math-ph updates on arXiv.org

Mathematical Physics (math-ph) updates on the arXiv.org e-print archive



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<p>Resource theories provide a general framework for the characterization of properties of physical systems in quantum mechanics and beyond. Here, we introduce methods for the quantification of resources in general probabilistic theories (GPTs), focusing in particular on the technical issues associated with infinite-dimensional state spaces. We define a universal resource quantifier based on the robustness measure, and show it to admit a direct operational meaning: in any GPT, it quantifies the advantage that a given resource state enables in channel discrimination tasks over all resourceless states. We show that the robustness acts as a faithful and strongly monotonic measure in any resource theory described by a convex and closed set of free states, and can be computed through a convex conic optimization problem. </p> <p>Specializing to continuous-variable quantum mechanics, we obtain additional bounds and relations, allowing an efficient computation of the measure and comparison with other monotones. We demonstrate applications of the robustness to several resources of physical relevance: optical nonclassicality, entanglement, genuine non-Gaussianity, and coherence. In particular, we establish exact expressions for various classes of states, including Fock states and squeezed states in the resource theory of nonclassicality and general pure states in the resource theory of entanglement, as well as tight bounds applicable in general cases. </p>
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<p>The aim of this work is to further study the fractional bosonic string theory. In particular, we wrote the energy-momentum tensor in the fractional conformal gauge and study their symmetries. We introduced the Virasoro operators of all orders. In fact, we found the same $L_0 (\widetilde{L}_0)$ operator originally defined in the work of fractional bosonic string up to a shift transformation. Also, we compute the algebra of our Fractional Virasoro Operators, finding that the satifies the $Witt$ algebra. Lastly, we showed that in the boundary of our theory we recover the lost conservation law associated to $\tau$-diffeomorphism, proving that we have Poincar\'e invariance at the boundary. </p>
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<p>This thesis deals with the systematic treatment of quantum-mechanical systems in post-Newtonian gravitational fields. Starting from clearly spelled-out assumptions, employing a framework of geometric background structures defining the notion of a post-Newtonian expansion, our systematic approach allows to properly derive the post-Newtonian coupling of quantum-mechanical systems to gravity based on first principles. This sets it apart from more heuristic approaches that are commonly employed, for example, in the description of quantum-optical experiments under gravity. </p> <p>Regarding single particles, we compare simple canonical quantisation of a free particle in curved spacetime to formal expansions of the minimally coupled Klein-Gordon equation, which may be motivated from QFT in curved spacetimes. Specifically, we develop a general WKB-like post-Newtonian expansion of the KG equation to arbitrary order in $c^{-1}$. Furthermore, for stationary spacetimes, we show that the Hamiltonians arising from expansions of the KG equation and from canonical quantisation agree up to linear order in particle momentum, independent of any expansion in $c^{-1}$. </p> <p>Concerning composite systems, we perform a fully detailed systematic derivation of the first order post-Newtonian quantum Hamiltonian describing the dynamics of an electromagnetically bound two-particle system situated in external electromagnetic and gravitational fields, the latter being described by the Eddington-Robertson PPN metric. </p> <p>In the last, independent part of the thesis, we prove two uniqueness results characterising the Newton--Wigner position observable for Poincar\'e-invariant classical Hamiltonian systems: one is a direct classical analogue of the quantum Newton--Wigner theorem, and the other clarifies the geometric interpretation of the Newton--Wigner position as `centre of spin', as proposed by Fleming in 1965. </p>
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<p>We use boundary triples to find a parametrization of all self-adjoint extensions of the magnetic Schr\"odinger operator, in a quasi-convex domain~$\Omega$ with compact boundary, and magnetic potentials with components in $\textrm{W}^{1}_{\infty}(\overline{\Omega})$. This gives also a new characterization of all self-adjoint extensions of the Laplacian in nonregular domains. Then we discuss gauge transformations for such self-adjoint extensions and generalize a characterization of the gauge equivalence of the Dirichlet magnetic operator for the Dirichlet Laplacian; the relation to the Aharonov-Bohm effect, including irregular solenoids, is also discussed. In particular, in case of (bounded) quasi-convex domains it is shown that if some extension is unitarily equivalent (through the multiplication by a smooth unit function) to a realization with zero magnetic potential, then the same occurs for all self-adjoint realizations. </p>
