profinite groups admitting a word $w$ such that the cardinality of $G_w$ is less than $2^{\aleph_0}$ and $w(G)$ is generated by finitely many $w$-values. For several families of words $w$ we show that under these assumptions $w(G)$ must be finite. Our results are related to the concept of conciseness of group words. </p>
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<p>This paper studies ways to represent an ordered topological vector space as a space of continuous functions, extending the classical representation theorems of Kadison and Schaefer. Particular emphasis is put on the class of semisimple spaces, consisting of those ordered topological vector spaces that admit an injective positive representation to a space of continuous functions. We show that this class forms a natural topological analogue of the regularly ordered spaces defined by Schaefer in the 1950s, and is characterized by a large number of equivalent geometric, algebraic, and topological properties. </p>
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<p>In 2013, Ichino and Templier showed the Voronoi summation formulas over number fields. The basic ingredient in their proof is an identity that is related to the projection operator $\mathbb{P}_m^n$ on automorphic cusp forms for $m=1$. In this note, we show a such identity for $1\le m\le n-1$ and $n\ge4$. Our proof follows Cogdell and Piatetski-Shapiro's ideas in their work on converse theorems for $GL(n)$. </p>
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<p>We introduce Poisson boundaries of II$_1$ factors with respect to density operators that give the traces. The Poisson boundary is a von Neumann algebra that contains the II$_1$ factor and is a particular example of the boundary of a unital completely positive map as introduced by Izumi. Studying the inclusion of the II$_1$ factor into its boundary we develop a number of notions, such as double ergodicity and entropy, that can be seen as natural analogues of results regarding the Poisson boundaries introduced by Furstenberg. We use the techniques developed to answer a problem of Popa by showing that all finite factors satisfy the MV-property. We also extend a result of Nevo by showing that property (T) factors give rise to an entropy gap. </p>
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<p>In this paper, we investigate the structure of $\pi$-local fusion graphs of some finite simple groups of Lie-type of even characteristic. We indicate a strong connection between such graphs and other combinatorial objects, as antipodal covers and Deza graphs. In particular, we find several infinite families of $\pi$-local fusion graphs of finite simple groups of Lie-type of even characteristic that are strictly Deza graphs. </p>
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<p>Generalized affine Grassmannian slices provide geometric realizations for weight spaces of representations of semisimple Lie algebras. They are also Coulomb branches, symplectic dual to Nakajima quiver varieties. In this paper, we prove that neighbouring generalized affine Grassmannian slices are related by Hamiltonian reduction by the action of the additive group. We also prove a weaker version of the same result for their quantizations, algebras known as truncated shifted Yangians. </p>
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<p>A local ring $R$ is regular if and only if every finitely generated $R$-module has finite projective dimension. Moreover, the residue field $k$ is a test module: $R$ is regular if and only if $k$ has finite projective dimension. This characterization can be extended to the bounded derived category $\mathsf{D}^f(R)$, which contains only small objects if and only if $R$ is regular. </p> <p>Recent results of Pollitz, completing work initiated by Dwyer-Greenlees-Iyengar, yield an analogous characterization for complete intersections: $R$ is a complete intersection if and only if every object in $\mathsf{D}^f(R)$ is proxy small. In this paper, we study a return to the world of $R$-modules, and search for finitely generated $R$-modules that are not proxy small whenever $R$ is not a complete intersection. We give an algorithm to construct such modules in certain settings, including over equipresented rings and Stanley-Reisner rings. </p>
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<p>We study the coupling of spectral triples with twisted real structures to gauge fields in the framework of noncommutative geometry and, adopting Morita equivalence via modules and bimodules as a guiding principle, give special attention to modifying the inner fluctuations of the Dirac operator. In particular, we analyse the twisted first-order condition as a possible alternative to the approach of <a href="/abs/1304.7583">arXiv:1304.7583</a>, and elaborate upon the special case of gauge transformations accordingly. Applying the formalism to a toy model, we argue that under certain physically-motivated assumptions the spectral triple based on the left-right symmetric algebra should reduce to that of the Standard Model of fundamental particles and interactions, as in the untwisted case. </p>
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<p>Following the author's previous works, we continue to consider the problem of counting the number of affine conjugacy classes of polynomials of one complex variable when its unordered collection of holomorphic fixed point indices is given. The problem was already solved completely in the case that the polynomials have no multiple fixed points, in the author's previous papers. In this paper, we consider the case of having multiple fixed points, and obtain the formulae for generic unordered collections of holomorphic fixed point indices, for each given degree and for each given number of fixed points. </p>
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<p>Given a uniform, frustration-free family of local Lindbladians defined on a quantum lattice spin system in any spatial dimension, we prove a strong exponential convergence in relative entropy of the system to equilibrium under a condition of spatial mixing of the stationary Gibbs states and the rapid decay of the relative entropy on finite-size blocks. Our result leads to the first examples of the positivity of the modified logarithmic Sobolev inequality for quantum lattice spin systems independently of the system size. Moreover, we show that our notion of spatial mixing is a consequence of the recent quantum generalization of Dobrushin and Shlosman's complete analyticity of the free-energy at equilibrium. The latter typically holds above a critical temperature. </p> <p>Our results have wide applications in quantum information processing. As an illustration, we discuss three of them: first, using techniques of quantum optimal transport, we show that a quantum annealer subject to a finite range classical noise will output an energy close to that of the fixed point after constant annealing time. Second, we prove a finite blocklength refinement of the quantum Stein lemma for the task of asymmetric discrimination of two Gibbs states of commuting Hamiltonians satisfying our conditions. In the same setting, our results imply the existence of a local quantum circuit of logarithmic depth to prepare Gibbs states of a class of commuting Hamiltonians. </p>
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<p>In this manuscript, we are interested on the long-term behaviour of branching processes with pairwise interactions (BPI-processes). A process in this class behaves as a pure branching process with the difference that competition and cooperation events between pairs of individual are also allowed. BPI-processes form a subclass of branching processes with interactions, which were recently introduced by Gonz\'alez Casanova et al. (2017), and includes the so-called logistic branching process which was studied by Lambert (2005). </p> <p>Here, we provide a series of integral tests that fully explains how competition and cooperation regulates the long-term behaviour of BPI-processes. In particular, we give necessary and sufficient conditions for the events of explosion and extinction, as well as conditions under which the process comes down from infinity. Moreover, we also determine whether the process admits, or not, a stationary distribution. Our arguments uses the moment dual of BPI-processes which turns out to be a family of diffusions taking values on $[0,1]$, that we introduce as generalised Wright-Fisher diffusions together with a complete understanding of the nature of their boundaries. </p>
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<p>We consider the cell decomposition of the moduli space of real genus two curves with a marked point on the only real oval. The cells are enumerated by certain graphs with their weights describing the complex structure on a curve. We show that collapse of the edge of the graph results in a root like singularity of the natural mapping from the graph weights to the moduli space of curves. </p>
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<p>The tensor product of two ordered vector spaces can be ordered in more than one way, just as the tensor product of normed spaces can be normed in multiple ways. Two natural orderings have received considerable attention in the past, namely the ones given by the projective and injective (or biprojective) cones. This paper aims to show that these two cones behave similarly to their normed counterparts, and furthermore extends the study of these two cones from the algebraic tensor product to completed locally convex tensor products. The main results in this paper are the following: (i) drawing parallels with the normed theory, we show that the projective/injective cone has mapping properties analogous to those of the projective/injective norm; (ii) we establish direct formulas for the lineality space of the projective/injective cone, in particular providing necessary and sufficient conditions for the cone to be proper; (iii) we show how to construct faces of the projective/injective cone from faces of the base cones, in particular providing a complete characterization of the extremal rays of the projective cone; (iv) we prove that the projective/injective tensor product of two closed proper cones is contained in a closed proper cone (at least in the algebraic tensor product). </p>
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<p>The task of scheduling jobs to machines while minimizing the total makespan, the sum of weighted completion times, or a norm of the load vector, are among the oldest and most fundamental tasks in combinatorial optimization. Since all of these problems are in general NP-hard, much attention has been given to the regime where there is only a small number $k$ of job types, but possibly the number of jobs $n$ is large; this is the few job types, high-multiplicity regime. Despite many positive results, the hardness boundary of this regime was not understood until now. </p> <p>We show that makespan minimization on uniformly related machines ($Q|HM|C_{\max}$) is NP-hard already with $6$ job types, and that the related Cutting Stock problem is NP-hard already with $8$ item types. For the more general unrelated machines model ($R|HM|C_{\max}$), we show that if either the largest job size $p_{\max}$, or the number of jobs $n$ are polynomially bounded in the instance size $|I|$, there are algorithms with complexity $|I|^{\textrm{poly}(k)}$. Our main result is that this is unlikely to be improved, because $Q||C_{\max}$ is W[1]-hard parameterized by $k$ already when $n$, $p_{\max}$, and the numbers describing the speeds are polynomial in $|I|$; the same holds for $R|HM|C_{\max}$ (without speeds) when the job sizes matrix has rank $2$. Our positive and negative results also extend to the objectives $\ell_2$-norm minimization of the load vector and, partially, sum of weighted completion times $\sum w_j C_j$. </p> <p>Along the way, we answer affirmatively the question whether makespan minimization on identical machines ($P||C_{\max}$) is fixed-parameter tractable parameterized by $k$, extending our understanding of this fundamental problem. Together with our hardness results for $Q||C_{\max}$ this implies that the complexity of $P|HM|C_{\max}$ is the only remaining open case. </p>
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<p>In part I, we studied tensor products of convex cones in dual pairs of real vector spaces. This paper complements the results of the previous paper with an overview of the most important additional properties in the finite-dimensional case. (i) We show that the projective cone can be identified with the cone of positive linear operators that factor through a simplex cone. (ii) We prove that the projective tensor product of two closed convex cones is once again closed (Tam already proved this for proper cones). (iii) We study the tensor product of a cone with its dual, leading to another proof (and slight extension) of a theorem of Barker and Loewy. (iv) We provide a large class of examples where the projective and injective cones differ. As this paper was being written, this last result was superseded by a result of Aubrun, Lami, Palazuelos and Pl\'avala, who independently showed that the projective cone $E_+ \mathbin{\otimes_\pi} F_+$ is strictly contained in the injective cone $E_+ \mathbin{\otimes_\varepsilon} F_+$ whenever $E_+$ and $F_+$ are closed, proper and generating, with neither $E_+$ nor $F_+$ a simplex cone. Compared to their result, this paper only proves a few special cases. </p>
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<p>Let $F$ be an ordered topological vector space (over $\mathbb{R}$) whose positive cone $F_+$ is weakly closed, and let $E \subseteq F$ be a subspace. We prove that the set of positive continuous linear functionals on $E$ that can be extended (positively and continuously) to $F$ is weak-$*$ dense in the topological dual wedge $E_+'$. Furthermore, we show that this result cannot be generalized to arbitrary positive operators, even in finite-dimensional spaces. </p>
