math-ph updates on arXiv.org

Mathematical Physics (math-ph) updates on the arXiv.org e-print archive



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<p>For the Jacobian resulting from the previously considered problem of the path integral reduction in Wiener path integrals for a mechanical system with symmetry describing the motion of two interacting scalar particles on a manifold that is the product of a smooth compact finite-dimensional Riemannian manifold and a finite-dimensional vector space, a geometric representation is obtained. This representation follows from the formula for the scalar curvature of the original manifold endowed by definition with a free isometric smooth action of a compact semisimple Lie group. The derivation of this formula is performed using adapted coordinates, which can be determined in the principal fiber bundle associated with the problem under the study. These coordinates are similar to those used in the standard approach to quantization of Yang-Mills fields interacting with scalar fields. </p>
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<p>We study several families of vertex operator superalgebras from a jet (super)scheme point of view. We provide new examples of vertex algebras which are "chiralizations" of their Zhu's Poisson algebras $R_V$. Our examples come from affine $C_\ell^{(1)}$-series vertex algebras ($\ell \geq 1$), certain $N=1$ superconformal vertex algebras, Feigin-Stoyanovsky principal subspaces, Feigin-Stoyanovsky type subspaces, graph vertex algebras $W_{\Gamma}$, and extended Virasoro vertex algebra. We also give a counterexample to the chiralization property for the $N=2$ superconformal vertex algebra of central charge $1$. </p>
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<p>We construct an integrable colored six-vertex model whose partition function is a double Grothendieck polynomial. This gives an integrable systems interpretation of bumpless pipe dreams and recent results of Weigandt [<a href="/abs/2003.07342">arXiv:2003.07342</a>]. We then construct a new model that we call the semidual version model for vexillary permutations. We use our semidual model and the five-vertex model of Motegi and Sakai to given a new proof that double Grothendieck polynomials for vexillary permutations are equal to flagged factorial Grothendieck polynomials. Taking the stable limit, we obtain a new proof that the stable limit is a factorial Grothendieck polynomial as defined by McNamara. The states of our semidual model naturally correspond to families of nonintersecting lattice paths, where we can then use the Lindstr\"om-Gessel-Viennot lemma to give a determinant formula for double Schubert polynomials corresponding to vexillary permutations. </p>
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<p>For arbitrarily small values of $\varepsilon&gt;0,$ we formulate and analyse the Maxwell system of equations of electromagnetism on $\varepsilon$-periodic sets $S^\varepsilon\subset{\mathbb R}^3.$ Assuming that a family of Borel measures $\mu^\varepsilon,$ such that ${\rm supp}(\mu^\varepsilon)=S^\varepsilon,$ is obtained by $\varepsilon$-contraction of a fixed 1-periodic measure $\mu,$ and for right-hand sides $f^\varepsilon\in L^2({\mathbb R}^3, d\mu^\varepsilon),$ we prove order-sharp norm-resolvent convergence estimates for the solutions of the system. In the resent work we address the case of non-zero current density in the Maxwell system and complete the analysis of the general setup including non-constant permittivity and permeability coefficients. </p>
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<p>We study the algebra of invariant representative functions over the N-fold Cartesian product of copies of a compact Lie group G modulo the action of conjugation by the diagonal subgroup. We construct a basis of invariant representative functions referred to as quasicharacters. The form of the quasicharacters depends on the choice of a reduction scheme. We determine the multiplication law of quasicharacters and express their structure constants in terms of recoupling coefficients. Via this link, the choice of the reduction scheme acquires an interpretation in terms of binary trees. We show explicitly that the structure constants decompose into products over primitive elements of 9j symbol type. For SU(2), everything boils down to the combinatorics of angular momentum theory. Finally, we apply this theory to the construction of the Hilbert space costratification of (finite) lattice quantum gauge theory. The methods developed in this paper may be useful in the study of virtually all quantum models with polynomial constraints related to some symmetry. </p>