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<p>This paper is dedicated to Mike Duff on the occasion of his 70th birthday. I discuss some issues of M-theory/string theory/supergravity closely related to Mike's interests. I describe a relation between STU black hole entropy, Cayley hyperdeterminant, Bhargava cube and a 3-qubit Alice, Bob, Charlie triality symmetry. I shortly describe my recent work with Gunaydin, Linde, Yamada on M-theory cosmology, inspired by the work of Duff with Ferrara and Borsten, Levay, Marrani et al. Here we have 7-qubits, a party including Alice, Bob, Charlie, Daisy, Emma, Fred, George. Octonions and Hamming error correcting codes are at the base of these models. They lead to 7 benchmark targets of future CMB missions looking for primordial gravitational wave from inflation. I also show puzzling relations between the fermion mass eigenvalues in these cosmological models, exceptional Jordan eigenvalue problem, and black hole entropy. The symmetry of our cosmological models is illustrated by beautiful pictures of a Coxeter projection of the root system of E7. </p>
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<p>Non Commutative Geometry (NCG) is considered in the context of a charged particle moving in a uniform magnetic field. The classical and quantum mechanical treatments are revisited and a new marker of NCG is introduced. This marker is then used to investigate NCG in magnetic Quantum Walks. It is proven that these walks exhibit NCG at and near the continuum limit. For the purely discrete regime, two illustrative walks of different complexities are studied in full detail. The most complex walk does exhibit NCG but the simplest, most degenerate one does not. Thus, NCG can be simulated by QWs, not only in the continuum limit, but also in the purely discrete regime. </p>
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<p>We derive sufficient conditions for a nonholonomic system to preserve a smooth volume form; these conditions become necessary when the density is assumed to only depend on the configuration variables. Moreover, this result can be extended to geodesic flows for arbitrary metric connections and the sufficient condition manifests as integrability of the torsion. As a consequence, volume-preservation of a nonholonomic system is closely related to the torsion of the nonholonomic connection. This result is applied to the Suslov problem for left-invariant systems on Lie groups (where the underlying space is Poisson rather than symplectic). </p>
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<p>This PhD thesis lays out algebraic and topological structures relevant for the study of probabilistic graphical models. </p> <p>Marginal estimation algorithms are introduced as diffusion equations of the form $\dot u = \delta \varphi$. They generalise the traditional belief propagation (BP) algorithm, and provide an alternative for contrastive divergence (CD) or Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithms, typically involved in estimating a free energy functional and its gradient w.r.t. model parameters. </p> <p>We propose a new homological picture where parameters are a collections of local interaction potentials $(u_\alpha) \in A_0$, for $\alpha$ running over the factor nodes of a given region graph. The boundary operator $\delta$ mapping heat fluxes $(\varphi_{\alpha\beta}) \in A_1$ to a subspace $\delta A_1 \subseteq A_0$ is the discrete analog of a divergence. The total energy $H = \sum_\alpha u_\alpha$ defining the global probability $p = e^{-H} / Z$ is in one-to-one correspondence with a homology class $[u] = u + \delta A_1$ of interaction potentials, so that total energy remains constant when $u$ evolves up to a boundary term $\delta \varphi$. </p> <p>Stationary states of diffusion are shown to lie at the intersection of a homology class of potentials with a non-linear constraint surface enforcing consistency of the local marginals estimates. This picture allows us to precise and complete a proof on the correspondence between stationary states of BP and critical points of a local free energy functional (obtained by Bethe-Kikuchi approximations) and to extend the uniqueness result for acyclic graphs (i.e. trees) to a wider class of hypergraphs. In general, bifurcations of equilibria are related to the spectral singularities of a local diffusion operator, yielding new explicit examples of the degeneracy phenomenon. </p> <p>Work supervised by Pr. Daniel Bennequin </p>
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<p>We consider the plasma-vacuum interface problem in a horizontally periodic slab impressed by a uniform non-horizontal magnetic field. The lower plasma region is governed by the incompressible inviscid and resistive MHD, the upper vacuum region is governed by the pre-Maxwell equations, and the effect of surface tension is taken into account on the free interface. The global well-posedness of the problem, supplemented with physical boundary conditions, around the equilibrium is established, and the solution is shown to decay to the equilibrium almost exponentially. Our results reveal the strong stabilizing effect of the magnetic field as the global well-posedness of the free-boundary incompressible Euler equations, without the irrotational assumption, around the equilibrium is unknown. One of the key observations here is an induced damping structure for the fluid vorticity due to the resistivity and transversal magnetic field. A similar global well-posedness for the plasma-plasma interface problem is obtained, where the vacuum is replaced by another plasma. </p>