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<p>A formal expansion for the Green's functions of an interacting quantum field theory in a parameter that somehow encodes its "distance" from the corresponding non-interacting one was introduced more than thirty years ago, and has been recently reconsidered in connection with its possible application to the renormalization of non-hermitian theories. Besides this new and interesting application, this expansion has special properties already when applied to ordinary (i.e. hermitian) theories, and in order to disentangle the peculiarities of the expansion itself from those of non-hermitian theories, it is worth to push further the investigation limiting first the analysis to ordinary theories. In the present work we study some aspects related to the renormalization of a scalar theory within the framework of such an expansion. Due to its peculiar properties, it turns out that at any finite order in the expansion parameter the theory looks as non-interacting. We show that when diagrams of appropriate classes are resummed, this apparent drawback disappears and the theory recovers its interacting character. In particular we have seen that with a certain class of diagrams, the weak-coupling expansion results are recovered, thus establishing a bridge between the two expansions. </p>
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<p>Micro-bending attenuation in an optical waveguide can be modeled by a Fokker-Planck equation. It is shown that a supersymmetric transformation applied to the Fokker-Planck equation is equivalent to a change in the refractive index profile, resulting in a larger or smaller attenuation. For a broad class of monomial index profiles, it is always possible to obtain an index profile with a larger micro-bending attenuation using a supersymmetric transformation. However, obtaining a smaller attenuation is not always possible and is restricted to a subset of index profiles. </p>
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<p>We give an explicit formula for the reciprocal maximum likelihood degree of Brownian motion tree models. To achieve this, we connect them to certain toric (or log-linear) models, and express the Brownian motion tree model of an arbitrary tree as a toric fiber product of star tree models. </p>
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<p>We prove stability of integrable ALE manifolds with a parallel spinor under Ricci flow, given an initial metric which is close in $L^p \cap L^\infty$, for any $p \in (1, n)$, where $n$ is the dimension of the manifold. In particular, our result applies to all known examples of $4$-dimensional gravitational instantons. Our decay rates are strong enough to prove positive scalar curvature rigidity in $L^p$, for each $p \in \left[1, \frac{n}{n-2}\right)$, generalizing a result by Appleton. </p>
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<p>We study the super-resolution problem of recovering a periodic continuous-domain function from its low-frequency information. This means that we only have access to possibly corrupted versions of its Fourier samples up to a maximum cut-off frequency. The reconstruction task is specified as an optimization problem with generalized total-variation regularization involving a pseudo-differential operator. Our special emphasis is on the uniqueness of solutions. We show that, for elliptic regularization operators (e.g., the derivatives of any order), uniqueness is always guaranteed. To achieve this goal, we provide a new analysis of constrained optimization problems over Radon measures. We demonstrate that either the solutions are always made of Radon measures of constant sign, or the solution is unique. Doing so, we identify a general sufficient condition for the uniqueness of the solution of a constrained optimization problem with TV-regularization, expressed in terms of the Fourier samples. </p>
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<p>In type II superstring theory, the vacuum amplitude at a given loop order $g$ can receive contributions from the boundary of the compactified, genus $g$ supermoduli space of curves $\overline{\mathfrak M}_g$. These contributions capture the long distance or infrared behaviour of the amplitude. The boundary parametrises degenerations of genus $g$ super Riemann surfaces. A holomorphic projection of the supermoduli space onto its reduced space would then provide a way to integrate the holomorphic, superstring measure and thereby give the superstring vacuum amplitude at $g$-loop order. However, such a projection does not generally exist over the bulk of the supermoduli spaces in higher genera. Nevertheless, certain boundary divisors in $\partial\overline{\mathfrak M}_g$ may holomorphically map onto a bosonic space upon composition with universal morphisms, thereby enabling an integration of the holomorphic, superstring measure here. Making use of ansatz factorisations of the superstring measure near the boundary, our analysis shows that the boundary contributions to the three loop vacuum amplitude will vanish in closed oriented type II superstring theory with unbroken spacetime supersymmetry. </p>
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<p>In this paper, we prove functional central limit theorems (FCLTs) for a stochastic epidemic model with varying infectivity and general infectious periods recently introduced in Forien, Pang and Pardoux (2020). The infectivity process (total force of infection at each time) is composed of the independent infectivity random functions of each infectious individual at the elapsed time (that is, infection-age dependent). These infectivity random functions induce the infectious periods (as well as exposed, recovered or immune periods in full generality), whose probability distributions can be very general. The epidemic model includes the generalized non--Markovian SIR, SEIR, SIS, SIRS models with infection-age dependent infectivity. In the FCLT for the generalized SEIR model (including SIR as a special case), the limits for the infectivity and susceptible processes are a unique solution to a two-dimensional Gaussian-driven stochastic Volterra integral equations, and then given these solutions, the limits for the exposed/latent, infected and recovered processes are Gaussian processes expressed in terms of the solutions to those stochastic Volterra integral equations. We also present the FCLTs for the generalized SIS and SIRS models. </p>
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<p>We propose a new dynamical reflection algebra, distinct from the previous dynamical boundary algebra and semi-dynamical reflection algebra. The associated Yang-Baxter equations, coactions, fusions, and commuting traces are derived. Explicit examples are given and quantum integrable Hamiltonians are constructed. They exhibit features similar to the Ruijsenaars-Schneider Hamiltonians. </p>
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<p>We overview the classifications of simple finite-dimensional modular Lie algebras. In characteristic 2, their list is wider than that in other characteristics; e.g., it contains desuperizations of modular analogs of complex simple vectorial Lie superalgebras. We consider odd parameters of deformations. For all 15 Weisfeiler gradings of the 5 exceptional families, and one Weisfeiler grading for each of 2 serial simple complex Lie superalgebras (with 2 exceptional subseries), we describe their characteristic-2 analogs - new simple Lie algebras. Descriptions of several of these analogs, and of their desuperizations, are far from obvious. One of the exceptional simple vectorial Lie algebras is a previously unknown deform (the result of a deformation) of the characteristic-2 version of the Lie algebra of divergence-free vector fields; this is a new simple Lie algebra with no analogs in characteristics distinct from 2. In characteristic 2, every simple Lie superalgebra can be obtained from a simple Lie algebra by one of the two methods described in <a href="/abs/1407.1695">arXiv:1407.1695</a>. Most of the simple Lie superalgebras thus obtained from simple Lie algebras we describe here are new. </p>
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<p>We consider the class of exchangeable fragmentation-coagulation (EFC) processes where coagulations are multiple and not simultaneous, as in a $\Lambda$-coalescent, and fragmentation dislocates at finite rate an individual block into sub-blocks of infinite size. We call these partition-valued processes, simple EFC processes, and study the question whether such a process, when started with infinitely many blocks, can visit partitions with a finite number of blocks or not. When this occurs, one says that the process comes down from infinity. We introduce two sharp parameters $\theta_{\star}\leq \theta^{\star}\in [0,\infty]$, so that if $\theta^{\star}&lt;1$, the process comes down from infinity and if $\theta_\star&gt;1$, then it stays infinite. We illustrate our result with regularly varying coagulation and fragmentation measures. In this case, the parameters $\theta_{\star},\theta^{\star}$ coincide and are explicit. </p>
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<p>Local and global properties of minimal solutions for the heat equation generated by the Dirichlet fractional Laplacian negatively perturbed by Hardy's potentials on open subsets of $\R^d$ are analyzed. As a byproduct we obtain instantaneous blow-up of nonnegative solutions in the supercritical case. </p>
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<p>The goal of this paper is to develop a theory of join and slices for strict $\infty$-categories. To any pair of strict $\infty$-categories, we associate a third one that we call their join. This operation is compatible with the usual join of categories up to truncation. We show that the join defines a monoidal category structure on the category of strict $\infty$-categories and that it respects connected inductive limits in each variable. In particular, we obtain the existence of some right adjoints; these adjoints define $\infty$-categorical slices, in a generalized sense. We state some conjectures about the functoriality of the join and the slices with respect to higher lax and oplax transformations and we prove some first results in this direction. These results are used in another paper to establish a Quillen Theorem A for strict $\infty$-categories. Finally, in an appendix, we revisit the Gray tensor product of strict $\infty$-categories. One of the main tools used in this paper is Steiner's theory of augmented directed complexes. </p>
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<p>We ask the question whether entropy accumulates, in the sense that the operationally relevant total uncertainty about an $n$-partite system $A = (A_1, \ldots A_n)$ corresponds to the sum of the entropies of its parts $A_i$. The Asymptotic Equipartition Property implies that this is indeed the case to first order in $n$, under the assumption that the parts $A_i$ are identical and independent of each other. Here we show that entropy accumulation occurs more generally, i.e., without an independence assumption, provided one quantifies the uncertainty about the individual systems $A_i$ by the von Neumann entropy of suitably chosen conditional states. The analysis of a large system can hence be reduced to the study of its parts. This is relevant for applications. In device-independent cryptography, for instance, the approach yields essentially optimal security bounds valid for general attacks, as shown by Arnon-Friedman et al. </p>
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<p>Let $k$ be an algebraically closed field of characteristic 0, and let $V$ be a finite-dimensional vector space. Let $End(V)$ be the semigroup of all polynomial endomorphisms of $V$. Let $E$ be a subset of $End(V)$ which is a linear subspace and also a semi-subgroup. Both $End(V)$ and $E$ are ind-varieties which act on $V$ in the obvious way. In this paper, we study important aspects of such actions. We assign to $E$ a linear subspace $D_{E}$ of the vector fields on $V$. A subvariety $X$ of $V$ is said to $D_{E}$ -invariant if $h(x)$ is in the tangent space of $x$ for all $h$ in $D_{E}$ and $x$ in $X$. We show that $X$ is $D_{E}$ -invariant if and only if it is the union of $E$-orbits. For such $X$, we define first integrals and construct a quotient space for the $E$-action. An important case occurs when $G$ is an algebraic subgroup of $GL(V$) and $E$ consists of the $G$-equivariant polynomial endomorphisms. In this case, the associated $D_{E}$ is the space the $G$-invariant vector fields. A significant question here is whether there are non-constant $G$-invariant first integrals on $X$. As examples, we study the adjoint representation, orbit closures of highest weight vectors, and representations of the additive group. We also look at finite-dimensional irreducible representations of SL2 and its nullcone. </p>
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<p>We prove general type results for orthogonal modular varieties associated with the moduli of compact hyperk\"ahler manifolds of deformation generalised Kummer type ('deformation generalised Kummer varieties'). In particular, we consider moduli spaces of deformation generalised Kummer fourfolds with split-polarisation of degree $2d$. Our main result is that when $d$ is prime or $2d$ is square-free then the associated modular varieties are of general type when $d$ exceeds bounds we determine, subject to the existence of certain low-weight cusp forms for $\operatorname{O}(2,n)$. As a corollary, we conclude that the corresponding moduli spaces are also of general type. </p>
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<p>We introduce a family of unsupervised, domain-free, and (asymptotically) model-independent algorithms based on the principles of algorithmic probability and information theory designed to minimize the loss of algorithmic information, including a lossless-compression-based lossy compression algorithm. The methods can select and coarse-grain data in an algorithmic-complexity fashion (without the use of popular compression algorithms) by collapsing regions that may procedurally be regenerated from a computable candidate model. We show that the method can preserve the salient properties of objects and perform dimension reduction, denoising, feature selection, and network sparsification. As validation case, we demonstrate that the method preserves all the graph-theoretic indices measured on a well-known set of synthetic and real-world networks of very different nature, ranging from degree distribution and clustering coefficient to edge betweenness and degree and eigenvector centralities, achieving equal or significantly better results than other data reduction and some of the leading network sparsification methods. The methods (InfoRank, MILS) can also be applied to applications such as image segmentation based on algorithmic probability. </p>
