math-ph updates on arXiv.org

Mathematical Physics (math-ph) updates on the arXiv.org e-print archive



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<p>We describe the class (semigroup) of quantum channels mapping states with finite entropy into states with finite entropy. We show, in particular, that this class is naturally decomposed into three convex subclasses, two of them are closed under concatenations and tensor products. We obtain asymptotically tight universal continuity bounds for the output entropy of two types of quantum channels: channels with finite output entropy and energy-constrained channels preserving finiteness of the entropy. </p>
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<p>Combining intuitive probabilistic assumptions with the basic laws of classical thermodynamics, using the latter to express probabilistic parameters in terms of the thermodynamic quantities, we get a simple unified derivation of the fundamental ensembles of statistical physics avoiding any limiting procedures, quantum hypothesis and even statistical entropy maximization. This point of view leads also to some related classes of correlated particle statistics. </p>
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<p>An explicit formula to find symmetry recursion operators for partial differential equations (PDEs) is obtained from new results connecting variational integrating factors and non-variational symmetries. The formula is special case of a general formula that produces a pre-symplectic operator from a non-gradient adjoint-symmetry. These formulas are illustrated by several examples of linear PDEs and integrable nonlinear PDEs. Additionally, a classification of quasilinear second-order PDEs admitting a multiplicative symmetry recursion operator through the first formula is presented. </p>
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<p>The geometry and topology of cosmological spacetimes and vector bundles thereon are discussed. Global hyperbolicty and factorization properties that are normally assumed in bulk in the literature are derived from a minimal set of assumptions using recent progress in pure mathematics. </p>
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<p>Considered is a generalized Gibbs ensemble of the classical Toda lattice. We establish that the collision rate ansatz follows from (i) the charge-current susceptibility matrix is symmetric and (ii) the stretch current is proportional to the momentum, hence conserved. </p>
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<p>Quantum or classical mechanical systems symmetric under $SU(2)$ are called spin systems. A $SU(2)$-equivariant map from $(n+1)$-square matrices to functions on the $2$-sphere, satisfying some basic properties, is called a spin-$j$ symbol correspondence ($n=2j\in\mathbb N$). Given a spin-$j$ symbol correspondence, the matrix algebra induces a twisted $j$-algebra of symbols. In this paper, we establish a new, more intuitive criterion for when the Poisson algebra of smooth functions on the $2$-sphere emerges asymptotically ($n\to\infty$) from the sequence of twisted $j$-algebras of symbols. This new, more geometric criterion, which in many cases is equivalent to the numerical criterion obtained in [Rios&amp;Straume], is now given in terms of a classical (asymptotic) localization of the symbols of projectors (quantum pure states). For some important kinds of symbol correspondence sequences, classical localization of all projector-symbols is equivalent to asymptotic emergence of the Poisson algebra. But in general, such a classical localization condition is stronger than Poisson emergence. We thus also consider some weaker notions of asymptotic localization of projector-symbols. Finally, we obtain some relations between asymptotic localization of a symbol correspondence sequence and its quantizations of the classical spin system. </p>
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<p>We present results extending the foundational work of Choromanska et al (2015) on the complexity of the loss surfaces of multi-layer neural networks. We remove the strict reliance on specifically ReLU activation functions and obtain broadly the same results for general activation functions. This is achieved with piece-wise linear approximations to general activation functions, Kac-Rice calculations akin to those of Auffinger, Ben Arous and \v{C}ern\`y (2013) and asymptotic analysis made possible by supersymmetric methods. Our results strengthen the case for the conclusions of Choromanska et al (2015) and the calculations contain various novel details required to deal with certain perturbations to the classical spin-glass calculations. </p>