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<p>In previous work, we have considered Hamiltonians associated with 3 dimensional conformally flat spaces, possessing 2, 3 and 4 dimensional isometry algebras. Previously our Hamiltonians have represented free motion, but here we consider the problem of adding potential functions in the presence of symmetry. </p> <p>Separable potentials in the 3 dimensional space reduce to 3 or 4 parameter potentials for Darboux-Koenigs Hamiltonians. Other 3D coordinate systems reveal connections between Darboux-Koenigs and other well known super-integrable Hamiltonians, such as the Kepler problem and isotropic oscillator. </p>
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<p>Although the solutions of Painlev\'e equations are transcendental in the sense that they cannot be expressed in terms of known elementary functions, there do exist rational solutions for specialized values of the equation parameters. A very successful approach in the study of rational solutions to Painlev\'e equations involves the reformulation of these scalar equations into a symmetric system of coupled, Riccati-like equations known as dressing chains. Periodic dressing chains are known to be equivalent to the $A_N$-Painlev\'e system, first described by Noumi and Yamada. The Noumi-Yamada system, in turn, can be linearized as using bilinear equations and $\tau$-functions; the corresponding rational solutions can then be given as specializations of rational solutions of the KP hierarchy. </p> <p>The classification of rational solutions to Painlev\'e equations and systems may now be reduced to an analysis of combinatorial objects known as Maya diagrams. The upshot of this analysis is a an explicit determinental representation for rational solutions in terms of classical orthogonal polynomials. In this paper we illustrate this approach by describing Hermite-type rational solutions of Painlev\'e of the Noumi-Yamada system in terms of cyclic Maya diagrams. By way of example we explicitly construct Hermite-type solutions for the PIV, PV equations and the $A_4$ Painlev\'e system. </p>
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<p>We consider a class of trigonometric solutions of WDVV equations determined by collections of vectors with multiplicities. We show that such solutions can be restricted to special subspaces to produce new solutions of the same type. We find new solutions given by restrictions of root systems, as well as examples which are not of this form. Further, we consider a closely related notion of a trigonometric $\vee$-system and we show that their subsystems are also trigonometric $\vee$-systems. Finally, while reviewing the root system case we determine a version of (generalised) Coxeter number for the exterior square of the reflection representation of a Weyl group. </p>
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<p>Upon starting a collective endeavour, it is important to understand your partners' preferences and how strongly they commit to a common goal. Establishing a prior commitment or agreement in terms of posterior benefits and consequences from those engaging in it provides an important mechanism for securing cooperation in both pairwise and multiparty cooperation dilemmas. Resorting to methods from Evolutionary Game Theory (EGT), here we analyse how prior commitments can also be adopted as a tool for enhancing coordination when its outcomes exhibit an asymmetric payoff structure, in both pairwise and multiparty interactions. Arguably, coordination is more complex to achieve than cooperation since there might be several desirable collective outcomes in a coordination problem (compared to mutual cooperation, the only desirable collective outcome in cooperation dilemmas), especially when these outcomes entail asymmetric benefits for those involved. Our analysis, both analytically and via numerical simulations, shows that whether prior commitment would be a viable evolutionary mechanism for enhancing coordination and the overall population social welfare strongly depends on the collective benefit and severity of competition, and more importantly, how asymmetric benefits are resolved in a commitment deal. Moreover, in multiparty interactions, prior commitments prove to be crucial when a high level of group diversity is required for optimal coordination. Our results are shown to be robust for different selection intensities. We frame our model within the context of the technology adoption decision making, but the obtained results are applicable to other coordination problems. </p>
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<p>We introduce families of one-dimensional Lindblad equations describing open many-particle quantum systems that are exactly solvable in the following sense: $(i)$ the space of operators splits into exponentially many (in system size) subspaces that are left invariant under the dissipative evolution; $(ii)$ the time evolution of the density matrix on each invariant subspace is described by an integrable Hamiltonian. The prototypical example is the quantum version of the asymmetric simple exclusion process (ASEP) which we analyze in some detail. We show that in each invariant subspace the dynamics is described in terms of an integrable spin-1/2 XXZ Heisenberg chain with either open or twisted boundary conditions. We further demonstrate that Lindbladians featuring integrable operator-space fragmentation can be found in spin chains with arbitrary local physical dimension. </p>