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<p>This work is devoted to the causal perturbative Quantum Field Theory (QFT) due to Bogoliubov, including QED and other realistic QFT. The white noise analysis and the Hida operators as the annihilation-creation operators for free fields are used. The whole Bogoliubov method is unchanged. Causal axioms of such QFT make sense on any globally causal space-times. It is proved that on the flat Minkowski spacetime realistic QFT, including QED, lead to the scattering operator and interacting fields understood as generalized operators in the white noise theory of Hida-Obata-Sait\^o with the perturbative series equal to the Fock expansion of these operators in the sense of the white noise calculus and make perfect sense in the adiabatic limit as the generalized operators. But in case of the flat Minkowski space-time the realistic QFT, including QED, can be applied only to the scattering phenomena with the many-particle plane wave generalized states as the \emph{in} and \emph{out} states. Theory is mathematically consistent without any infrared or ultraviolet infinities. Feynman rules are replaced with other much more effective recurrence rules for the higher order contributions to the scattering operator. It is shown that realistic QFT, e.g. QED, are quite singular on the flat Minkowski spacetime with the interacting fields as generalized operators, which are quite singular, which after smearing with test function are not equal to ordinary operators. Bound state problems cannot be treated entirely within QED on the Minkowski space-time. It is proved that on space-times with compact Cauchy surfaces and non-zero curvature realistic causal perturbative QFT, including QED, behave much better. Perturbative series for some realistic QFT are proved to be convergent on the globally causal space-times with nonzero curvature and compact Cauchy surfaces. </p>
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<p>Let $\eta$ be an arbitrary countable ordinal. Using results of Bourgain and Gamburd on compact systems with spectral gap we show the existence of an action of the free group on three generators $F_3$ on a compact metric space $X$, admitting an invariant probability measure $\mu$, such that the resulting dynamical system $(X, \mu, F_3)$ is strongly ergodic and distal of rank $\eta$. In particular this shows that there is a $F_3$ system which is strongly ergodic but not compact. This result answers the open question whether such actions exist. </p>
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<p>We prove the statement in the title and exhibit examples of quotients of arbitrary nilpotency class. This answers a question by D. F. Holt. </p>
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<p>An axial algebra is a commutative non-associative algebra generated by axes, that is, primitive, semisimple idempotents whose eigenvectors multiply according to a certain fusion law. The Griess algebra, whose automorphism group is the Monster, is an example of an axial algebra. We say an axial algebra is of Monster type if it has the same fusion law as the Griess algebra. </p> <p>The $2$-generated axial algebras of Monster type, called Norton-Sakuma algebras, have been fully classified and are one of nine isomorphism types. In this paper, we enumerate a subclass of $3$-generated axial algebras of Monster type in terms of their groups and shapes. It turns out that the vast majority of the possible shapes for such algebras collapse; that is they do not lead to non-trivial examples. This is in sharp contrast to previous thinking. Accordingly, we develop a method of minimal forbidden configurations, to allow us to efficiently recognise and eliminate collapsing shapes. </p>
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<p>In this article we formulate a group of birational transformations which is isomorphic to an extended affine Weyl group of type $(A_{2n+1}+A_1+A_1)^{(1)}$ with the aid of mutations and permutations of vertices to a mutation-periodic quiver on a torus. This group provides a class of higher order generalizations of Jimbo-Sakai's $q$-Painlev\'e VI equation as translations on a root lattice. Then the known three systems are obtained again; the $q$-Garnier system, a similarity reduction of the lattice $q$-UC hierarchy and a similarity reduction of the $q$-Drinfeld-Sokolov hierarchy. </p>
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<p>It is shown that the unique representation of positive integers in terms of tribonacci numbers and the unique representation in terms of iterated A, B and C sequences defined from the tribonacci word are equivalent. Two auxiliary representations are introduced to prove this bijection. It will be established directly on a node and edge labeled tribonacci tree as well as formally. A systematic study of the A, B and C sequences in terms of the tribonacci word is also presented. </p>
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<p>Matrix-monotonic optimization exploits the monotonic nature of positive semi-definite matrices to derive optimal diagonalizable structures for the matrix variables of matrix-variable optimization problems. Based on the optimal structures derived, the associated optimization problems can be substantially simplified and underlying physical insights can also be revealed. In our work, a comprehensive framework of the applications of matrix-monotonic optimization to multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) transceiver design is provided for a series of specific performance metrics under various linear constraints. This framework consists of two parts, i.e., Part-I for single-variable optimization and Part-II for multi-variable optimization. In this paper, single-variable matrix-monotonic optimization is investigated under various power constraints and various types of channel state information (CSI) condition. Specifically, three cases are investigated: 1) both the transmitter and receiver have imperfect CSI; 2) perfect CSI is available at the receiver but the transmitter has no CSI; 3) perfect CSI is available at the receiver but the channel estimation error at the transmitter is norm-bounded. In all three cases, the matrix-monotonic optimization framework can be used for deriving the optimal structures of the optimal matrix variables. </p>
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<p>For a Seifert fibered homology sphere we show that the q-series Z-hat invariant introduced by Gukov, Pei, Putrov and Vafa is a resummation of the Ohtsuki serie. We show that for every even level k there exists a full asymptotic expansion of Z-hat for q tending to a certain k'th root of unity and in particular that the limit exists and is equal to the WRT quantum invariant. We show that the poles of the Borel transform of the Ohtsuki series coincide with the classical complex Chern-Simons values, which we further show classifies the corresponding components of the moduli space of flat SL(2, C)-connections. </p>
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<p>We propose and analyse randomized cubature formulae for the numerical integration of functions with respect to a given probability measure $\mu$ defined on a domain $\Gamma \subseteq \mathbb{R}^d$, in any dimension $d$. Each cubature formula is conceived to be exact on a given finite-dimensional subspace $V_n\subset L^2(\Gamma,\mu)$ of dimension $n$, and uses pointwise evaluations of the integrand function $\phi : \Gamma \to \mathbb{R}$ at $m&gt;n$ independent random points. These points are distributed according to a suitable auxiliary probability measure that depends on $V_n$. We show that, up to a logarithmic factor, a linear proportionality between $m$ and $n$ with dimension-independent constant ensures stability of the cubature formula with high probability. We also prove error estimates in probability and in expectation for any $n\geq 1$ and $m&gt;n$, thus covering both preasymptotic and asymptotic regimes. Our analysis shows that the expected cubature error decays as $\sqrt{n/m}$ times the $L(\Gamma, \mu)$-best approximation error of $\phi$ in $V_n$. On the one hand, for fixed $n$ and $m\to \infty$ our cubature formula can be seen as a variance reduction technique for a Monte Carlo estimator, and can lead to enormous variance reduction for smooth integrand functions and subspaces $V_n$ with spectral approximation properties. On the other hand, when we let $n,m\to\infty$, our cubature becomes of high order with spectral convergence. As a further contribution, we analyse also another cubature formula whose expected error decays as $\sqrt{1/m}$ times the $L^2(\Gamma,\mu)$-best approximation error of $\phi$ in $V_n$, and is therefore asymptotically optimal but with constants that can be larger in the preasymptotic regime. Finally we show that, under a more demanding (at least quadratic) proportionality betweeen $m$ and $n$, the weights of the cubature are positive with high probability. </p>
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<p>We analyze the bootstrap percolation process on the stochastic block model (SBM), a natural extension of the Erd\"{o}s--R\'{e}nyi random graph that allows representing the "community structure" observed in many real systems. In the SBM, nodes are partitioned into subsets, which represent different communities, and pairs of nodes are independently connected with a probability that depends on the communities they belong to. Under mild assumptions on system parameters, we prove the existence of a sharp phase transition for the final number of active nodes and characterize sub-critical and super-critical regimes in terms of the number of initially active nodes, which are selected uniformly at random in each community. </p>
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<p>We compute the nuclear dimension of separable, simple, unital, nuclear, Z-stable C*-algebras. This makes classification accessible from Z-stability and in particular brings large classes of C*-algebras associated to free and minimal actions of amenable groups on finite dimensional spaces within the scope of the Elliott classification programme. </p>
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<p>We provide non-asymptotic excess risk guarantees for statistical learning in a setting where the population risk with respect to which we evaluate the target parameter depends on an unknown nuisance parameter that must be estimated from data. We analyze a two-stage sample splitting meta-algorithm that takes as input two arbitrary estimation algorithms: one for the target parameter and one for the nuisance parameter. We show that if the population risk satisfies a condition called Neyman orthogonality, the impact of the nuisance estimation error on the excess risk bound achieved by the meta-algorithm is of second order. Our theorem is agnostic to the particular algorithms used for the target and nuisance and only makes an assumption on their individual performance. This enables the use of a plethora of existing results from statistical learning and machine learning to give new guarantees for learning with a nuisance component. Moreover, by focusing on excess risk rather than parameter estimation, we can give guarantees under weaker assumptions than in previous works and accommodate settings in which the target parameter belongs to a complex nonparametric class. We provide conditions on the metric entropy of the nuisance and target classes such that oracle rates---rates of the same order as if we knew the nuisance parameter---are achieved. We also derive new rates for specific estimation algorithms such as variance-penalized empirical risk minimization, neural network estimation and sparse high-dimensional linear model estimation. We highlight the applicability of our results in four settings of central importance: 1) heterogeneous treatment effect estimation, 2) offline policy optimization, 3) domain adaptation, and 4) learning with missing data. </p>
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<p>We introduce a new family of presentations for the quaternion groups and show that for the quaternion group of order 28, one of these presentations has non-standard second homotopy group. </p>
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<p>Quantum walk search may exhibit phenomena beyond the intuition from a conventional random walk theory. One of such examples is exceptional configuration phenomenon -- it appears that it may be much harder to find any of two or more marked vertices, that if only one of them is marked. In this paper, we analyze the probability of finding any of marked vertices in such scenarios and prove upper bounds for various sets of marked vertices. We apply the upper bounds to large collection of graphs and show that the quantum search may be slow even when taking real-world networks. </p>
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<p>Dynamical decoupling is the leading technique to remove unwanted interactions in a vast range of quantum systems through fast rotations. But what determines the time-scale of such rotations in order to achieve good decoupling? By providing an explicit counterexample of a qubit coupled to a charged particle and magnetic monopole, we show that such time-scales cannot be decided by the decay profile induced by the noise: even though the system shows a quadratic decay (a Zeno region revealing non-Markovian noise), it cannot be decoupled, no matter how fast the rotations. </p>
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<p>We define a Markovian parallel dynamics for a class of spin systems on general interaction graphs. In this dynamics, beside the usual set of parameters $J_{xy}$, the strength of the interaction between the spins $\sigma_x$ and $\sigma_y$, and $\lambda_x$, the external field at site $x$, there is an inertial parameter $q$ measuring the tendency of the system to remain locally in the same state. This dynamics is reversible with an explicitly defined stationary measure. For suitable choices of parameter this invariant measure concentrates on the ground states of the Hamiltonian. This implies that this dynamics can be used to solve, heuristically, difficult problems in the context of combinatorial optimization. In particular, we study the dynamics on $\mathbb{Z}^2$ with homogeneous interaction and external field (Ising model on the square lattice) and with arbitrary boundary conditions. We prove that for certain values of the parameters the stationary measure is close to the related Gibbs measure. Hence our dynamics may be a good tool to sample from Gibbs measure by means of a parallel algorithm. Moreover we show how the parameter $q$ allows to interpolate between spin systems defined on different regular lattices. </p>