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<p>The purpose of this article is to study the hydrodynamic limit of the symmetric exclusion process with long jumps and in contact with infinitely extended reservoirs for a particular critical regime. The jumps are given in terms of a transition probability that can have finite or infinite variance and the hydrodynamic equation is a diffusive equation, in the former case, or a fractional equation, in the latter case. In this work we treat the critical case, that is, when the variance is infinite but of logarithm order wrt the system size. This is the case in which there is a transition from diffusive to super-diffusive behavior. </p>
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<p>It is commonly known that the Fokker-Planck equation is exactly solvable only for some particular systems, usually with time-independent drift coefficients. To extend the class of solvable problems, we use the intertwining relations of SUSY Quantum Mechanics but in new - asymmetric - form. It turns out that this form is just useful for solution of Fokker-Planck equation. As usual, intertwining provides a partnership between two different systems both described by Fokker-Planck equation. Due to the use of an asymmetric kind of intertwining relations with a suitable ansatz, we managed to obtain a new class of analytically solvable models. What is important, this approach allows us to deal with the drift coefficients depending on both variables, $x,$ and $t.$ An illustrating example of the proposed construction is given explicitly. </p>
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<p>We consider a construction of observables by using methods of supersymmetric field theories. In particular, we give an extension of AKSZ-type observables using the Batalin-Vilkovisky structure of AKSZ theories to a formal global version with methods of formal geometry. We will consider the case where the AKSZ theory is "split" which will give an explicit construction for formal vector fields on base and fiber within the formal global action. Moreover, we consider the example of formal global generalized Wilson surface observables whose expectation values are invariants of higher-dimensional knots by using $BF$ field theory. These constructions give rise to interesting global gauge conditions such as the differential Quantum Master Equation and further extensions. </p>
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<p>To motivate our discussion, we consider a 1+1 dimensional scalar field interacting with a static Coulomb-type background, so that the spectrum of quantum fluctuations is given by a second-order differential operator on a single coordinate r with a singular coefficient proportional to 1/r. We find that the spectral functions of this operator present an interesting behavior: the zeta function has multiple poles in the complex plane; accordingly, logarithms of the proper time appear in the heat-trace expansion. As a consequence, the zeta function does not provide a finite regularization of the effective action. This work extends similar results previously derived in the context of conical singularities. </p>
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<p>This paper presents a non-Hermitian PT-symmetric extension of the Nambu--Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model of quantum chromodynamics in 3+1 and 1+1 dimensions. In 3+1 dimensions, the SU(2)-symmetric NJL Hamiltonian $H_{\textrm{NJL}} = \bar\psi (-i \gamma^k \partial_k + m_0) \psi - G [ (\bar\psi \psi)^2 + (\bar\psi i \gamma_5 \vec{\tau} \psi)^2 ]$ is extended by the non-Hermitian, PT- and chiral-symmetric bilinear term $ig\bar\psi \gamma_5 B_{\mu} \gamma^{\mu} \psi$; in 1+1 dimensions, where $H_{\textrm{NJL}}$ is a form of the Gross-Neveu model, it is extended by the non-Hermitian PT-symmetric but chiral symmetry breaking term $g \bar\psi \gamma_5 \psi$. In each case, the gap equation is derived and the effects of the non-Hermitian terms on the generated mass are studied. We have several findings: in previous calculations for the free Dirac equation modified to include non-Hermitian bilinear terms, contrary to expectation, no real mass spectrum can be obtained in the chiral limit; in these cases a nonzero bare fermion mass is essential for the realization of PT symmetry in the unbroken regime. Here, in the NJL model, in which four-point interactions are present, we {\it do} find real values for the mass spectrum also in the limit of vanishing bare masses in both 3+1 and 1+1 dimensions, at least for certain specific values of the non-Hermitian couplings $g$. Thus, the four-point interaction overrides the effects leading to PT symmetry-breaking for these parameter values. Further, we find that in both cases, in 3+1 and in 1+1 dimensions, the inclusion of a non-Hermitian bilinear term can contribute to the generated mass. In both models, this contribution can be tuned to be small; we thus fix the fermion mass to its value when $m_0=0$ in the absence of the non-Hermitian term, and then determine the value of the coupling required so as to generate a bare fermion mass. </p>