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<p>We study the coupling of spectral triples with twisted real structures to gauge fields in the framework of noncommutative geometry and, adopting Morita equivalence via modules and bimodules as a guiding principle, give special attention to modifying the inner fluctuations of the Dirac operator. In particular, we analyse the twisted first-order condition as a possible alternative to the approach of <a href="/abs/1304.7583">arXiv:1304.7583</a>, and elaborate upon the special case of gauge transformations accordingly. Applying the formalism to a toy model, we argue that under certain physically-motivated assumptions the spectral triple based on the left-right symmetric algebra should reduce to that of the Standard Model of fundamental particles and interactions, as in the untwisted case. </p>
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<p>Given a uniform, frustration-free family of local Lindbladians defined on a quantum lattice spin system in any spatial dimension, we prove a strong exponential convergence in relative entropy of the system to equilibrium under a condition of spatial mixing of the stationary Gibbs states and the rapid decay of the relative entropy on finite-size blocks. Our result leads to the first examples of the positivity of the modified logarithmic Sobolev inequality for quantum lattice spin systems independently of the system size. Moreover, we show that our notion of spatial mixing is a consequence of the recent quantum generalization of Dobrushin and Shlosman's complete analyticity of the free-energy at equilibrium. The latter typically holds above a critical temperature. </p> <p>Our results have wide applications in quantum information processing. As an illustration, we discuss three of them: first, using techniques of quantum optimal transport, we show that a quantum annealer subject to a finite range classical noise will output an energy close to that of the fixed point after constant annealing time. Second, we prove a finite blocklength refinement of the quantum Stein lemma for the task of asymmetric discrimination of two Gibbs states of commuting Hamiltonians satisfying our conditions. In the same setting, our results imply the existence of a local quantum circuit of logarithmic depth to prepare Gibbs states of a class of commuting Hamiltonians. </p>
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<p>A formal expansion for the Green's functions of an interacting quantum field theory in a parameter that somehow encodes its "distance" from the corresponding non-interacting one was introduced more than thirty years ago, and has been recently reconsidered in connection with its possible application to the renormalization of non-hermitian theories. Besides this new and interesting application, this expansion has special properties already when applied to ordinary (i.e. hermitian) theories, and in order to disentangle the peculiarities of the expansion itself from those of non-hermitian theories, it is worth to push further the investigation limiting first the analysis to ordinary theories. In the present work we study some aspects related to the renormalization of a scalar theory within the framework of such an expansion. Due to its peculiar properties, it turns out that at any finite order in the expansion parameter the theory looks as non-interacting. We show that when diagrams of appropriate classes are resummed, this apparent drawback disappears and the theory recovers its interacting character. In particular we have seen that with a certain class of diagrams, the weak-coupling expansion results are recovered, thus establishing a bridge between the two expansions. </p>
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<p>Micro-bending attenuation in an optical waveguide can be modeled by a Fokker-Planck equation. It is shown that a supersymmetric transformation applied to the Fokker-Planck equation is equivalent to a change in the refractive index profile, resulting in a larger or smaller attenuation. For a broad class of monomial index profiles, it is always possible to obtain an index profile with a larger micro-bending attenuation using a supersymmetric transformation. However, obtaining a smaller attenuation is not always possible and is restricted to a subset of index profiles. </p>
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<p>In type II superstring theory, the vacuum amplitude at a given loop order $g$ can receive contributions from the boundary of the compactified, genus $g$ supermoduli space of curves $\overline{\mathfrak M}_g$. These contributions capture the long distance or infrared behaviour of the amplitude. The boundary parametrises degenerations of genus $g$ super Riemann surfaces. A holomorphic projection of the supermoduli space onto its reduced space would then provide a way to integrate the holomorphic, superstring measure and thereby give the superstring vacuum amplitude at $g$-loop order. However, such a projection does not generally exist over the bulk of the supermoduli spaces in higher genera. Nevertheless, certain boundary divisors in $\partial\overline{\mathfrak M}_g$ may holomorphically map onto a bosonic space upon composition with universal morphisms, thereby enabling an integration of the holomorphic, superstring measure here. Making use of ansatz factorisations of the superstring measure near the boundary, our analysis shows that the boundary contributions to the three loop vacuum amplitude will vanish in closed oriented type II superstring theory with unbroken spacetime supersymmetry. </p>