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<p>The logarithmic negativity of a bipartite quantum state is a widely employed entanglement measure in quantum information theory, due to the fact that it is easy to compute and serves as an upper bound on distillable entanglement. More recently, the $\kappa$-entanglement of a bipartite state was shown to be the first entanglement measure that is both easily computable and has a precise information-theoretic meaning, being equal to the exact entanglement cost of a bipartite quantum state when the free operations are those that completely preserve the positivity of the partial transpose [Wang and Wilde, Phys. Rev. Lett. 125(4):040502, July 2020]. In this paper, we provide a non-trivial link between these two entanglement measures, by showing that they are the extremes of an ordered family of $\alpha$-logarithmic negativity entanglement measures, each of which is identified by a parameter $\alpha\in[ 1,\infty] $. In this family, the original logarithmic negativity is recovered as the smallest with $\alpha=1$, and the $\kappa$-entanglement is recovered as the largest with $\alpha=\infty$. We prove that the $\alpha $-logarithmic negativity satisfies the following properties: entanglement monotone, normalization, faithfulness, and subadditivity. We also prove that it is neither convex nor monogamous. Finally, we define the $\alpha$-logarithmic negativity of a quantum channel as a generalization of the notion for quantum states, and we show how to generalize many of the concepts to arbitrary resource theories. </p>
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<p>For any finite group $G$, and any positive integer $n$, we construct an association scheme which admits the diagonal group $D_n(G)$ as a group of automorphisms. The rank of the association scheme is the number of partitions of $n$ into at most $|G|$ parts, so is $p(n)$ if $|G|\ge n$; its parameters depend only on $n$ and $|G|$. For $n=2$, the association scheme is trivial, while for $n=3$ its relations are the Latin square graph associated with the Cayley table of $G$ and its complement. </p> <p>A transitive permutation group $G$ is said to be \emph{AS-free} if there is no non-trivial association scheme admitting $G$ as a group of automorphisms. A consequence of our construction is that an AS-free group must be either $2$-homogeneous or almost simple. </p> <p>We construct another association scheme, finer than the above scheme if $n&gt;3$, from the Latin hypercube consisting of $n$-tuples of elements of $G$ with product the identity. </p>
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<p>For a class of polynomials $f \in \mathbb{Z}[X]$, which in particular includes all quadratic polynomials, and also trinomials of some special form, we show that, under some natural conditions (necessary for quadratic polynomials), the set of primes $p$ such that all iterations of $f$ are irreducible modulo $p$ is of relative density zero. Furthermore, we give an explicit bound on the rate of the decay of the density of such primes in an interval $[1, Q]$ as $Q \to \infty$. For this class of polynomials this gives a more precise version of a recent result of A. Ferraguti (2018), which applies to arbitrary polynomials but requires a certain assumption about their Galois group. Furthermore, under the Generalised Riemann Hypothesis we obtain a stronger bound on this density. </p>
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<p>We establish the existence and uniqueness of local strong pathwise solutions to the stochastic Boussinesq equations with partial diffusion term forced by multiplicative noise on the torus in $\mathbb{R}^{d},d=2,3$. The solution is strong in both PDE and probabilistic sense.In the two dimensional case, we prove the global existence of strong solutions to the Boussinesq equations forced by additive noise using a suitable stochastic analogue of a logarithmic Gronwall's lemma. After the global existence and uniqueness of strong solutions are established, the large deviation principle (LDP) is proved by the weak convergence method. The weak convergence is shown by a tightness argument in the appropriate functional space. </p>
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<p>The coefficient of variation (CV) is commonly used to measure relative dispersion. However, since it is based on the sample mean and standard deviation, outliers can adversely affect the CV. Additionally, for skewed distributions the mean and standard deviation do not have natural interpretations and, consequently, neither does the CV. Here we investigate the extent to which quantile-based measures of relative dispersion can provide appropriate summary information as an alternative to the CV. In particular, we investigate two measures, the first being the interquartile range (in lieu of the standard deviation), divided by the median (in lieu of the mean), and the second being the median absolute deviation (MAD), divided by the median, as robust estimators of relative dispersion. In addition to comparing the influence functions of the competing estimators and their asymptotic biases and variances, we compare interval estimators using simulation studies to assess coverage. </p>
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<p>In this work we consider numerical efficiency and convergence rates for solvers of non-convex multi-penalty formulations when reconstructing sparse signals from noisy linear measurements. We extend an existing approach, based on reduction to an augmented single-penalty formulation, to the non-convex setting and discuss its computational intractability in large-scale applications. To circumvent this limitation, we propose an alternative single-penalty reduction based on infimal convolution that shares the benefits of the augmented approach but is computationally less dependent on the problem size. We provide linear convergence rates for both approaches, and their dependence on design parameters. Numerical experiments substantiate our theoretical findings. </p>
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<p>For an inner function $\theta$ on the unit disk, let $K^p_\theta:=H^p\cap\theta\overline{H^p_0}$ be the associated star-invariant subspace of the Hardy space $H^p$. While the squaring operation $f\mapsto f^2$ maps $H^p$ into $H^{p/2}$, one cannot expect the square $f^2$ of a function $f\in K^p_\theta$ to lie in $K^{p/2}_\theta$. (Suffice it to note that if $f$ is a polynomial of degree $n$, then $f^2$ has degree $2n$ rather than $n$.) However, we come up with a certain "quasi-squaring" procedure that does not have this defect. As an application, we prove an extrapolation theorem for a class of sublinear operators acting on $K^p_\theta$ spaces. </p>
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<p>As for the theory of maximal representations, we introduce the volume of a Zimmer's cocycle $\Gamma \times X \rightarrow \mbox{PO}^\circ(n, 1)$, where $\Gamma$ is a torsion-free (non-)uniform lattice in $\mbox{PO}^\circ(n, 1)$, with $n \geq 3$, and $X$ is a suitable standard Borel probability $\Gamma$-space. Our numerical invariant extends the volume of representations for (non-)uniform lattices to measurable cocycles and in the uniform setting it agrees with the generalized version of the Euler number of self-couplings. We prove that our volume of cocycles satisfies a Milnor-Wood type inequality in terms of the volume of the manifold $\Gamma \backslash \mathbb{H}^n$. This invariant can be interpreted as a suitable multiplicative constant between bounded cohomology classes. This allows us to characterize maximal cocycles for being cohomologous to the cocycle induced by the standard lattice embedding via a measurable map $X \rightarrow \mbox{PO}(n, 1)$ with essentially constant sign. </p> <p>As a by-product of our rigidity result for the volume of cocycles, we give a new proof of the mapping degree theorem. This allows us to provide a complete characterization of maps homotopic to local isometries between closed hyperbolic manifolds in terms of maximal cocycles. </p> <p>In dimension $n = 2$, we introduce the notion of Euler number of measurable cocycles associated to closed surface groups. It extends the classic Euler number of representations and it agrees with the generalized version of the Euler number of self-couplings up to a multiplicative constant. We show a Milnor-Wood type inequality whose upper bound is given by the modulus of the Euler characteristic. This gives an alternative proof of the same result for the generalized version of the Euler number of self-couplings. Finally, we characterize maximal cocycles as those which are cohomologous to the one induced by a hyperbolization. </p>
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<p>We study unitary representations of semidirect products of a compact quantum group with a finite group. We give a classification of all irreducible unitary representations, a description of the conjugate representation of irreducible unitary representations in terms of this classification, and the fusion rules for the semidirect product. </p>
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<p>Operator-theoretic analysis of nonlinear dynamical systems has attracted much attention in a variety of engineering and scientific fields, endowed with practical estimation methods using data such as dynamic mode decomposition. In this paper, we address a lifted representation of nonlinear dynamical systems with random noise based on transfer operators, and develop a novel Krylov subspace method for estimating the operators using finite data, with consideration of the unboundedness of operators. For this purpose, we first consider Perron-Frobenius operators with kernel-mean embeddings for such systems. We then extend the Arnoldi method, which is the most classical type of Kryov subspace method, so that it can be applied to the current case. Meanwhile, the Arnoldi method requires the assumption that the operator is bounded, which is not necessarily satisfied for transfer operators on nonlinear systems. We accordingly develop the shift-invert Arnoldi method for Perron-Frobenius operators to avoid this problem. Also, we describe an approach of evaluating predictive accuracy by estimated operators on the basis of the maximum mean discrepancy, which is applicable, for example, to anomaly detection in complex systems. The empirical performance of our methods is investigated using synthetic and real-world healthcare data. </p>
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<p>We compute rational points on genus $3$ odd degree hyperelliptic curves $C$ over $\mathbb{Q}$ that have Jacobians of Mordell-Weil rank $0$. The computation applies the Chabauty-Coleman method to find the zero set of a certain system of $p$-adic integrals, which is known to be finite and include the set of rational points $C(\mathbb{Q})$. We implemented an algorithm in Sage to carry out the Chabauty-Coleman method on a database of $5870$ curves. </p>
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<p>In this paper, we construct and classify the special unipotent representations of a real reductive group attached to the principal nilpotent orbit. We give formulas for the $\mathbf{K}$-types, associated varieties, and Langlands parameters of all such representations. </p>
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<p>We study the homogenization of nonlinear, first-order equations with highly oscillatory mixing spatio-temporal dependence. It is shown in a variety of settings that the homogenized equations are stochastic Hamilton-Jacobi equations with deterministic, spatially homogenous Hamiltonians driven by white noise in time. The paper also contains proofs of some general regularity and path stability results for stochastic Hamilton-Jacobi equations, which are needed to prove some of the homogenization results and are of independent interest. </p>
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<p>A connected graph is called a multi-block graph if each of its blocks is a complete multi-partite graph. Building on the work of \cite{Bp3,Hou3}, we compute the determinant and inverse of the distance matrix for a class of multi-block graphs. </p>
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<p>Higgs bundles appeared a few decades ago as solutions to certain equations from physics and have attracted much attention in geometry as well as other areas of mathematics and physics. Here, we take a very informal stroll through some aspects of linear algebra that anticipate the deeper structure in the moduli space of Higgs bundles. (This note was produced for the MFO Snapshots of Modern Mathematics series, which is "designed to promote the understanding and appreciation of modern mathematics and mathematical research in the interested public world-wide.") </p>
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<p>The notions of two-dimensional area, Killing fields and matter flux are introduced in the setting of causal fermion systems. It is shown that for critical points of the causal action, the area change of two-dimensional surfaces under a Killing flow in null directions is proportional to the matter flux through these surfaces. This relation generalizes an equation in classical general relativity due to Ted Jacobson to the setting of causal fermion systems. </p>
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<p>This paper investigates statistical models for road traffic modeling. The proposed methodology considers road traffic as a (i) high-dimensional time-series for which (ii) regeneration occurs at the end of each day. Since (ii), prediction is based on a daily modeling of the road traffic using a vector autoregressive model that combines linearly the past observations of the day. Considering (i), the learning algorithm follows from an $\ell_1$-penalization of the regression coefficients. Excess risk bounds are established under the high-dimensional framework in which the number of road sections goes to infinity with the number of observed days. Considering floating car data observed in an urban area, the approach is compared to state-of-the-art methods including neural networks. In addition of being very competitive in terms of prediction, it enables to identify the most determinant sections of the road network. </p>