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<p>We introduce a multidimensional walk with memory and random tendency. The asymptotic behaviour is characterized, proving a law of large numbers and showing a phase transition from diffusive to superdiffusive regimes. In first case, we obtain a functional limit theorem to Gaussian vectors. In superdiffusive, we obtain strong convergence to a non-Gaussian random vector and characterize its moments. </p>
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<p>In this article, we investigate a multispecies generalization of the single-species asymmetric simple exclusion process defined on an open one-dimensional lattice. We devise an exact projection scheme to find the phase diagram in terms of densities and currents of all species. In most of the phases, one or more species are absent in the system due to dynamical expulsion. We observe shocks as well in some regions of the phase diagram. We explain the density profiles using a generalized shock structure that is substantiated by numerical simulations. </p>
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<p>We consider the classical point vortex model in the mean-field scaling regime, in which the velocity field experienced by a single point vortex is proportional to the average of the velocity fields generated by the remaining point vortices. We show that if at some time, the associated sequence of empirical measures converges in a suitable sense to a probability measure with density $\omega^0\in L^\infty(\mathbb{R}^2)$ and having finite energy, as the number of point vortices $N\rightarrow\infty$, then the sequence converges in the weak-* topology for measures to the unique solution $\omega$ of the 2D incompressible Euler equation with initial datum $\omega^0$, locally uniformly in time. In contrast to previous results, our theorem requires no regularity assumptions on the limiting vorticity $\omega$, is at the level of conservation laws for the 2D Euler equation, and provides a quantitative rate of convergence. Our proof is based on a combination of the modulated-energy method of Serfaty and a novel mollification argument. We contend that our result is a mean-field convergence analogue of the famous theorem of Yudovich for global well-posedness of 2D Euler in $L^1(\mathbb{R}^2)\cap L^\infty(\mathbb{R}^2)$. </p>
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<p>The Brownian map is a random sphere-homeomorphic metric measure space obtained by "gluing together" the continuum trees described by the $x$ and $y$ coordinates of the Brownian snake. We present an alternative "breadth-first" construction of the Brownian map, which produces a surface from a certain decorated branching process. It is closely related to the peeling process, the hull process, and the Brownian cactus. </p> <p>Using these ideas, we prove that the Brownian map is the only random sphere-homeomorphic metric measure space with certain properties: namely, scale invariance and the conditional independence of the inside and outside of certain "slices" bounded by geodesics. We also formulate a characterization in terms of the so-called L\'evy net produced by a metric exploration from one measure-typical point to another. This characterization is part of a program for proving the equivalence of the Brownian map and Liouville quantum gravity with parameter $\gamma= \sqrt{8/3}$. </p>
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<p>We propose an explicit formula for the GW/PT descendent correspondence in the stationary case for nonsingular projective 3-folds. The formula, written in terms of vertex operators, is found by studying the 1-leg geometry. We prove the proposal for all nonsingular projective toric 3-folds. An application to the Virasoro constraints for the stationary descendent theory of stable pairs will appear in a sequel. </p>
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<p>On the space of positive definite matrices we consider distance functions of the form $d(A,B)=\left[\tr\mathcal{A}(A,B)-\tr\mathcal{G}(A,B)\right]^{1/2},$ where $\mathcal{A}(A,B)$ is the arithmetic mean and $\mathcal{G}(A,B)$ is one of the different versions of the geometric mean. When $\mathcal{G}(A,B)=A^{1/2}B^{1/2}$ this distance is $\|A^{1/2}-B^{1/2}\|_2,$ and when $\mathcal{G}(A,B)=(A^{1/2}BA^{1/2})^{1/2}$ it is the Bures-Wasserstein metric. We study two other cases: $\mathcal{G}(A,B)=A^{1/2}(A^{-1/2}BA^{-1/2})^{1/2}A^{1/2},$ the Pusz-Woronowicz geometric mean, and $\mathcal{G}(A,B)=\exp\big(\frac{\log A+\log B}{2}\big),$ the log Euclidean mean. With these choices $d(A,B)$ is no longer a metric, but it turns out that $d^2(A,B)$ is a divergence. We establish some (strict) convexity properties of these divergences. We obtain characterisations of barycentres of $m$ positive definite matrices with respect to these distance measures. </p>