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<p>We propose a new dynamical reflection algebra, distinct from the previous dynamical boundary algebra and semi-dynamical reflection algebra. The associated Yang-Baxter equations, coactions, fusions, and commuting traces are derived. Explicit examples are given and quantum integrable Hamiltonians are constructed. They exhibit features similar to the Ruijsenaars-Schneider Hamiltonians. </p>
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<p>This work is devoted to the causal perturbative Quantum Field Theory (QFT) due to Bogoliubov, including QED and other realistic QFT. The white noise analysis and the Hida operators as the annihilation-creation operators for free fields are used. The whole Bogoliubov method is unchanged. Causal axioms of such QFT make sense on any globally causal space-times. It is proved that on the flat Minkowski spacetime realistic QFT, including QED, lead to the scattering operator and interacting fields understood as generalized operators in the white noise theory of Hida-Obata-Sait\^o with the perturbative series equal to the Fock expansion of these operators in the sense of the white noise calculus and make perfect sense in the adiabatic limit as the generalized operators. But in case of the flat Minkowski space-time the realistic QFT, including QED, can be applied only to the scattering phenomena with the many-particle plane wave generalized states as the \emph{in} and \emph{out} states. Theory is mathematically consistent without any infrared or ultraviolet infinities. Feynman rules are replaced with other much more effective recurrence rules for the higher order contributions to the scattering operator. It is shown that realistic QFT, e.g. QED, are quite singular on the flat Minkowski spacetime with the interacting fields as generalized operators, which are quite singular, which after smearing with test function are not equal to ordinary operators. Bound state problems cannot be treated entirely within QED on the Minkowski space-time. It is proved that on space-times with compact Cauchy surfaces and non-zero curvature realistic causal perturbative QFT, including QED, behave much better. Perturbative series for some realistic QFT are proved to be convergent on the globally causal space-times with nonzero curvature and compact Cauchy surfaces. </p>
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<p>In this article we formulate a group of birational transformations which is isomorphic to an extended affine Weyl group of type $(A_{2n+1}+A_1+A_1)^{(1)}$ with the aid of mutations and permutations of vertices to a mutation-periodic quiver on a torus. This group provides a class of higher order generalizations of Jimbo-Sakai's $q$-Painlev\'e VI equation as translations on a root lattice. Then the known three systems are obtained again; the $q$-Garnier system, a similarity reduction of the lattice $q$-UC hierarchy and a similarity reduction of the $q$-Drinfeld-Sokolov hierarchy. </p>
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<p>Dynamical decoupling is the leading technique to remove unwanted interactions in a vast range of quantum systems through fast rotations. But what determines the time-scale of such rotations in order to achieve good decoupling? By providing an explicit counterexample of a qubit coupled to a charged particle and magnetic monopole, we show that such time-scales cannot be decided by the decay profile induced by the noise: even though the system shows a quadratic decay (a Zeno region revealing non-Markovian noise), it cannot be decoupled, no matter how fast the rotations. </p>
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<p>We define a Markovian parallel dynamics for a class of spin systems on general interaction graphs. In this dynamics, beside the usual set of parameters $J_{xy}$, the strength of the interaction between the spins $\sigma_x$ and $\sigma_y$, and $\lambda_x$, the external field at site $x$, there is an inertial parameter $q$ measuring the tendency of the system to remain locally in the same state. This dynamics is reversible with an explicitly defined stationary measure. For suitable choices of parameter this invariant measure concentrates on the ground states of the Hamiltonian. This implies that this dynamics can be used to solve, heuristically, difficult problems in the context of combinatorial optimization. In particular, we study the dynamics on $\mathbb{Z}^2$ with homogeneous interaction and external field (Ising model on the square lattice) and with arbitrary boundary conditions. We prove that for certain values of the parameters the stationary measure is close to the related Gibbs measure. Hence our dynamics may be a good tool to sample from Gibbs measure by means of a parallel algorithm. Moreover we show how the parameter $q$ allows to interpolate between spin systems defined on different regular lattices. </p>