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<p>Although ADAM is a very popular algorithm for optimizing the weights of neural networks, it has been recently shown that it can diverge even in simple convex optimization examples. Several variants of ADAM have been proposed to circumvent this convergence issue. In this work, we study the ADAM algorithm for smooth nonconvex optimization under a boundedness assumption on the adaptive learning rate. The bound on the adaptive step size depends on the Lipschitz constant of the gradient of the objective function and provides safe theoretical adaptive step sizes. Under this boundedness assumption, we show a novel first order convergence rate result in both deterministic and stochastic contexts. Furthermore, we establish convergence rates of the function value sequence using the Kurdyka-Lojasiewicz property. </p>
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<p>We begin by revisiting a paper of Erd\H{o}s and Fishburn, which posed the following question: given $k\in \mathbb{N}$, what is the maximum number of points in a plane that determine at most $k$ distinct distances, and can such optimal configurations be classified? We rigorously verify claims made in remarks in that paper, including the fact that the vertices of a regular polygon, with or without an additional point at the center, cannot form an optimal configuration for any $k\geq 7$. Further, we investigate configurations in both triangular and rectangular lattices studied by Erd\H{o}s and Fishburn. We collect a large amount of data related to these and other configurations, some of which correct errors in the original paper, and we use that data and additional analysis to provide explanations and make conjectures. </p>
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<p>We propose to use the {\L}ojasiewicz inequality as a general tool for analyzing the convergence rate of gradient descent on a Hilbert manifold, without resorting to the continuous gradient flow. Using this tool, we show that a Sobolev gradient descent method with adaptive inner product converges exponentially fast to the ground state for the Gross-Pitaevskii eigenproblem. This method can be extended to a class of general high-degree optimizations or nonlinear eigenproblems under certain conditions. We demonstrate this generalization by several examples, in particular a nonlinear Schr\"odinger eigenproblem with an extra high-order interaction term. Numerical experiments are presented for these problems. </p>
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<p>Given two pairs of quantum states, a fundamental question in the resource theory of asymmetric distinguishability is to determine whether there exists a quantum channel converting one pair to the other. In this work, we reframe this question in such a way that a catalyst can be used to help perform the transformation, with the only constraint on the catalyst being that its reduced state is returned unchanged, so that it can be used again to assist a future transformation. What we find here, for the special case in which the states in a given pair are commuting, and thus quasi-classical, is that this catalytic transformation can be performed if and only if the relative entropy of one pair of states is larger than that of the other pair. This result endows the relative entropy with a fundamental operational meaning that goes beyond its traditional interpretation in the setting of independent and identical resources. Our finding thus has an immediate application and interpretation in the resource theory of asymmetric distinguishability, and we expect it to find application in other domains. </p>
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<p>Let $\mathbb{F}_q$ denote the finite field with $q$ elements. The Carlitz rank of a permutation polynomial is a important measure of complexity of the polynomial. In this paper we find the sharp lower bound for the weight of any permutation polynomial with Carlitz rank $2$, improving the bound found by G\'omez-P\'erez, Ostafe and Topuzo\u{g}lu in that case. </p>
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<p>We say that a contact structure on a closed, connected, oriented, smooth 3-manifold is supported by a flow-spine if it has a contact form whose Reeb flow is a flow of the flow-spine. We then define a map from the set of positive flow-spines to the set of contact 3-manifolds up to contactomorphism by sending a positive flow-spine to the supported contact 3-manifold and show that this map is well-defined and surjective. We also determine the contact 3-manifolds supported by positive flow-spines with up to 3 vertices. As an application, we introduce the complexity for contact 3-manifolds and determine the contact 3-manifolds with complexity up to 3. </p>
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<p>We propose and study numerically the implicit approximation in time of the Navier-Stokes equations by a Galerkin-collocation method in time combined with inf-sup stable finite element methods in space. The conceptual basis of the Galerkin-collocation approach is the establishment of a direct connection between the Galerkin method and the classical collocation methods, with the perspective of achieving the accuracy of the former with reduced computational costs in terms of less complex algebraic systems of the latter. Regularity of higher order in time of the discrete solution is ensured further. As an additional ingredient, we employ Nitsche's method to impose all boundary conditions in weak form with the perspective that evolving domains become feasible in the future. We carefully compare the performance poroperties of the Galerkin-collocation approach with a standard continuous Galerkin-Petrov method using piecewise linear polynomials in time, that is algebraically equivalent to the popular Crank-Nicholson scheme. The condition number of the arising linear systems after Newton linearization as well as the reliable approximation of the drag and lift coefficient for laminar flow around a cylinder (DFG flow benchmark with $Re=100$) are investigated. The superiority of the Galerkin-collocation approach over the linear in time, continuous Galerkin-Petrov method is demonstrated therein. </p>
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<p>Kronecker's 1856 paper contains a solvability theorem that is useful to construct unsolvable algebraic equations. We show how Kronecker's solvability theorem can be derived naturally via a polynomial complete decomposition method. This method is similar to D\"orrie, but we fill a gap that appears in his proof. </p>
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<p>Graph products of groups were introduced by Green in her thesis. They have an operator algebraic counterpart introduced and explored by Fima and the first-named author. In this paper we prove Khintchine type inequalities for general C$^{\ast}$-algebraic graph products which generalize results by Ricard and Xu on free products of C$^{\ast}$-algebras. We apply these inequalities in the context of (right-angled) Hecke C$^{\ast}$-algebras, which are deformations of the group algebra of Coxeter groups. For these we deduce a Haagerup inequality. We further use this to study the simplicity and trace uniqueness of (right-angled) Hecke C$^{\ast}$-algebras. Lastly we characterize exactness and nuclearity of general Hecke C$^{\ast}$-algebras. </p>
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<p>The Conley index theory is a powerful topological tool for obtaining information about invariant sets in continuous dynamical systems. A key feature of Conley theory is that the index is robust under perturbation; given a continuous family of flows $\{\varphi_\lambda\}$, the index remains constant over a range of parameter values, avoiding many of the complications associated with bifurcations. </p> <p>This theory is well-developed for flows and homomorphisms, and has even been extended to certain classes of semiflows. However, in recent years mathematicians and scientists have become interested in differential inclusions, often called Filippov systems, and Conley theory has not yet been developed in this setting. This paper aims to begin extending the index theory to this larger class of dynamical systems. In particular, we introduce a notion of perturbation that is suitable for this setting and show that isolating neighborhoods, a fundamental object in Conley index theory, are stable under this sense of perturbation. We also discuss how perturbation in this sense allows us to provide rigorous results about "nearby smooth systems" by analyzing the discontinuous Filippov system. </p>
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<p>In this paper we investigate more characterizations and applications of $\delta$-strongly compact cardinals. We show that, for a cardinal $\kappa$ the following are equivalent: (1) $\kappa$ is $\delta$-strongly compact, (2) For every regular $\lambda \ge \kappa$ there is a $\delta$-complete uniform ultrafilter over $\lambda$, and (3) Every product space of $\delta$-Lindel\"of spaces is $\kappa$-Lindel\"of. We also prove that in the Cohen forcing extension, the least $\omega_1$-strongly compact cardinal is a precise upper bound on the tightness of the products of two countably tight spaces. </p>
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<p>We explore the notion of discrete spectrum and its various characterizations for ergodic measure preserving actions of an amenable group on a compact metric space. We further present a spectral characterization of tameness and we establish that the strong Veech systems are tame. In particular, for any amenable group $T$ the flow on the orbit closure of the translates of a `Veech function' $f\in \mathbb{K}(T)$ is tame. As a consequence, we obtain an improvement of Motohashi-Ramachandra 1976's theorem on the Mertens function in short interval, by establishing that M\"{o}bius orthogonality conjecture of Sarnak holds for those systems. </p>
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<p>A strongly connected digraph is called a cactoid-type if each of its blocks is a digraph consisting of finitely many oriented cycles sharing a common directed path. In this article, we find the formula for the determinant of the distance matrix for weighted cactoid-type digraphs and find its inverse, whenever it exists. We also compute the determinant of the distance matrix for a class of unweighted and undirected graphs consisting of finitely many cycles, sharing a common path. </p>
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<p>We show that the addition of a suitable Stratonovich noise prevents the explosion for ODEs with drifts of super-linear growth, in dimension $d\ge 2$. We also show the existence of an invariant measure and the geometric ergodicity for the corresponding SDE. </p>
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<p>In this paper, we study an intelligent reflecting surface (IRS)-assisted system where a multi-antenna base station (BS) serves a single-antenna user with the help of a multi-element IRS in the presence of interference generated by a multi-antenna BS serving its own single-antenna user. The signal and interference links via the IRS are modeled with Rician fading. To reduce phase adjustment cost, we adopt quasi-static phase shift design where the phase shifts do not change with the instantaneous channel state information (CSI). We investigate two cases of CSI at the BSs, namely, the instantaneous CSI case and the statistical CSI case, and apply Maximum Ratio Transmission (MRT) based on the complete CSI and the CSI of the Line-of-sight (LoS) components, respectively. Different costs on channel estimation and beamforming adjustment are incurred in the two CSI cases. First, we obtain a tractable expression of the average rate in the instantaneous CSI case and a tractable expression of the ergodic rate in the statistical CSI case. We also provide sufficient conditions for the average rate in the instantaneous CSI case to surpass the ergodic rate in the statistical CSI case, at any phase shifts. Then, we maximize the average rate and ergodic rate, both with respect to the phase shifts, leading to two non-convex optimization problems. For each problem, we obtain a globally optimal solution under certain system parameters, and propose an iterative algorithm based on parallel coordinate descent (PCD) to obtain a stationary point under arbitrary system parameters. Next, in each CSI case, we provide sufficient conditions under which the optimal quasi-static phase shift design is beneficial, compared to the system without IRS. Finally, we numerically verify the analytical results and demonstrate notable gains of the proposal solutions over existing ones. </p>
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<p>This paper addresses the case where data come as point sets, or more generally as discrete measures. Our motivation is twofold: first we intend to approximate with a compactly supported measure the mean of the measure generating process, that coincides with the intensity measure in the point process framework, or with the expected persistence diagram in the framework of persistence-based topological data analysis. To this aim we provide two algorithms that we prove almost minimax optimal. Second we build from the estimator of the mean measure a vectorization map, that sends every measure into a finite-dimensional Euclidean space, and investigate its properties through a clustering-oriented lens. In a nutshell, we show that in a mixture of measure generating process, our technique yields a representation in $\mathbb{R}^k$, for $k \in \mathbb{N}^*$ that guarantees a good clustering of the data points with high probability. Interestingly, our results apply in the framework of persistence-based shape classification via the ATOL procedure described in \cite{Royer19}. </p>
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<p>We prove homogenization for a class of nonconvex (possibly degenerate) viscous Hamilton-Jacobi equations in stationary ergodic random environments in one space dimension. The results concern Hamiltonians of the form $G(p)+V(x,\omega)$, where the nonlinearity $G$ is a minimum of two or more convex functions with the same absolute minimum, and the potential $V$ is a bounded stationary process satisfying an additional scaled hill and valley condition. This condition is trivially satisfied in the inviscid case, while it is equivalent to the original hill and valley condition of A. Yilmaz and O. Zeitouni [31] in the uniformly elliptic case. Our approach is based on PDE methods and does not rely on representation formulas for solutions. Using only comparison with suitably constructed super- and sub- solutions, we obtain tight upper and lower bounds for solutions with linear initial data $x\mapsto \theta x$. Another important ingredient is a general result of P. Cardaliaguet and P.E. Souganidis [13] which guarantees the existence of sublinear correctors for all $\theta$ outside "flat parts" of effective Hamiltonians associated with the convex functions from which $G$ is built. We derive crucial derivative estimates for these correctors which allow us to use them as correctors for $G$. </p>