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<p>A fluid flow is described by fictitious particles hopping on homogeneously distributed nodes with a given finite set of discrete velocities. We emphasize that the existence of a fictitious particle having a discrete velocity among the set in a node is given by a probability. We describe a compressible thermal flow of the level of accuracy of the Navier-Stokes equation by 25 or 33 discrete velocities for two-dimensional space and perform simulations for investigating internal structural evolution of a shock wave. </p>
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<p>For arbitrarily small values of $\varepsilon&gt;0,$ we formulate and analyse the Maxwell system of equations of electromagnetism on $\varepsilon$-periodic sets $S^\varepsilon\subset{\mathbb R}^3.$ Assuming that a family of Borel measures $\mu^\varepsilon,$ such that ${\rm supp}(\mu^\varepsilon)=S^\varepsilon,$ is obtained by $\varepsilon$-contraction of a fixed 1-periodic measure $\mu,$ and for right-hand sides $f^\varepsilon\in L^2({\mathbb R}^3, d\mu^\varepsilon),$ we prove order-sharp norm-resolvent convergence estimates for the solutions of the system. Our analysis includes the case of periodic "singular structures", when $\mu$ is supported by lower-dimensional manifolds. </p>
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<p>We develop a novel method to analyze the dynamics of stochastic rewriting systems evolving over finitary adhesive, extensive categories. Our formalism is based on the so-called rule algebra framework and exhibits an intimate relationship between the combinatorics of the rewriting rules (as encoded in the rule algebra) and the dynamics which these rules generate on observables (as encoded in the stochastic mechanics formalism). We introduce the concept of combinatorial conversion, whereby under certain technical conditions the evolution equation for (the exponential generating function of) the statistical moments of observables can be expressed as the action of certain differential operators on formal power series. This permits us to formulate the novel concept of moment-bisimulation, whereby two dynamical systems are compared in terms of their evolution of sets of observables that are in bijection. In particular, we exhibit non-trivial examples of graphical rewriting systems that are moment-bisimilar to certain discrete rewriting systems (such as branching processes or the larger class of stochastic chemical reaction systems). Our results point towards applications of a vast number of existing well-established exact and approximate analysis techniques developed for chemical reaction systems to the far richer class of general stochastic rewriting systems. </p>
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<p>The magnetic Laplacian (also called the line bundle Laplacian) on a connected weighted graph is a self-adjoint operator wherein the real-valued adjacency weights are replaced by unit complex-valued weights $\{\omega_{xy}\}_{xy\in E}$, satisfying the condition that $\omega_{xy}=\overline{\omega_{yx}}$ for every directed edge $xy$. When properly interpreted, these complex weights give rise to magnetic fluxes through cycles in the graph. </p> <p>In this paper we establish the spectrum of the magnetic Laplacian, as a set of real numbers with multiplicities, on the Sierpinski gasket graph ($SG$) where the magnetic fluxes equal $\alpha$ through the upright triangles, and $\beta$ through the downright triangles. This is achieved upon showing the spectral self-similarity of the magnetic Laplacian via a 3-parameter map $\mathcal{U}$ involving non-rational functions, which takes into account $\alpha$, $\beta$, and the spectral parameter $\lambda$. In doing so we provide a quantitative answer to a question of Bellissard [Renormalization Group Analysis and Quasicrystals (1992)] on the relationship between the dynamical spectrum and the actual magnetic spectrum. </p> <p>Our main theorems lead to two applications. In the case $\alpha=\beta$, we demonstrate the approximation of the magnetic spectrum by the filled Julia set of $\mathcal{U}$, the Sierpinski gasket counterpart to Hofstadter's butterfly. Meanwhile, in the case $\alpha,\beta\in \{0,\frac{1}{2}\}$, we can compute the determinant of the magnetic Laplacian determinant and the corresponding asymptotic complexity. </p>