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<p>The logarithmic negativity of a bipartite quantum state is a widely employed entanglement measure in quantum information theory, due to the fact that it is easy to compute and serves as an upper bound on distillable entanglement. More recently, the $\kappa$-entanglement of a bipartite state was shown to be the first entanglement measure that is both easily computable and has a precise information-theoretic meaning, being equal to the exact entanglement cost of a bipartite quantum state when the free operations are those that completely preserve the positivity of the partial transpose [Wang and Wilde, Phys. Rev. Lett. 125(4):040502, July 2020]. In this paper, we provide a non-trivial link between these two entanglement measures, by showing that they are the extremes of an ordered family of $\alpha$-logarithmic negativity entanglement measures, each of which is identified by a parameter $\alpha\in[ 1,\infty] $. In this family, the original logarithmic negativity is recovered as the smallest with $\alpha=1$, and the $\kappa$-entanglement is recovered as the largest with $\alpha=\infty$. We prove that the $\alpha $-logarithmic negativity satisfies the following properties: entanglement monotone, normalization, faithfulness, and subadditivity. We also prove that it is neither convex nor monogamous. Finally, we define the $\alpha$-logarithmic negativity of a quantum channel as a generalization of the notion for quantum states, and we show how to generalize many of the concepts to arbitrary resource theories. </p>
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<p>The notions of two-dimensional area, Killing fields and matter flux are introduced in the setting of causal fermion systems. It is shown that for critical points of the causal action, the area change of two-dimensional surfaces under a Killing flow in null directions is proportional to the matter flux through these surfaces. This relation generalizes an equation in classical general relativity due to Ted Jacobson to the setting of causal fermion systems. </p>
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<p>In the hard edge scaling limit of the Jacobi unitary ensemble generated by the weight $x^{\alpha}(1-x)^{\beta},~x\in[0,1],~\alpha,\beta&gt;0$, the probability that all eigenvalues of Hermitian matrices from this ensemble lie in the interval $[t,1]$ is given by the Fredholm determinant of the Bessel kernel. We derive the constant in the asymptotics of this Bessel-kernel determinant. A specialization of the results gives the constant in the asymptotics of the probability that the interval $(-a,a),a&gt;0,$ is free of eigenvalues in the Jacobi unitary ensemble with the symmetric weight $(1-x^2)^{\beta}, x\in[-1,1]$. </p>
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<p>A large family of diffusive models of transport that has been considered in the past years admits a transformation into the same model in contact with an equilibrium bath. This mapping holds at the full dynamical level, and is independent of dimension or topology. It provides a good opportunity to discuss questions of time reversal in out of equilibrium contexts. In particular, thanks to the mapping one may define the free-energy in the non-equilibrium states very naturally as the (usual) free energy of the mapped system. </p>
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<p>The inverse quantum scattering problem for the perturbed Bessel equation is considered. A direct and practical method for solving the problem is proposed. It allows one to reduce the inverse problem to a system of linear algebraic equations, and the potential is recovered from the first component of the solution vector of the system. The approach is based on a special form Fourier-Jacobi series representation for the transmutation operator kernel and the Gelfand-Levitan equation which serves for obtaining the system of linear algebraic equations. The convergence and stability of the method are proved as well as the existence and uniqueness of the solution of the truncated system. Numerical realization of the method is discussed. Results of numerical tests are provided revealing a remarkable accuracy and stability of the method. </p>
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<p>In this paper we investigate a relation between the Givental group of rank one and Heisenberg-Virasoro symmetry group of the KP hierarchy. We prove, that only a two-parameter family of the Givental operators can be identified with elements of the Heisenberg-Virasoro symmetry group. This family describes triple Hodge integrals satisfying the Calabi-Yau condition. Using identification of the elements of two groups we prove that the generating function of triple Hodge integrals satisfying the Calabi-Yau condition and its $\Theta$-version are tau-functions of the KP hierarchy. This generalizes the result of Kazarian on KP integrability in case of linear Hodge integrals. </p>
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<p>We give a variational formula for the sandwiched Renyi divergences on von Neumann algebras that is similar in nature to Kosaki's approach to the relative entropy. As an illustration, we use the formula in quantum field theory to compute the divergence between the vacuum in a bipartite system and an "orbifolded" -- in the sense of conditional expectation -- system in terms of the Jones index. We obtain a statement for the dual inclusion by means of an entropic certainty relation for arbitrary von Neumann subalgebras of a factor. This certainty relation has an equivalent formulation in terms of error correcting codes. </p>