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<p>We provably compute the full set of rational points on 1403 Picard curves defined over $\mathbb{Q}$ with Jacobians of Mordell-Weil rank $1$ using the Chabauty-Coleman method. To carry out this computation, we extend Magma code of Balakrishnan and Tuitman for Coleman integration. The new code computes $p$-adic (Coleman) integrals on curves to points defined over number fields where the prime $p$ splits completely and implements effective Chabauty for curves whose Jacobians have infinite order points that are not the image of a rational point under the Abel-Jacobi map. We discuss several interesting examples of curves where the Chabauty-Coleman set contains points defined over number fields. </p>
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<p>The Katznelson-Tzafriri theorem is a central result in the asymptotic theory of discrete operator semigroups. It states that for a power-bounded operator $T$ on a Banach space we have $||T^n(I-T)\|\to0$ if and only if $\sigma(T)\cap\mathbb{T}\subseteq\{1\}$. The main result of the present paper gives a sharp estimate for the rate at which this decay occurs for operators on Hilbert space, assuming the growth of the resolvent norms $\|R(e^{i\theta},T)\|$ as $|\theta|\to0$ satisfies a mild regularity condition. This significantly extends an earlier result by the second author, which covered the important case of polynomial resolvent growth. We further show that, under a natural additional assumption, our condition on the resolvent growth is not only sufficient but also necessary for the conclusion of our main result to hold. By considering a suitable class of Toeplitz operators we show that our theory has natural applications even beyond the setting of normal operators, for which we in addition obtain a more general result. </p>
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<p>We analyze a nonlocal PDE model describing the dynamics of adaptation of a phenotypically structured population, under the effects of mutation and selection, in a changing environment. Previous studies have analyzed the large-time behavior of such models, with particular forms of environmental changes, either linearly changing or periodically fluctuating. We use here a completely different mathematical approach, which allows us to consider very general forms of environmental variations and to give an analytic description of the full trajectories of adaptation, including the transient phase, before a stationary behavior is reached. The main idea behind our approach is to study a bivariate distribution of two `fitness components' which contains enough information to describe the distribution of fitness at any time. This distribution solves a degenerate parabolic equation that is dealt with by defining a multidimensional cumulant generating function associated with the distribution, and solving the associated transport equation. We apply our results to several examples, and check their accuracy, using stochastic individual-based simulations as a benchmark. These examples illustrate the importance of being able to describe the transient dynamics of adaptation to understand the development of drug resistance in pathogens. </p>
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<p>The fast Fourier transform (FFT) is one of the most successful numerical algorithms of the 20th century and has found numerous applications in many branches of computational science and engineering. The FFT algorithm can be derived from a particular matrix decomposition of the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) matrix. In this paper, we show that the quantum Fourier transform (QFT) can be derived by further decomposing the diagonal factors of the FFT matrix decomposition into products of matrices with Kronecker product structure. We analyze the implication of this Kronecker product structure on the discrete Fourier transform of rank-1 tensors on a classical computer. We also explain why such a structure can take advantage of an important quantum computer feature that enables the QFT algorithm to attain an exponential speedup on a quantum computer over the FFT algorithm on a classical computer. Further, the connection between the matrix decomposition of the DFT matrix and a quantum circuit is made. We also discuss a natural extension of a radix-2 QFT decomposition to a radix-d QFT decomposition. No prior knowledge of quantum computing is required to understand what is presented in this paper. Yet, we believe this paper may help readers to gain some rudimentary understanding of the nature of quantum computing from a matrix computation point of view. </p>
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<p>In the hard edge scaling limit of the Jacobi unitary ensemble generated by the weight $x^{\alpha}(1-x)^{\beta},~x\in[0,1],~\alpha,\beta&gt;0$, the probability that all eigenvalues of Hermitian matrices from this ensemble lie in the interval $[t,1]$ is given by the Fredholm determinant of the Bessel kernel. We derive the constant in the asymptotics of this Bessel-kernel determinant. A specialization of the results gives the constant in the asymptotics of the probability that the interval $(-a,a),a&gt;0,$ is free of eigenvalues in the Jacobi unitary ensemble with the symmetric weight $(1-x^2)^{\beta}, x\in[-1,1]$. </p>
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<p>We prove that a uniform pro-p group with no nonabelian free subgroups has a normal series with torsion-free abelian factors. We discuss this in relation to unique product groups. We also consider generalizations of Hantzsche-Wendt groups. </p>
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<p>The algebraic reformulation of molecular Quantum Electrodynamics (mQED) at finite temperatures is applied to Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) in order to provide a foundation for the reconstruction of much more detailed molecular structures, than possible with current methods. Conventional NMR theories are based on the effective spin model which idealizes nuclei as fixed point particles in a lattice $L$, while molecular vibrations, bond rotations and proton exchange cause a delocalization of nuclei. Hence, a lot information on molecular structures remain hidden in experimental NMR data, if the effective spin model is used for the investigation. </p> <p>In this document it is shown how the quantum mechanical probability density $\mid\Psi^\beta(X)\mid^2$ on $\mathbb{R}^{3n}$ for the continuous, spatial distribution of $n$ nuclei can be reconstructed from NMR data. To this end, it is shown how NMR spectra can be calculated directly from mQED at finite temperatures without involving the effective description. The fundamental problem of performing numerical calculations with the infinite-dimensional radiation field is solved by using a purified representation of a KMS state on a $W^*$-dynamical system. Furthermore, it is shown that the presented method corrects wrong predictions of the effective spin model. It is outlined that the presented method can be applied to any molecular system whose electronic ground state can be calculated using a common quantum chemical method. Therefore, the presented method may replace the effective spin model which forms the basis for NMR theory since 1950. </p>
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<p>We introduce a method for computing some pseudo-elliptic integrals in terms of elementary functions. The method is simple and fast in comparison to the algebraic case of the Risch-Trager-Bronstein algorithm. This method can quickly solve many pseudo-elliptic integrals, which other well-known computer algebra systems either fail, return an answer in terms of special functions, or require more than 20 seconds of computing time. Randomised tests showed our method solved 73.4% of the integrals that could be solved with the best implementation of the Risch-Trager-Bronstein algorithm. Unlike the symbolic integration algorithms of Risch, Davenport, Trager, Bronstein and Miller; our method is not a decision process. The implementation of this method is less than 200 lines of Mathematica code and can be easily ported to other CAS that can solve systems of polynomial equations. </p>
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<p>We consider the problem of simultaneous variable selection and estimation of the corresponding regression coefficients in an ultra-high dimensional linear regression models, an extremely important problem in the recent era. The adaptive penalty functions are used in this regard to achieve the oracle variable selection property along with easier computational burden. However, the usual adaptive procedures (e.g., adaptive LASSO) based on the squared error loss function is extremely non-robust in the presence of data contamination which are quite common with large-scale data (e.g., noisy gene expression data, spectra and spectral data). In this paper, we present a regularization procedure for the ultra-high dimensional data using a robust loss function based on the popular density power divergence (DPD) measure along with the adaptive LASSO penalty. We theoretically study the robustness and the large-sample properties of the proposed adaptive robust estimators for a general class of error distributions; in particular, we show that the proposed adaptive DPD-LASSO estimator is highly robust, satisfies the oracle variable selection property, and the corresponding estimators of the regression coefficients are consistent and asymptotically normal under easily verifiable set of assumptions. Numerical illustrations are provided for the mostly used normal error density. Finally, the proposal is applied to analyze an interesting spectral dataset, in the field of chemometrics, regarding the electron-probe X-ray microanalysis (EPXMA) of archaeological glass vessels from the 16th and 17th centuries. </p>
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<p>In this note we prove that for every integer $d \geq 1$, there exists an explicit constant $B_d$ such that the following holds. Let $K$ be a number field of degree $d$, let $q &gt; \max\{d-1,5\}$ be any rational prime that is totally inert in $K$ and $E$ any elliptic curve defined over $K$ such that $E$ has potentially multiplicative reduction at the prime $\mathfrak q$ above $q$. Then for every rational prime $p&gt; B_d$, $E$ has an irreducible mod $p$ Galois representation. This result has Diophantine applications within the "modular method". We present one such application in the form of an Asymptotic version of Fermat's Last Theorem that has not been covered in the existing literature. </p>
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<p>A large family of diffusive models of transport that has been considered in the past years admits a transformation into the same model in contact with an equilibrium bath. This mapping holds at the full dynamical level, and is independent of dimension or topology. It provides a good opportunity to discuss questions of time reversal in out of equilibrium contexts. In particular, thanks to the mapping one may define the free-energy in the non-equilibrium states very naturally as the (usual) free energy of the mapped system. </p>
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<p>Multidimensional matrix inversions provide a powerful tool for studying multiple hypergeometric series. In order to extend this technique to elliptic hypergeometric series, we present three new multidimensional matrix inversions. As applications, we obtain a new $A_r$ elliptic Jackson summation, as well as several quadratic, cubic and quartic summation formulas. </p>
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<p>A basic model for key agreement with a remote (or hidden) source is extended to a multi-user model with joint secrecy and privacy constraints over all entities that do not trust each other after key agreement. Multiple entities using different measurements of the same source through broadcast channels (BCs) to agree on mutually-independent local secret keys are considered. Our model is the proper multi-user extension of the basic model since the encoder and decoder pairs are not assumed to trust other pairs after key agreement, unlike assumed in the literature. Strong secrecy constraints imposed on all secret keys jointly, which is more stringent than separate secrecy leakage constraints for each secret key considered in the literature, are satisfied. Inner bounds for maximum key rate, and minimum privacy-leakage and database-storage rates are proposed for any finite number of entities. Inner and outer bounds for degraded and less-noisy BCs are given to illustrate cases with strong privacy. A multi-enrollment model that is used for common physical unclonable functions is also considered to establish inner and outer bounds for key-leakage-storage regions that differ only in the Markov chains imposed. For this special case, the encoder and decoder measurement channels have the same channel transition matrix and secrecy leakage is measured for each secret key separately. We illustrate cases for which it is useful to have multiple enrollments as compared to a single enrollment and vice versa. </p>
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<p>We announce some new results for proving H\"older continuity of weak solutions to quasilinear parabolic equations whose prototype takes the form $$u_t - div (|\nabla u|^{p-2}\nabla u)= 0 \qquad \text{or} \qquad u_t - div (|u_{x_1}|^{p_1-2}u_{x_1},|u_{x_2}|^{p_2-2}u_{x_2},\ldots |u_{x_N}|^{p_N-2}u_{x_N})=0$$ and $1&lt;\{p_1,p_2,\ldots,p_N\}&lt;\infty$. We develop a new technique which is independent of the ``method of intrinsic scaling'' developed by E.DiBenedetto in the degenerate case ($p\geq 2$) and E.DiBenedetto and Y.Z.Chen in the singular case ($p\leq 2$) and instead uses a new and elementary linearisation procedure to handle the nonlinearity. Since, we do not make use of any intrinsic scaling nor logarithmic estimates, all the estimates that we use is essentially the linear version, as a consequence of which our proof is quite simple and direct. In the process, we solve several long standing open questions in full generality. </p>