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<p>We solve rigorously the time dependent Schr\"odinger equation describing electron emission from a metal surface by a laser field perpendicular to the surface. We consider the system to be one-dimensional, with the half-line $x&lt;0$ corresponding to the bulk of the metal and $x&gt;0$ to the vacuum. The laser field is modeled as a classical electric field oscillating with frequency $\omega$, acting only at $x&gt;0$. We consider an initial condition which is a stationary state of the system without a field, and, at time $t=0$, the field is switched on. We prove the existence of a solution $\psi(x,t)$ of the Schr\"odinger equation for $t&gt;0$, and compute the surface current. The current exhibits a complex oscillatory behavior, which is not captured by the "simple" three step scenario. As $t\to\infty$, $\psi(x,t)$ converges with a rate $t^{-\frac32}$ to a time periodic function with period $\frac{2\pi}{\omega}$ which coincides with that found by Faisal, Kami\'nski and Saczuk (Phys Rev A 72, 023412, 2015). However, for realistic values of the parameters, we have found that it can take quite a long time (over 50 laser periods) for the system to converge to its asymptote. Of particular physical importance is the current averaged over a laser period $\frac{2\pi}\omega$, which exhibits a dramatic increase when $\hbar\omega$ becomes larger than the work function of the metal, which is consistent with the original photoelectric effect. </p>
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<p>In this note we address the question whether one can recover from the vertex operator algebra associated with a four-dimensional N=2 superconformal field theory the deformation quantization of the Higgs branch of vacua that appears as a protected subsector in the three-dimensional circle-reduced theory. We answer this question positively if the UV R-symmetries do not mix with accidental (topological) symmetries along the renormalization group flow from the four-dimensional theory on a circle to the three-dimensional theory. If they do mix, we still find a deformation quantization but at different values of its period. </p>
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<p>A two-dimensional superintegrable system of singular oscillators with internal degrees of freedom is identified and exactly solved. Its symmetry algebra is seen to be the dual $-1$ Hahn algebra which describes the bispectral properties of the polynomials with the same name that are essentially the Clebsch-Gordan coefficients of the superconformal algebra $\mathfrak{osp}(1|2)$. It is also shown how this superintegrable model is obtained under dimensional reduction from a set of uncoupled harmonic oscillators in four dimensions. </p>
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<p>We show that the Killing spinor equations of all supergravity theories which may include higher order corrections on a (r,s)-signature spacetime are associated with twisted covariant form hierarchies. These hierarchies are characterized by a connection on the space of forms which may not be degree preserving. As a consequence we demonstrate that the form Killing spinor bi-linears of all supersymmetric backgrounds satisfy a suitable generalization of conformal Killing-Yano equation with respect to this connection. To illustrate the general proof the twisted covariant form hierarchies of some supergravity theories in 4, 5, 6, 10 and 11 dimensions are also presented. </p>
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<p>We estimate the mixing time of the a nonreversible finite Markov chain called Repeated Balls-into-Bins (RBB) process. This process is a discrete time conservative interacting particle system with parallel updates. Place initially in $L$ bins $rL$ balls, where $r$ is a fixed positive constant. At each time step a ball is taken from each non-empty bin. Then \emph{all the balls} are uniformly reassigned into bins. We prove that the mixing time of the RBB process depends linearly on the maximum occupation number of balls of the initial state. Thus if the initial configuration is such that the maximum occupation number of balls is of order $L$ then the mixing time is of the same correct order. While if the initial configuration is more diluted then the equilibrium is reached in a time of order $(\log L)^c$. </p>
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<p>We give a systematic local description of invariant metrics and other invariant fields on a spacetime under the action of a (non-abelian) group. This includes the invariant fields in a neighbourhood of a principal and a special orbit. The construction is illustrated with examples. We also apply the formalism to give the R-symmetry invariant metrics of some AdS backgrounds and comment on applications to Kaluza-Klein theory. </p>