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<p>Kinetically constrained models (KCM) are reversible interacting particle systems on $\mathbb{Z}^d$ with continuous-time constrained Glauber dynamics. They are a natural non-monotone stochastic version of the family of cellular automata with random initial state known as $\mathcal{U}$-bootstrap percolation. KCM have an interest in their own right, owing to their use for modelling the liquid-glass transition in condensed matter physics. </p> <p>In two dimensions there are three classes of models with qualitatively different scaling of the infection time of the origin as the density of infected sites vanishes. Here we study in full generality the class termed `critical'. Together with the companion paper by Martinelli and two of the authors we establish the universality classes of critical KCM and determine within each class the critical exponent of the infection time as well as of the spectral gap. In this work we prove that for critical models with an infinite number of stable directions this exponent is twice the one of their bootstrap percolation counterpart. This is due to the occurrence of `energy barriers', which determine the dominant behaviour for these KCM but which do not matter for the monotone bootstrap dynamics. Our result confirms the conjecture of Martinelli, Morris and the last author, who proved a matching upper bound. </p>
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<p>Resource theory is a general, model-independent approach aiming to understand the qualitative notion of resource quantitatively. In a given resource theory, free operations are physical processes that do not create the resource and are considered zero-cost. This brings the following natural question: For a given free operation, what is its ability to preserve a resource? We axiomatically formulate this ability as the resource preservability, which is constructed as a channel resource theory induced by a state resource theory. We provide two general classes of resource preservability monotones: One is based on state resource monotones, and another is based on channel distance measures. Specifically, the latter gives the robustness monotone, which has been recently found to have an operational interpretation. As examples, we show that athermality preservability of a Gibbs-preserving channel can be related to the smallest bath size needed to thermalize all its outputs, and it also bounds the capacity of a classical communication scenario under certain thermodynamic constraints. We further apply our theory to the study of entanglement preserving local thermalization (EPLT) and provide a new family of EPLT which admits arbitrarily small nonzero entanglement preservability and free entanglement preservation at the same time. Our results give the first systematic and general formulation of the resource preservation character of free operations. </p>
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<p>The strong-field limit for the 2-form potential on an M5-brane yields a conformal chiral 2-form electrodynamics in six dimensions, with gauge-invariant self-interactions but no adjustable coupling constant; the stress tensor is that of a null fluid. Lorentz invariance can be made manifest via an interpretation as a tensionless `space-filling M5-brane', or as a truncation of the infra-red dynamics of an M5-brane in AdS7 x S4. </p>
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<p>We consider separatrix solutions of the differential equations for inflaton models with a single scalar field in a zero-curvature Friedmann-Lema\^{\i}tre-Robertson-Walker universe. The existence and properties of separatrices are investigated in the framework of the Hamilton-Jacobi formalism, where the main quantity is the Hubble parameter considered as a function of the inflaton field. A wide class of inflaton models that have separatrix solutions (and include many of the most physically relevant potentials) is introduced, and the properties of the corresponding separatrices are investigated, in particular, asymptotic inflationary stages, leading approximations to the separatrices, and full asymptotic expansions thereof. We also prove an optimal growth criterion for potentials that do not have separatrices. </p>
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<p>We show split property of gapped ground states for Fermion systems on a one-dimensional lattice and clarify mathematical meaning of string order of fermions. </p>
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<p>We study the interior of a Reissner-Nordstr\"om Black-Hole (RNBH) using Relativistic Quantum Geometry, wich was introduced in some previous works. We found discrete energy levels for a scalar field from a polynomial condition for Heun Confluent functions expanded around the effective causal radius $r_*$. From the solutions it is obtained that the uncertainty principle is valid for each energy level of space-time, in the form: $E_n\, r_{*,n}=\hbar/2$. </p>