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<p>We study distances on zigzag persistence modules from the viewpoint of derived categories. It is known that the derived categories of ordinary and arbitrary zigzag persistence modules are equivalent. Through this derived equivalence, we define distances on the derived category of arbitrary zigzag persistence modules and prove an algebraic stability theorem. We also compare our distance with the distance for purely zigzag persistence modules introduced by Botnan--Lesnick and the sheaf-theoretic convolution distance due to Kashiwara--Schapira. </p>
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<p>We prove that the minimum of the modulus of a random trigonometric polynomial with Gaussian coefficients, properly normalized, has limiting exponential distribution. </p>
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<p>We study explicit solutions to the 2 dimensional Euler equations in the Lagrangian framework. All known solutions have been of the separation of variables type, where time and space dependence are treated separately. The first such solutions were known already in the 19th century. We show that all the solutions known previously belong to two families of solutions and introduce three new families of solutions. It seems likely that these are all the solutions that are of the separation of variables type. </p>
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<p>We study vector bundles on curves with rational tails and their smoothings and give a sufficient condition for the general fibre to be balanced. </p>
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<p>Let $\mathbb{F}_q$ be a finite field of odd characteristic. We study R\'edei functions that induce permutations over $\mathbb{P}^1(\mathbb{F}_q)$ whose cycle decomposition contains only cycles of length $1$ and $j$, for an integer $j\geq 2$. When $j$ is $4$ or a prime number, we give necessary and sufficient conditions for a R\'edei permutation of this type to exist over $\mathbb{P}^1(\mathbb{F}_q)$, characterize R\'edei permutations consisting of $1$- and $j$-cycles, and determine their total number. We also present explicit formulas for R\'edei involutions based on the number of fixed points, and procedures to construct R\'edei permutations with a prescribed number of fixed points and $j$-cycles for $j \in \{3,4,5\}$. </p>
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<p>Protocols in a quantum network involve multiple parties performing actions on their quantum systems in a carefully orchestrated manner over time in order to accomplish a given task. This sequence of actions over time is often referred to as a strategy, or policy. In this work, we consider policy optimization in a quantum network. Specifically, as a first step towards developing full-fledged quantum network protocols, we consider policies for generating elementary links in a quantum network. We start by casting elementary link generation as a quantum partially observable Markov decision process, as defined in [Phys. Rev. A 90, 032311 (2014)]. Then, we analyze in detail the commonly used memory cutoff policy. Under this policy, once an elementary link is established it is kept in quantum memory for some amount $t^{\star}$ of time, called the cutoff, before it is discarded and the elementary link generation is reattempted. For this policy, we determine the average quantum state of the elementary link as a function of time for an arbitrary number of nodes in the link, as well as the average fidelity of the link as a function of time for any noise model for the quantum memories. Finally, we show how optimal policies can be obtained in the finite-horizon setting using dynamic programming. By casting elementary link generation as a quantum decision process, this work goes beyond the analytical results derived here by providing the theoretical framework for performing reinforcement learning of practical quantum network protocols. </p>
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<p>Statisticians have warned us since the early days of their discipline that experimental correlation between two observations by no means implies the existence of a causal relation. The question about what clues exist in observational data that could informs us about the existence of such causal relations is nevertheless more that legitimate. It lies actually at the root of any scientific endeavor. For decades however the only accepted method among statisticians to elucidate causal relationships was the so called Randomized Controlled Trial. Besides this notorious exception causality questions remained largely taboo for many. One reason for this state of affairs was the lack of an appropriate mathematical framework to formulate such questions in an unambiguous way. Fortunately thinks have changed these last years with the advent of the so called Causality Revolution initiated by Judea Pearl and coworkers. The aim of this pedagogical paper is to present their ideas and methods in a compact and self-contained fashion with concrete business examples as illustrations. </p>
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<p>This work is devoted to the study of uncertainty principles for finite combinations of Hermite functions. We establish some spectral inequalities for control subsets that are thick with respect to some unbounded densities growing almost linearly at infinity, and provide quantitative estimates, with respect to the energy level of the Hermite functions seen as eigenfunctions of the harmonic oscillator, for the constants appearing in these spectral estimates. These spectral inequalities allow to derive the null-controllability in any positive time for evolution equations enjoying specific regularizing effects. More precisely, for a given index $\frac{1}{2} \leq \mu &lt;1$, we deduce sufficient geometric conditions on control subsets to ensure the null-controllability of evolution equations enjoying regularizing effects in the symmetric Gelfand-Shilov space $S^{\mu}_{\mu}(\mathbb{R}^n)$. These results apply in particular to derive the null-controllability in any positive time for evolution equations associated to certain classes of hypoelliptic non-selfadjoint quadratic operators, or to fractional harmonic oscillators. </p>
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<p>Special $\alpha$-limit sets ($s\alpha$-limit sets) combine together all accumulation points of all backward orbit branches of a point $x$ under a noninvertible map. The most important question about them is whether or not they are closed. We challenge the notion of $s\alpha$-limit sets as backward attractors for interval maps by showing that they need not be closed. This disproves a conjecture by Kolyada, Misiurewicz, and Snoha. We give a criterion in terms of Xiong's attracting center that completely characterizes which interval maps have all $s\alpha$-limit sets closed, and we show that our criterion is satisfied in the piecewise monotone case. We apply Blokh's models of solenoidal and basic $\omega$-limit sets to solve four additional conjectures by Kolyada, Misiurewicz, and Snoha relating topological properties of $s\alpha$-limit sets to the dynamics within them. For example, we show that the isolated points in a $s\alpha$-limit set of an interval map are always periodic, the non-degenerate components are the union of one or two transitive cycles of intervals, and the rest of the $s\alpha$-limit set is nowhere dense. Moreover, we show that $s\alpha$-limit sets in the interval are always both $F_\sigma$ and $G_\delta$. Finally, since $s\alpha$-limit sets need not be closed, we propose a new notion of $\beta$-limit sets to serve as backward attractors. The $\beta$-limit set of $x$ is the smallest closed set to which all backward orbit branches of $x$ converge, and it coincides with the closure of the $s\alpha$-limit set. At the end of the paper we suggest several new problems about backward attractors. </p>
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<p>The inverse quantum scattering problem for the perturbed Bessel equation is considered. A direct and practical method for solving the problem is proposed. It allows one to reduce the inverse problem to a system of linear algebraic equations, and the potential is recovered from the first component of the solution vector of the system. The approach is based on a special form Fourier-Jacobi series representation for the transmutation operator kernel and the Gelfand-Levitan equation which serves for obtaining the system of linear algebraic equations. The convergence and stability of the method are proved as well as the existence and uniqueness of the solution of the truncated system. Numerical realization of the method is discussed. Results of numerical tests are provided revealing a remarkable accuracy and stability of the method. </p>
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<p>Extremal quasimodular forms have been introduced by M.~Kaneko and M.Koike as as quasimodular forms which have maximal possible order of vanishing at $i\infty$. We show an asymptotic formula for the Fourier coefficients of such forms. This formula is then used to show that all but finitely many Fourier coefficients of such forms of depth $\leq4$ are positive, which partially solves a conjecture stated by M.~Kaneko and M.Koike. Numerical experiments based on constructive estimates confirm the conjecture for weights $\leq200$ and depths between $1$ and $4$. </p>
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<p>In dimension two, we reduce the classification problem for asymptotically log Fano pairs to the problem of determining generality conditions on certain blow-ups. In any dimension, we prove the rationality of the body of ample angles of an asymptotically log Fano pair. </p>
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<p>In this article we investigate some general properties of the multiplier algebras of normed spaces of continuous functions (NSCF). In particular, we prove that the multiplier algebra inherits some of the properties of the NSCF. We show that it is often possible to construct NSCF's which only admit constant multipliers. In order to do that, using a method from [23], we prove that any separable Banach space can be realized as a NSCF over any separable metrizable space. On the other hand, we give a sufficient condition for non-separability of a multiplier algebra. </p>
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<p>In the recent paper, R. E. Curto, S. H. Lee, J. Yoon, asked the following question: Let $A$ be a subnormal operator, and assume that $A^2$ is quasinormal. Does it follow that $A$ is quasinormal? In this paper, we give an affirmative answer to this question. In fact, we prove more general result that subnormal $n$th roots of quasinormal operators are quasinormal. </p>
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<p>Recently Watanabe disproved the Smale Conjecture for $S^4$, by showing Diff$(S^{4})\neq SO(5)$. He showed this by proving that their higher homotopy groups are different. Here we prove this more directly by showing $\pi_{0}$Diff$(S^{4})\neq 0$, otherwise a certain loose-cork could not possibly be a loose-cork. </p>
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<p>This paper surveys results related to well-known works of B. Plotkin and V. Remeslennikov on the edge of algebra, logic and geometry. We start from a brief review of the paper and motivations. The first sections deal with model theory. In Section 2.1 we describe the geometric equivalence, the elementary equivalence, and the isotypicity of algebras. We look at these notions from the positions of universal algebraic geometry and make emphasis on the cases of the first order rigidity. In this setting Plotkin's problem on the structure of automorphisms of (auto)endomorphisms of free objects, and auto-equivalence of categories is pretty natural and important. Section 2.2 is dedicated to particular cases of Plotkin's problem. Section 2.3 is devoted to Plotkin's problem for automorphisms of the group of polynomial symplectomorphisms. This setting has applications to mathematical physics through the use of model theory (non-standard analysis) in the studying of homomorphisms between groups of symplectomorphisms and automorphisms of the Weyl algebra. The last two sections deal with algorithmic problems for noncommutative and commutative algebraic geometry. Section 3.1 is devoted to the Gr\"obner basis in non-commutative situation. Despite the existence of an algorithm for checking equalities, the zero divisors and nilpotency problems are algorithmically unsolvable. Section 3.2 is connected with the problem of embedding of algebraic varieties; a sketch of the proof of its algorithmic undecidability over a field of characteristic zero is given. </p>
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<p>We study the vanishing cycle complex $\varphi_fA_X$ for a holomorphic function $f$ on a reduced complex analytic space $X$ with $A$ a Dedekind domain (for instance, a localization of the ring of integers of a cyclotomic field, where the monodromy eigenvalue decomposition may hold after a localization of $A$). Assuming the perversity of the shifted constant sheaf $A_X[d_X]$, we show that the lowest possibly-non-zero vanishing cohomology at $0\in X$ can be calculated by the restriction of $\varphi_fA_X$ to an appropriate nearby curve in the singular locus $Y$ of $f$, which is given by intersecting $Y$ with the intersection of sufficiently general hyperplanes in the ambient space passing sufficiently near 0. The proof uses a Lefschetz type theorem for local fundamental groups. In the homogeneous polynomial case, a similar assertion follows from Artin's vanishing theorem. By a related argument we can show the vanishing of the non-unipotent monodromy part of the first Milnor cohomology for many central hyperplane arrangements with ambient dimension at least 4. </p>
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<p>Let $\mathbb{F}_q$ be a finite field with $q=p^t$ elements. In this paper, we study the number of solutions of equations of the form $a_1 x_1^{d_1}+\dots+a_s x_s^{d_s}=b$ over $\mathbb{F}_q$. A classic well-konwn result from Weil yields a bound for such number of solutions. In our main result we give an explicit formula for the number of solutions for diagonal equations satisfying certain natural restrictions on the exponents. In the case $d_1=\dots=d_s$, we present necessary and sufficient conditions for the number of solutions of a diagonal equation being maximal and minimal with respect to Weil's bound. In particular, we completely characterize maximal and minimal Fermat type curves. </p>