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<p>We identify the local scaling limit of multiple boundary-to-boundary branches in a uniform spanning tree (UST) as a local multiple SLE(2), i.e., an SLE(2) process weighted by a suitable partition function. By recent results, this also characterizes the "global" scaling limit of the full collection of full curves. The identification is based on a martingale observable in the UST with $N$ branches, obtained by weighting the well-known martingale in the UST with one branch by the discrete partition functions of the models. The obtained weighting transforms of the discrete martingales and the limiting SLE processes, respectively, only rely on a discrete domain Markov property and (essentially) the convergence of partition functions. We illustrate their generalizability by sketching an analogous convergence proof for a boundary-visiting UST branch and a boundary-visiting SLE(2). </p>
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<p>We present a novel 8-parameter integrable map in $\mathbb{R}^4$. The map is measure-preserving and possesses two functionally independent 2-integrals, as well as a measure-preserving 2-symmetry. </p>
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<p>It is shown that the carrier of a bounded localized free Dirac wavefunction shrinks from infinity and subsequently expands to infinity again. The motion occurs isotropicly at the speed of light. In between there is the phase of rebound, which is limited in time and space in the order of the diameter of the carrier at its minimal extension. This motion proceeds anisotropicly and abruptly as for every direction in space there is a specific time, at which the change from shrinking to expanding happens instantaneously. Asymptotically, regarding the past and the future as well, the probability of position concentrates up to 1 within any spherical shell whose outer radius increases at light speed. </p>
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<p>The structure function of a random matrix ensemble can be specified as the covariance of the linear statistics $\sum_{j=1}^N e^{i k_1 \lambda_j}$, $\sum_{j=1}^N e^{-i k_2 \lambda_j}$ for Hermitian matrices, and the same with the eigenvalues $\lambda_j$ replaced by the eigenangles $\theta_j$ for unitary matrices. As such it can be written in terms of the Fourier transform of the density-density correlation $\rho_{(2)}$. For the circular $\beta$-ensemble of unitary matrices, and with $\beta$ even, we characterise the bulk scaling limit of $\rho_{(2)}$ as the solution of a linear differential equation of order $\beta + 1$ -- a duality relates $\rho_{(2)}$ with $\beta$ replaced by $4/\beta$ to the same equation. Asymptotics obtained in the case $\beta = 6$ from this characterisation are combined with previously established results to determine the explicit form of the degree 10 palindromic polynomial in $\beta/2$ which determines the coefficient of $|k|^{11}$ in the small $|k|$ expansion of the structure function for general $\beta &gt; 0$. For the Gaussian unitary ensemble we give a reworking of a recent derivation and generalisation, due to Okuyama, of an identity relating the structure function to simpler quantities in the Laguerre unitary ensemble first derived in random matrix theory by Br\'ezin and Hikami. This is used to determine various scaling limits, many of which relate to the dip-ramp-plateau effect emphasised in recent studies of many body quantum chaos, and allows too for rates of convergence to be established. </p>
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<p>This paper studies how the static non-linear electromagnetic-vacuum spacetime of a point nucleus with negative bare mass affects the self-adjointness of the general-relativistic Dirac Hamiltonian for a test electron, without and with an anomalous magnetic moment. </p> <p>The study interpolates between the previously studied extreme cases of a test electron in (a) the Reissner--Weyl--Nordstr\"om spacetime (Maxwell's electromagnetic vacuum), which supports a very strong curvature singularity with negative infinite bare mass, and (b) the Hoffmann spacetime (Born or Born--Infeld's electromagnetic vacuum) with vanishing bare mass, which features the mildest possible curvature singularity. </p> <p>The main conclusion reached is: {on electrostatic spacetimes of a point nucleus with a strictly negative bare mass} (which may be $-\infty$) essential self-adjointness fails unless the radial electric field diverges sufficiently fast at the nucleus and the anomalous magnetic moment of the electron is taken into account. </p> <p>Thus on the Hoffmann spacetime with (strictly) negative bare mass the Dirac Hamiltonian of a test electron, with or without anomalous magnetic moment, is not essentially self-adjoint. </p> <p>All these operators have self-adjoint extensions, though, with the usual essential spectrum $(-\infty,-\mEL c^2]\cup[\mEL c^2,\infty)$ and an infinite discrete spectrum located in the gap $(-\mEL c^2,\mEL c^2)$ </p>