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<p>The Conley index theory is a powerful topological tool for describing the basic structure of dynamical systems. One important feature of this theory is the attractor-repeller decomposition of isolated invariant sets. In this decomposition, all points in the invariant set belong to the attractor, its associated dual repeller, or a connecting region. In this connecting region, points tend towards the attractor in forwards time and the repeller in backwards time. This decomposition is also, in a certain topological sense, stable under perturbation. Conley theory is well-developed for flows and homomorphisms, and has also been extended to some more abstract settings such as semiflows and relations. In this paper we aim to extend the attractor-repeller decomposition, including its stability under perturbation, to continuous time set-valued dynamical systems. The most common of these systems are differential inclusions such as Filippov systems. </p>
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<p>In this paper we investigate a relation between the Givental group of rank one and Heisenberg-Virasoro symmetry group of the KP hierarchy. We prove, that only a two-parameter family of the Givental operators can be identified with elements of the Heisenberg-Virasoro symmetry group. This family describes triple Hodge integrals satisfying the Calabi-Yau condition. Using identification of the elements of two groups we prove that the generating function of triple Hodge integrals satisfying the Calabi-Yau condition and its $\Theta$-version are tau-functions of the KP hierarchy. This generalizes the result of Kazarian on KP integrability in case of linear Hodge integrals. </p>
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<p>We study chiral rings of 4d $\mathcal{N}=1$ supersymmetric gauge theories via the notion of K-stability. We show that when using Hilbert series to perform the computations of Futaki invariants, it is not enough to only include the test symmetry information in the former's denominator. We propose a way to modify the numerator so that K-stability can be correctly determined, and a rescaling method is also applied to simplify the finding of test configurations. All of these are illustrated with a host of examples, by considering vacuum moduli spaces of various theories. Using Gr\"obner basis and plethystic techniques, many non-complete intersections can also be addressed, thus expanding the list of known theories in the literature. </p>
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<p>We improve the upper bound on trace reconstruction to $\exp(\widetilde{O}(n^{1/5}))$. </p>
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<p>We give a variational formula for the sandwiched Renyi divergences on von Neumann algebras that is similar in nature to Kosaki's approach to the relative entropy. As an illustration, we use the formula in quantum field theory to compute the divergence between the vacuum in a bipartite system and an "orbifolded" -- in the sense of conditional expectation -- system in terms of the Jones index. We obtain a statement for the dual inclusion by means of an entropic certainty relation for arbitrary von Neumann subalgebras of a factor. This certainty relation has an equivalent formulation in terms of error correcting codes. </p>
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<p>We explore the use of Costa and Farber's model for random simplicial complexes to give probabilistic evidence for exhaustion via rigid expansions on random simplicial complexes which are analogous of curve complexes. This has potential applications to action rigidity following Ivanov's meta-conjecture. </p>
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<p>We give sharp point-wise bounds in the weight-aspect on fourth moments of modular forms on arithmetic hyperbolic surfaces associated to Eichler orders. Therefore we strengthen a result of Xia and extend it to co-compact lattices. We realize this fourth moment by constructing a holomorphic theta kernel on $\mathbf{G} \times \mathbf{G} \times \mathbf{SL}_{2}$, for $\mathbf{G}$ an indefinite inner-form of $\mathbf{SL}_2$ over $\mathbb{Q}$, based on the Bergman kernel, and considering its $L^2$-norm in the Weil variable. The constructed theta kernel further gives rise to new elementary theta series for integral quadratic forms of signature $(2,2)$. </p>
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<p>7-dimensional closed and simply-connected manifolds have been attractive as central and explicit objects in algebraic topology and differential topology of higher dimensional closed and simply-connected manifolds, which were studied actively especially in 1950s--60s. </p> <p>Attractive studies of the class of these $7$-dimensional manifolds were started by the discovery of so-called exotic spheres by Milnor. It has influenced on the understanding of higher dimensional closed and simply-connected manifolds via algebraic and abstract objects. Recently this class is studied via more concrete notions from algebraic topology such as concrete bordism theory by Crowley, Kreck, and so on. </p> <p>As a new kind of fundamental and important studies, the author has been challenging understanding the class in constructive ways via construction of fold maps, which are higher dimensional versions of Morse functions. The present paper presents a new general method to construct ones on spin manifolds of the class. </p>
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<p>This paper developed an inference problem for Vasicek model driven by a general Gaussian process. We construct a least squares estimator and a moment estimator for the drift parameters of the Vasicek model, and we prove the consistency and the asymptotic normality. Our approach extended the result of Xiao and Yu (2018) for the case when noise is a fractional Brownian motion with Hurst parameter H \in [1/2,1). </p>
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<p>The local Euler obstructions of a projective variety and the Euler characteristics of its linear sections with given hyperplanes are key geometric invariants in the study of singularity theory. Despite their importance, in general it is very hard to compute them. In this paper we consider a special type of singularity: the recursive group orbits. They are the group orbits of a sequence of $G_n$ representations $V_n$ satisfy certain assumptions. We introduce a new intrinsic invariant called the $c_{sm}$ invariant, and use it to give formulas to the local Euler obstructions and sectional Euler characteristics of such orbits. In particular, the matrix rank loci are examples of recursive group orbits. Thus as application, we explicitly compute these geometry invariants for ordinary, skew-symmetric and symmetric rank loci. Our method is algebraic, thus works for algebraically closed field of characteristic $0$. </p>
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<p>In 2010, Hernandez and Leclerc studied connections between representations of quantum affine algebras and cluster algebras. In 2019, Brito and Chari defined a family of modules over quantum affine algebras, called Hernandez-Leclerc modules. We characterize the highest $\ell$-weight monomials of Hernandez-Leclerc modules. We give a non-recursive formula of $q$-characters of Hernandez-Leclerc modules using snake graphs, which involves an explicit formula for $F$-polynomials. We also give a new recursive formula of $q$-characters of Hernandez-Leclerc modules. </p>
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<p>We give an exponential improvement to the lower bound on diagonal Ramsey numbers for any fixed number of colors greater than two. </p>
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<p>In this paper we study the existence of periodic orbits with prescribed energy levels of convex Lagrangian systems on complete Riemannian manifolds. We extend the existence results of Contreras by developing a modified minimax principal to a class of Lagrangian systems on noncompact Riemannian manifolds, namely the so called $\lsh$ Lagrangian systems. In particular, we prove that for almost every $k\in(0,c_u(L))$ the exact magnetic flow associated to a $\lsh$ Lagrangian has a contractible periodic orbit with energy $k$. We also discuss the existence and non-existence of closed geodesics on the product Riemannian manifold $\R\times M$. </p>
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<p>We consider general high-dimensional spiked sample covariance models and show that their leading sample spiked eigenvalues and their linear spectral statistics are asymptotically independent when the sample size and dimension are proportional to each other. As a byproduct, we also establish the central limit theorem of the leading sample spiked eigenvalues by removing the block diagonal assumption on the population covariance matrix, which is commonly needed in the literature. Moreover, we propose consistent estimators of the $L_4$ norm of the spiked population eigenvectors. Based on these results, we develop a new statistic to test the equality of two spiked population covariance matrices. Numerical studies show that the new test procedure is more powerful than some existing methods. </p>
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<p>This paper presents a systematic approach for analyzing the departure-time choice equilibrium (DTCE) problem of a single bottleneck with heterogeneous commuters. The approach is based on the fact that the DTCE is equivalently represented as a linear programming problem with a special structure, which can be analytically solved by exploiting the theory of optimal transport combined with a decomposition technique. By applying the proposed approach to several types of models with heterogeneous commuters, it is shown that (i) the essential condition for emerging equilibrium "sorting patterns," which have been known in the literature, is that the schedule delay functions have the "Monge property," (ii) the equilibrium problems with the Monge property can be solved analytically, and (iii) the proposed approach can be applied to a more general problem with more than two types of heterogeneities. </p>
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<p>We study several connected problems of holomorphic function spaces on homogeneous Siegel domains. The main object of our study concerns weighted mixed norm Bergman spaces on homogeneous Siegel domains of type II. These problems include: sampling, atomic decomposition, duality, boundary values, boundedness of the Bergman projectors. Our analysis include the Hardy spaces, and suitable generalizations of the classical Bloch and Dirichlet spaces. One of the main novelties in this work is the generality of the domains under consideration, that is, homogeneous Siegel domains, extending many results from the more particular cases of the upper half-plane, Siegel domains of tube type over irreducible cones, or symmetric, irreducible Siegel domains of type II. </p>
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<p>In this paper we consider the semi-continuity of the physical-like measures for diffeomorphisms with dominated splittings. We prove that any weak-* limit of physical-like measures along a sequence of $C^1$ diffeomorphisms $\{f_n\}$ must be a Gibbs $F$-state for the limiting map $f$. As a consequence, we establish the statistical stability for the $C^1$ perturbation of the time-one map of three-dimensional Lorenz attractors, and the continuity of the physical measure for the diffeomorphisms constructed by Bonatti and Viana. </p>
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<p>Kida and Tucker-Drob recently extended the notion of inner amenability from countable groups to discrete p.m.p. groupoids. In this article, we show that inner amenable groupoids have "fixed priced 1" in the sense that every principal extension of an inner amenable groupoid has cost 1. This simultaneously generalizes and unifies two well known results on cost from the literature, namely, (1) a theorem of Kechris stating that every ergodic p.m.p. equivalence relation admitting a nontrivial asymptotically central sequence in its full group has cost 1, and (2) a theorem of Tucker-Drob stating that inner amenable groups have fixed price 1. </p>
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<p>The novel notion of rigid commutators is introduced to determine the sequence of the logarithms of the indices of a certain normalizer chain in the Sylow 2-subgroup of the symmetric group on 2^n letters. The terms of this sequence are proved to be those of the partial sums of the partitions of an integer into at least two distinct parts, that relates to a famous Euler's partition theorem. </p>
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<p>A new application of subspaces interpolation for the construction of nonlinear Parametric Reduced Order Models (PROMs) is proposed. This approach is based upon the Riemannian geometry of the manifold formed by the quotient of the set of full-rank N-by-q matrices by the orthogonal group of dimension q. By using a set of untrained parametrized Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) subspaces of dimension q, the subspace for a new untrained parameter is obtained as the generalized Karcher barycenter which solution is sought after by solving a simple fixed point problem. Contrary to existing PROM approaches, the proposed barycentric PROM is by construction easier to implement and more flexible with respect to change in parameter values. To assess the potential of the barycentric PROM, numerical experiments are conducted on the parametric flow past a circular cylinder and the flow in a lid driven cavity when the value of Reynolds number varies. It is demonstrated that the proposed barycentric PROM approach achieves competitive results with considerably reduced computational cost. </p>
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<p>We propose a simple algorithm to locate the "corner" of an L-curve, a function often used to select the regularisation parameter for the solution of ill-posed inverse problems. The algorithm involves the Menger curvature of a circumcircle and the golden section search method. It efficiently finds the regularisation parameter value corresponding to the maximum positive curvature region of the L-curve. The algorithm is applied to some commonly available test problems and compared to the typical way of locating the l-curve corner by means of its analytical curvature. The application of the algorithm to the data processing of an electrical resistance tomography experiment on thin conductive films is also reported. </p>